Baseball color line
The Color Line known as the Color Barrier, in American baseball excluded players of Black African descent from Major League Baseball and its affiliated Minor Leagues until 1947. Racial segregation in professional baseball was sometimes called a gentlemen's agreement, meaning a tacit understanding, as there was no written policy at the highest level of organized baseball, the major leagues, but a high minor league's vote in 1887 against allowing new contracts with black players within its league sent a powerful signal that led to the disappearance of blacks from the sport's other minor leagues that century, including the low minors. After the line was in full effect in the early 20th century, many black baseball clubs were established during the 1920s to 1940s when there were several Negro Leagues. During this period some light-skinned Hispanic players, like Lefty Gomez, Native Americans, native Hawaiians, like Prince Oana, were able to play in the Major Leagues; the color line was broken for good when Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers organization for the 1946 season.
In 1947, both Robinson in the National League and Larry Doby with the American League's Cleveland Indians appeared in games for their teams. By the late 1950s, the percentage of black players on Major League teams matched or exceeded that of the general population. Formal beginning of segregation followed the baseball season of 1867. On October 16, the Pennsylvania State Convention of Baseball in Harrisburg denied admission to the "colored" Pythian Baseball Club. Major League Baseball's National League, founded in 1876, had no black players in the 19th century, except for a discovered one, William Edward White, who played in a single game in 1879 and who passed as white; the National League and the other main major league of the day, the American Association, had no written rules against having African American players. In 1884, the American Association had two black players, Moses Fleetwood Walker and, for a few months of the season, his brother Weldy Walker, both of whom played for the Toledo Blue Stockings.
The year before, in 1883, prominent National League player Cap Anson had threatened to have his Chicago team sit out an exhibition game at then-minor league Toledo if Toledo's Fleet Walker played. Anson backed down, but not before uttering the word nigger on the field and vowing that his team would not play in such a game again. In 1884, the Chicago club made a successful threat months in advance of another exhibition game at Toledo, to have Fleet Walker sit out. In 1887, Anson made a successful threat by telegram before an exhibition game against the Newark Little Giants of the International League that it must not play its two black players, Fleet Walker and pitcher George Stovey; the influence of players such as Anson and the general racism in society led to segregation efforts in professional baseball. On July 14, 1887, the high-minor International League voted to ban the signing of new contracts with black players. By a 6-to-4 vote, the league’s white teams voted in favor and those with at least one black player voted in the negative.
The Binghamton, N. Y. team, which had just released its two black players, voted with the majority. Right after the vote, the sports weekly Sporting Life stated, “Several representatives declared that many of the best players in the league are anxious to leave on account of the colored element, the board directed Secretary White to approve of no more contracts with colored men.”On the afternoon of the International League vote, Anson’s Chicago team played the game in Newark alluded to above, with Stovey and the injured Walker sitting out. Anson biographer Howard W. Rosenberg, concluded that, “A fairer argument is that rather than being an architect, that he was a reinforcer of it, including in the National League – and that he had no demonstrable influence on changing the course of events apart from his team’s exhibition-game schedule.” The year 1887 was the high point of achievement of blacks in the high minor leagues, each National League team that year except for Chicago played exhibition games against teams with black players, including against Newark and other International League teams.
Some of Anson’s notoriety stems from a 1907 book on early blacks in baseball by black minor league player and black semi-professional team manager Sol White, elected to the Hall of Fame in 2006. White claimed that, “Were it not for this same man Anson, there would have been a colored player in the National League in 1887.”After the 1887 season, the International League retained just two blacks for the 1888 season, both of whom were under contracts signed before the 1887 vote, Frank Grant of the Buffalo Bisons and Moses Fleetwood Walker of the Syracuse franchise, with Walker staying in the league for most of 1889. In September 1887, eight members of the St. Louis Browns of the then-major American Association staged a mutiny during a road trip, refusing to play a game against the New York Cuban Giants, the first all-black professional baseball club, citing both racial and practical reasons: that the players were banged up and wanted to rest so as to not lose their hold on first place. At the time, the St. Louis team was in Philadelphia, a story that ran in the Philadelphia Times stated that “for the first time in the history of base ball the color line has been drawn."Blacks were gone from the high
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Lawrence Eugene Doby was an American professional baseball player in the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball, the second black player to break baseball's color barrier and the first black player in the American League. A native of Camden, South Carolina and three-sport all-state athlete while in high school in Paterson, New Jersey, Doby accepted a basketball scholarship from Long Island University. At 17 years of age, he began his professional baseball career with the Newark Eagles as the team's second baseman. Doby joined the United States Navy during World War II, his military service complete, Doby returned to baseball in 1946, along with teammate Monte Irvin, helped the Eagles win the Negro League World Series. In July 1947—three months after Jackie Robinson made history with the Brooklyn Dodgers—Doby broke the MLB color barrier in the American League when he signed a contract to play with Bill Veeck's Cleveland Indians. Doby was the first player to go directly to the majors from the Negro leagues.
A seven-time All-Star center fielder and teammate Satchel Paige were the first African-American players to win a World Series championship when the Indians took the crown in 1948. He helped the Indians win a franchise-record 111 games and the AL pennant in 1954, finished second in the AL Most Valuable Player award voting and was the AL's RBI leader and home run champion, he went on to play for the Chicago White Sox, Detroit Tigers, Chunichi Dragons before his retirement as a player in 1962. Doby served as the second black manager in the majors with the Chicago White Sox, in 1995 was appointed to a position in the AL's executive office, he served as a director with the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association. He was selected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1998 by the Hall's Veterans Committee and died in 2003 at the age of 79. Doby was born in South Carolina, to David Doby and Etta Brooks. Doby's father served in World War I, he worked as a horse groomer and played semi-pro baseball, but drowned in an accident at age 37 in New York state.
Doby's mother, who had divorced David before his death, moved to New Jersey. He lived with his grandmother before moving to live with his father's sister and brother-in-law from 1934 to 1938, he attended Jackson School, segregated under South Carolina state law. His first opportunity to play organized baseball came as a student at Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy, a private school affiliated with the Methodist church. Richard Dubose, who had managed Doby's father and was known locally in African-American circles for his baseball expertise, gave Doby some of his first baseball lessons. Reflecting on his years growing up in South Carolina, including how he and playmates used worn down broom handles for bats, Doby said, "Growing up in Camden, we didn't have baseball bats. We'd use a tree here, a tin can there, for bases."After completing eighth grade, Doby moved north to Paterson at the age of 14 to be reunited with his mother. At Paterson Eastside High School, Doby was a multi-sport athlete. After winning a state football championship, the Eastside team was invited to play in Florida, but the promoters would not allow Doby, the only black player on the team, to participate.
The team voted to forgo the trip as a gesture of support for Doby. During summer vacation Doby played baseball with a black semi-pro team, the Smart Sets, where he played with future Hall of Fame shortstop Monte Irvin, he had a brief stint with the Harlem Renaissance, a professional basketball team, as an unpaid substitute player. Upon completing high school, he accepted an athletic scholarship to play basketball at Long Island University Brooklyn. Doby had been dating Eastside classmate Helyn Curvy since his sophomore year and, according to Doby, being able to remain close to Paterson was the "main reason" he selected LIU. In the summer before he enrolled at LIU, Doby accepted an offer to play for the Newark Eagles of the Negro National League for the remainder of the 1942 season, he transferred to Virginia Union University as a result. Negro league umpire Henry Moore advised Newark Eagles' owners Abe and Effa Manley to give Doby a tryout at Hinchliffe Stadium in Paterson, successful; the contract stated.
On May 31, Doby appeared in his first professional game when the Eagles played against the New York Cubans at Yankee Stadium. In the 26 games where box scores have been found, Doby's batting average was.391. Doby recalled a game against catcher Josh Gibson and pitcher Ray Brown of the Homestead Grays: My first time up, Josh said,'We're going to find out if you can hit a fastball.' I singled. Next time up, Josh said,'We're going to find out if you can hit a curveball.' I singled. Third time up, Josh said,'We're going to find out how you do after you're knocked down.' I popped up the first time. The second time, I singled. Doby's career in Newark was interrupted for two years for service in the United States Navy. Doby spent 1943 and part of 1944 at Camp Robert Smalls at the Great Lakes Naval Training School near Chicago, he appeared on an all-black baseball squad and maintained a.342 batting average against teams composed of white players, some of which featured major leaguers. He went to Treasure Island Naval Base
1946 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1946 throughout the world. World Series: St. Louis Cardinals over Boston Red Sox All-Star Game, July 9 at Fenway Park: American League, 12–0 All-American Girls Professional Baseball League: Racine Belles Japanese Baseball League: Great Ring Negro League World Series: Newark Eagles over Kansas City Monarchs Negro League Baseball All-Star Game: East, 5–3. January 12 – Boston Red Sox star Ted Williams receives his discharge from the U. S. Marine Air Corps after a three-year stint serving in World War II. In spite of the long absence from competitive baseball, Williams will return to the major leagues by hitting.342 with 38 home runs and 123 RBI in 1946. January 12 – The first official professional game is played in Venezuela, launching the newly constituted four-team Liga de Béisbol Profesional de Venezuela; the league is composed of four teams: Caracas BBC, Magallanes BBC, Vargas BBC and Venezuela BBC. The inaugural game is won by Magallanes over Venezuela, 5–2, behind strong pitching from Alex Carrasquel, who gives up 11 hits in a complete game effort.
January 20 – In a classic pitching matchup played in Caracas, Alex Carrasquel of Magallanes beat Roy Welmaker and Vargas club, 3–2, in 17 innings. In the six-and-a-half-hour marathon, Carrasquel is good enough to silence the bats of Roy Campanella and Sam Jethroe. Both pitchers go the distance in one of the greatest matchups ever. February 19 – New York Giants OF Danny Gardella becomes the first major leaguer to announce he is jumping to the "outlaw" Mexican League, the first shot in the series of events that will dominate baseball more than the return of all the war veterans, his attempt to return to Major League Baseball a few years will initiate a major court battle. March 7 – Negro Leaguer Marvin Williams, playing for the Sabios de Vargas against the Navegantes del Magallanes, sets a still-standing Venezuelan League mark by driving in eight runs on two home runs and two singles, while leading Vargas to a 16–9 victory. April 18 – Jackie Robinson, signed to the Brooklyn Dodgers organization by owner Branch Rickey, makes his first appearance with the Montreal Royals in the International League.
April 23 – Ed Head pitches a no-hitter as the Brooklyn Dodgers blank the Boston Braves, 5-0. April 30 – Bob Feller tosses the second no-hitter of his career in a 1-0 Cleveland Indians win over the New York Yankees. June 24 – A bus carrying the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team crashed on Snoqualmie Pass in Washington State in the worst accident in the history of all of U. S. professional sports, as of October 2007. Nine members of the 16-member team were killed and six were injured. Eight of those who died served in World War II. July 9 – At Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox, the American League crushes the National League, 12–0, in the All-Star Game. July 14 – Player-manager Lou Boudreau of the Cleveland Indians hits four doubles and one home run, but Ted Williams wallops three homers and drives in eight runs, as the Boston Red Sox top the Indians, 11–10. In the Sox second-game win, the famous Boudreau Shift is born. Boudreau shifts all his players, except the third baseman and left fielder, to the right side of the diamond in an effort to stop Williams.
Ted walks twice while ignoring the shift. July 19 – Fourteen Chicago White Sox players are ejected from the game against the Boston Red Sox, leaving only the manager and coaches and the nine players on the field in the dugout. August 4 – St. Louis Browns relief pitcher Tom Ferrick earns the win in both games of a doubleheader with the Philadelphia Athletics. August 9 – All games were played at night for the first time in Major League history. September 13 – The Boston Red Sox clinch the American League pennant, edging the Cleveland Indians, 1–0, at Cleveland's League Park II on Ted Williams' inside-the-park home run, the only one of his career. Williams punches the ball over the shift when Cleveland left fielder Pat Seerey pulls in behind the shortstop position, it is Boston's first pennant since 1918. October 1 – October 3 – After finishing the regular season tied for first place, the St. Louis Cardinals and the Brooklyn Dodgers met in the first-ever National League playoff series; the Cardinals win the best-of-three series, two games to none, advance to the World Series.
October 15 – The St. Louis Cardinals defeat the Boston Red Sox, 4-3, in Game 7 of the World Series to win their sixth World Series, four games to three; the Red Sox would not appear in the World Series for another 21 years, coincidentally, would be a rematch with the Cardinals. January 2 – Sonny Ruberto January 3 – Archie Reynolds January 7 – Joe Keough January 10 – Vern Geishert January 10 – George Korince January 15 – Tom Robson January 18 – Billy Grabarkewitz January 21 – Johnny Oates January 29 – Tony Pierce February 5 – Vic Correll February 5 – Norm Miller February 8 – Oscar Brown February 8 – Larry Burchart
Donald Newcombe, nicknamed "Newk", was an American professional baseball pitcher in Negro league and Major League Baseball who played for the Newark Eagles, Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers, Cincinnati Reds, Cleveland Indians. Newcombe was the first pitcher to win the Rookie of the Year, Most Valuable Player, Cy Young Awards during his career; this distinction would not be achieved again until 2011, when Detroit Tigers pitcher Justin Verlander, Rookie of the Year in 2006, won the Cy Young and MVP awards. In 1949, he became the first black pitcher to start a World Series game. In 1951, Newcombe was the first black pitcher to win twenty games in one season. In 1956, the inaugural year of the Cy Young Award, he became the first pitcher to win the National League MVP and the Cy Young in the same season. Newcombe was an excellent hitting pitcher who compiled a career batting average of.271 with 15 home runs and was used as a pinch hitter, a rarity for pitchers. Newcombe was born in Madison, New Jersey, on June 14, 1926, was raised in Elizabeth.
He had a sister. His father worked as a chauffeur. Newcombe attended Jefferson High School in Elizabeth; the school did not have a baseball team, so Newcombe played semi-professional baseball while attending high school. After playing with the Newark Eagles in the Negro National League in 1944 and 1945, Newcombe signed with the Dodgers. With catcher Roy Campanella, Newcombe played for the first racially integrated baseball team based in the United States in the 20th century, the 1946 Nashua Dodgers of the New England League, he continued to play for Nashua in 1947 before being promoted to the Montreal Royals of the Class AAA International League in 1948. Newcombe debuted for Brooklyn on May 20, 1949, becoming the third African American pitcher in the major leagues, after Dan Bankhead and Satchel Paige. Effa Manley, business manager for the Eagles, agreed to let the Dodgers' Branch Rickey sign Newcombe to a contract. Manley was not compensated for the release of Newcombe, he helped the Dodgers to the league pennant as he earned seventeen victories, led the league in shutouts, pitched 32 consecutive scoreless innings.
He was among the first four black players to be named to an All-Star team, along with teammates Jackie Robinson and Roy Campanella and the Indians' Larry Doby. Newcombe was named Rookie of the Year by both The Sporting News and the Baseball Writers' Association of America. In 1950, he won 19 games, 20 the following season leading the league in strikeouts in 1951. In the memorable playoff game between the Dodgers and the Giants at the end of the 1951 season, Newcombe was relieved by Ralph Branca in the bottom of the ninth inning when Clyde Sukeforth instructed manager Chuck Dressen to bring in Branca. Branca surrendered the walk-off home run to Bobby Thomson to give the Giants the pennant. After two years of mandatory military duty during the Korean War, Newcombe suffered a disappointing season in 1954, going 9–8 with a 4.55 earned run average, but returned to form the next year by finishing second in the NL in both wins and earned run average, with marks of 20–5 and 3.20, as the Dodgers won their first World Series in franchise history.
He had an greater 1956 season, with marks of 27–7, 139 strikeouts, a 3.06 ERA, five shutouts and 18 complete games, leading the league in winning percentage for the second year in a row. He was named the National League's MVP, was awarded the first-ever Cy Young Award given to the best pitcher in the combined major leagues. Newcombe had a difficult time in the 1956 World Series, he was the losing pitcher in Game 7. Yogi Berra, who hit three home runs off of him in the series, hit two of them in Game 7; the Yankees and Johnny Kucks won 9–0. Following the Dodgers' move to Los Angeles, Newcombe got off to an 0–6 start in 1958 before being traded to the Cincinnati Reds for Steve Bilko, Johnny Klippstein, two players to be named during the season, he posted a record of 24–21 with Cincinnati until his contract was sold to Cleveland in mid-1960. He finished with a 2–3 mark in Cleveland before being released to end his major league career. Newcombe acknowledged. On May 28, 1962, Newcombe signed with the Chunichi Dragons of Nippon Professional Baseball's Central League.
Newcombe played one season in Japan, splitting time as an outfielder and a first baseman, only pitching in one game. In 81 games, he hit.262 with 43 runs batted in. In his ten-year major league career, Newcombe registered a record of 149–90, with 1,129 strikeouts and a 3.56 ERA, 136 complete games and 24 shutouts in 2,154 innings pitched. In addition to his pitching abilities, Newcombe was a dangerous hitter, hitting seven home runs in the 1955 season, he batted.271, with 15 home runs, 108 RBIs, 238 hits, 33 doubles, three triples, 94 runs scored and eight stolen bases. Newcombe rejoined the Dodger organization in the late 1970s and served as the team's Director of Community Affairs. In March 2009, he was named special adviser to the chairman of the team. Newcombe was married three times, his first wife was Freddie Green, whom he married in 1945 and divorced in 1960. A week after his divorce from Green, he married Billie Roberts, a marriage which lasted until they divorced in 1994. Newcombe's third wife, Karen Kroner, survived him.
Newcombe had three children from his marriages. Newcombe dealt with alcoholism in the 1950s and 1960s, describing himself as "a stupefied, wife-abusing, child-frightening, falling-down drunk", his alcoholism became so severe that, in 1965, he pawned his World Series ring in order to afford alcoh
Jack Roosevelt Robinson was an American professional baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball in the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947; when the Dodgers signed Robinson, they heralded the end of racial segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues since the 1880s. Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. Robinson had an exceptional 10-year MLB career, he was the recipient of the inaugural MLB Rookie of the Year Award in 1947, was an All-Star for six consecutive seasons from 1949 through 1954, won the National League Most Valuable Player Award in 1949—the first black player so honored. Robinson contributed to the Dodgers' 1955 World Series championship. In 1997, MLB retired his uniform number 42 across all major league teams. MLB adopted a new annual tradition, "Jackie Robinson Day", for the first time on April 15, 2004, on which every player on every team wears No. 42.
Robinson's character, his use of nonviolence, his unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation which marked many other aspects of American life. He influenced the culture of and contributed to the civil rights movement. Robinson was the first black television analyst in MLB and the first black vice president of a major American corporation, Chock full o'Nuts. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. After his death in 1972, in recognition of his achievements on and off the field, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Robinson was born on January 1919, into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia, he was the youngest of five children born to Mallie and Jerry Robinson, after siblings Edgar, Frank and Willa Mae. His middle name was in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who died 25 days before Robinson was born.
After Robinson's father left the family in 1920, they moved to California. The extended Robinson family established itself on a residential plot containing two small houses at 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena. Robinson's mother worked various odd jobs to support the family. Growing up in relative poverty in an otherwise affluent community and his minority friends were excluded from many recreational opportunities; as a result, Robinson joined a neighborhood gang, but his friend Carl Anderson persuaded him to abandon it. In 1935, Robinson graduated from Washington Junior High School and enrolled at John Muir High School. Recognizing his athletic talents, Robinson's older brothers Mack and Frank inspired Jackie to pursue his interest in sports. At Muir Tech, Robinson played several sports at the varsity level and lettered in four of them: football, basketball and baseball, he played shortstop and catcher on the baseball team, quarterback on the football team, guard on the basketball team. With the track and field squad, he won awards in the broad jump.
He was a member of the tennis team. In 1936, Robinson won the junior boys singles championship in the annual Pacific Coast Negro Tennis Tournament and earned a place on the Pomona annual baseball tournament all-star team, which included future Hall of Famers Ted Williams and Bob Lemon. In late January 1937, the Pasadena Star-News newspaper reported that Robinson "for two years has been the outstanding athlete at Muir, starring in football, track and tennis." After Muir, Robinson attended Pasadena Junior College, where he continued his athletic career by participating in basketball, football and track. On the football team, he played safety, he was a shortstop and leadoff hitter for the baseball team, he broke school broad-jump records held by his brother Mack. As at Muir High School, most of Jackie's teammates were white. While playing football at PJC, Robinson suffered a fractured ankle, complications from which would delay his deployment status while in the military. In 1938, he was elected to the All-Southland Junior College Team for baseball and selected as the region's Most Valuable Player.
That year, Robinson was one of 10 students named to the school's Order of the Mast and Dagger, awarded to students performing "outstanding service to the school and whose scholastic and citizenship record is worthy of recognition." While at PJC, he was elected to the Lancers, a student-run police organization responsible for patrolling various school activities. An incident at PJC illustrated Robinson's impatience with authority figures he perceived as racist—a character trait that would resurface in his life. On January 25, 1938, he was arrested after vocally disputing the detention of a black friend by police. Robinson received a two-year suspended sentence, but the incident—along with other rumored run-ins between Robinson and police—gave Robinson a reputation for combativeness in the face of racial antagonism. While at PJC, he was motivated by a preacher to attend church on a regular basis, Downs became a confidant for Robinson, a Christian. Toward the end of his PJC tenure, Frank Robinson was killed in a motorcycle accident.
The event motivated Jackie to pursue his athletic career at the nearby University of California, Los Angeles, where he could remain closer to Fran
Cy Young Award
The Cy Young Award is given annually to the best pitchers in Major League Baseball, one each for the American League and National League. The award was first introduced in 1956 by Baseball Commissioner Ford Frick in honor of Hall of Fame pitcher Cy Young, who died in 1955; the award was given to the single best pitcher in the major leagues, but in 1967, after the retirement of Frick, the award was given to one pitcher in each league. Each league's award is voted on by members of the Baseball Writers' Association of America, with one representative from each team; as of the 2010 season, each voter places a vote for first, third and fifth place among the pitchers of each league. The formula used to calculate the final scores is a weighted sum of the votes; the pitcher with the highest score in each league wins the award. If two pitchers receive the same number of votes, the award is shared; the current formula started in the 2010 season. Before that, dating back to 1970, writers voted for three pitchers, with the formula of 5 points for a first place vote, 3 for a second place vote and 1 for a third place vote.
Prior to 1970, writers used a formula of one point per vote. The Cy Young Award was first introduced in 1956 by Commissioner of Baseball Ford C. Frick in honor of Hall of Fame pitcher Cy Young, who died in 1955; the award would be given to pitchers only. Given to the single best pitcher in the major leagues, the award changed its format over time. From 1956 to 1966, the award was given to one pitcher in Major League Baseball. After Frick retired in 1967, William Eckert became the new Commissioner of Baseball. Due to fan requests, Eckert announced that the Cy Young Award would be given out both in the American League and the National League. From 1956 to 1958, a pitcher was not allowed to win the award on more than one occasion. After a tie in the 1969 voting for the Cy Young Award, the process was changed, in which each writer was to vote for three different pitchers: the first-place vote received five points, the second-place vote received three points, the third-place vote received one point.
The first recipient of the Cy Young Award was Don Newcombe of the Dodgers. In 1957, Warren Spahn became the first left-handed pitcher to win the award. In 1963, Sandy Koufax became the first pitcher to win the award in a unanimous vote. In 1978, Gaylord Perry became the oldest pitcher to receive the award, a record that stood until broken in 2004 by Roger Clemens; the youngest recipient was Dwight Gooden. In 2012, R. A. Dickey became the first knuckleball pitcher to win the award. In 1974, Mike Marshall won the award. In 1992, Dennis Eckersley was the first modern closer to win the award, since only one other relief pitcher has won the award, Éric Gagné in 2003. A total of nine relief pitchers have won the Cy Young Award across both leagues. Steve Carlton in 1982 became the first pitcher to win more than three Cy Young Awards, while Greg Maddux in 1994 became the first to win at least three in a row, a feat repeated by Randy Johnson. Nineteen pitchers have won the award multiple times. Roger Clemens holds the record for the most awards won, with seven - his first and last wins separated by eighteen years.
Greg Maddux and Randy Johnson share. Clemens, Pedro Martínez, Gaylord Perry, Roy Halladay and Max Scherzer are the only pitchers to have won the award in both the American League and National League. Roger Clemens was the youngest pitcher to win a second Cy Young Award, while Tim Lincecum is the youngest pitcher to do so in the National League and Clayton Kershaw is the youngest left-hander to do so. Clayton Kershaw is the youngest pitcher. Only four teams have never had a pitcher win the Cy Young Award; the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have won more than any other team with 12. There have been 17 players. Five of these unanimous wins were accompanied with a win of the Most Valuable Player award. In the National League, 11 players have unanimously won the Cy Young Award, for a total of 14 wins. Sandy Koufax Greg Maddux Bob Gibson Steve Carlton Rick Sutcliffe Dwight Gooden Orel Hershiser Randy Johnson Jake Peavy Roy Halladay Clayton Kershaw In the American League, 6 players have unanimously won the Cy Young Award, for a total of 9 wins.
Denny McLain Ron Guidry Roger Clemens Pedro Martínez Johan Santana Justin Verlander A The formula is: Score = 7F + 4S + 3T + 2FO + 1 FI, where F is the number of first place votes, S is second place votes, T is third place votes, FO is fourth place votes and FI is fifth place votes. A b c See: Decision a b c In baseball, a save is credited to a pitcher who finishes a game for the winning team under certain prescribed circumstances, it became an official statistic in Major League Baseball in 1969. General Specific