Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
Wallowa–Whitman National Forest
The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of Idaho. Formed upon the merger of the Wallowa and Whitman national forests in 1954, it is located in the northeastern corner of the state, in Wallowa, Union and Umatilla counties in Oregon, includes small areas in Nez Perce and Idaho counties in Idaho; the forest is named for the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce people, who lived in the area, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, Presbyterian missionaries who settled just to the north in 1836. Forest headquarters are located in Baker City, Oregon with ranger districts in La Grande and Baker City; the national forest may be divided into several distinct sections, which together cover 2,300,000 acres of land, including 600,000 acres of designated wilderness. A large section of the forest is located in the rugged Wallowa Mountains, south of Joseph, Oregon, in the upper reaches of the Wallowa and Imnaha drainage basins; the alpine area in the heart of the mountain range is designated as the Eagle Cap Wilderness.
Bordering the national forest on the north, Wallowa Lake State Park is located on the shore of Wallowa Lake. A smaller section of the forest is located north of Enterprise, along Joseph Canyon; this section is joined to the first by the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area, which protects the stretch of the Snake River known as Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in North America. The recreation area includes portions of the Nez Perce and Wallowa–Whitman national forests, but is managed by the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest, it contains the Hells Canyon Wilderness, jointly managed by the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. The Hells Canyon Scenic Byway passes through the national forest on Forest Service Road 39. Another large section of the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is located west of La Grande and Baker City, Oregon, in the Elkhorn Mountains, a sub-range of the Blue Mountains, it borders the Malheur National Forest on the southwest and the Umatilla National Forest on the northwest.
This area includes the upper reaches of the John Grande Ronde rivers. The North Fork John Day and Monument Rock wildernesses are jointly managed by the adjacent national forests; the historic gold mining city of Sumpter is surrounded by the Wallowa–Whitman on all sides. The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is home to 36 fish species, 236 bird species, over 90 mammal species, 26 reptile-amphibian species, 1,500 plant species. Wildlife habitat is affected by logging and grazing, but significant stands of old-growth forest have survived. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Large mammal species include Shiras moose, Rocky Mountain elk, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, mountain goat, white-tailed deer, mule deer, black bear, timber wolf and bobcat. Several sightings of wolverines, rare within the United States, have been recorded since the 1990s. Smaller mammals include the pika, badger, beaver, river otter, marmot. Bird species include the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, golden eagle, ferruginous hawk, gray-crowned rosy finch, chukar partridge, pileated woodpecker, American dipper, great gray owl.
Rivers and creeks support steelhead and trout. Plant communities range from ponderosa pine forest to alpine meadows. Engelmann spruce, mountain hemlock, subalpine fir and whitebark pine can be found in the higher elevations, with Douglas-fir, white fir, western larch, lodgepole pine elsewhere. Wildflowers include clarkia, Indian paintbrush, sego lily, larkspur, shooting star, bluebell. Rocky bluffs in the Hells Canyon area support prickly pear poison ivy; the Forest Service uses controlled burns before the wildfire season to reduce the natural fuel on the forest floor as part of its management of the forest. The land, now the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest was first occupied by the Nez Perce people around 1400 CE; the area was the summer home of the Joseph Band of the Nez Perce tribe. The Cayuse and Bannock tribes arrived in the area some time later; the native people hunted deer and bighorn sheep in the Wallowa Valley and surrounding mountains. The first European settlers arrived in the Wallowa Valley in 1860.
In 1887, a gang of horse thieves murdered 34 Chinese miners in Chinese Massacre Cove along the Snake River. In 1905, the Wallowa Forest Reserve and Chesnimnus Reserve were established by President Theodore Roosevelt; the two reserves were merged to create the Imnaha National Forest on March 1, 1907. On July 1, 1908, the name was changed to Wallowa National Forest, in 1954 the Wallowa was administratively combined with the Whitman National Forest to create the Wallowa–Whitman; the Whitman had been established on July 1908, from part of the Blue Mountains National Forest. On June 20, 1920, part of Minam National Forest was added; the Eagle Cap primitive area was established in 1930. The area was designated as a wilderness in 1940; the Wilderness Act in 1964 placed the Eagle Cap Wilderness in the National Wilderness Preservation System. The Eagle Cap was enlarged by 73,410 acres in 1972 and by an additional 67,711 acres in 1984, its area now totals 350,461 acres. The Wallowa Mountains Visitor Center and district office for the national forest, a 20,500-square-foot log building in Enterprise, burned to the ground on July 11, 2010.
The forest works with the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation on cultural and natural resources issues. The Wallowa–Whitman National Forest is used for hiking, fishing and other recreational
Lava River Cave
The Lava River Cave near Bend, Oregon, is part of the Newberry National Volcanic Monument, managed by the United States Forest Service. At 5,211 feet in length, the northwest section of the cave is the longest continuous lava tube in Oregon. While the cave’s discovery in 1889 was credited to a pioneer hunter, the presence of obsidian flakes near the cave has led archaeologists to conclude that Native Americans knew about the cave long before settlers arrived in central Oregon; the eruption which formed the Lava River Cave occurred about 80,000 years ago. The source is believed to be near Mokst Butte southeast of the entrance; the same volcanic flow that formed the cave underlies much of the Bend area and reaches Redmond, Oregon. However, the specific vent that created the cave has been buried by several younger flows; the Lava River Cave was created by lava flowing downhill from a volcanic vent. The lava flowed northwest from the vent toward the Deschutes River; the flow began as a river of lava flowing in an open channel.
A lava crust solidified over the top of the flowing lava. This formed a roof over the river, enclosing it in tube; when the eruption from the vent stopped, the lava drained out of the tube leaving a lava tube cave behind. After the cave cooled, a section of its roof collapsed; this collapsed section provided the entrance to both the downhill cave sections. The area around the Lava River Cave receives about 18 inches of precipitation per year. Over the centuries, water from rainfall and snow melt has seeped down through the soil and cracks in the cave roof depositing sand on the cave floor. Small rivulets of water carry the sand downhill; as a result, it is unknown how far the cave extends beyond the sand plug. The Lava River Cave is located 12 miles south of Bend on the east side of Highway 97, it is part of the Newberry National Volcanic Monument, managed by the Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. The forest surrounding the cave entrance is dominated by large ponderosa pine trees with sagebrush, bitterbrush and chokecherries as the main ground cover.
Along the short path leading from the forest floor down to the cave entrance, visitors will find serviceberry, false Solomon seal, squaw currant, Oregon grape, small willow trees. Animals common in the forest around the cave include golden-mantled ground squirrels, western gray squirrels, weasels, pine martens, mule deer. In 1991, park personnel observed a full-grown cougar run out of the cave entrance area, but, a single sighting. There is a wide range of resident and migratory bird species common to the area. Small resident birds include wrens, juncos, woodpeckers, red-shafted flickers, ruby-crowned kinglets. Larger birds include great horned owls, red-tailed hawks, a few golden eagles. Forest Service biologists have identified several species of spiders, worms and millipedes that live inside the cave. There are mice and bats that live in the cave year around; the cave's bat population is small and the bats are shy so visitors see them. In fact, bats remain in hibernation until July, when active they are nocturnal so they are asleep during the day when the cave is open.
If a bat is sighted, the Forest Service recommended. Waking it from hibernation is stressful, can cause the bat to die from the sudden expenditure of energy; the presence of obsidian flakes near the cave has led archaeologists to conclude that Native Americans knew about the caves long before any pioneers arrived in the Oregon country. The first recorded discovery is credited to a local settler named Leander Dillman, who found the cave opening on a hunting trip in 1889. Legend has it. After its discovery, he used the cave to cool his venison; the cave acquired its name from a 1923 geology study published by Ira A. Williams; the study provided the first map of the cave. In 1938 the highway department announced an effort to resume digging efforts started by Emil Long to extend the cave beyond the dirt choke, it was speculated. In 1926, the Shevlin-Hixon Lumber Company donated the 22.5-acre site around the cave entrance to the State of Oregon for a park. In 1981, the cave and above ground park area were acquired by the Forest Service as part of a land exchange with the State government.
In November 1990, the cave was incorporated into the Newberry National Volcanic Monument. However, it is still managed by the Forest Service along with the rest of the Newberry monument area. Lava River Cave runs in two directions from the entrance cleft; the main section runs downhill 5,211 feet in a northwesterly direction from the entrance, passing under Highway 97. This section of the cave is the longest known uncollapsed lava tube in Oregon; the other section extends 1,560 feet southeast from the entrance. This section runs toward the source of the flow; this section is not open to the public because of loose rocks in the ceiling. The mouth of the cave is at an elevation of 4,500 feet above sea level. At its deepest point the cave is 4,350 feet above sea level; the cave's entrance appears as a large hole in the ground. At its mouth, the entrance trail drops over a jumble of volcanic rocks; this area is known as the Collapsed Corridor. It is the result of ground water freezing in rock c
Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
The Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is a United States National Forest in the U. S. states of California. The separate Rogue River and Siskiyou National Forests were administratively combined in 2004. Now, the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest ranges from the crest of the Cascade Range west into the Siskiyou Mountains, covering 1.8 million acres. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon; the former Rogue River portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of five counties in southern Oregon and northern California. In descending order of land area they are Jackson, Douglas and Josephine counties, with Siskiyou County being the only one in California, it has a land area of 628,443 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Ashland, Butte Falls, Grants Pass and Prospect; the former Siskiyou portion of the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest is located in parts of four counties in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California. In descending order of land area they are Curry and Coos counties in Oregon and Del Norte County in California.
It has a land area of 1,094,726 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Cave Junction, Gold Beach, Powers. Nearly all of the national forest is mountainous and includes parts of the Southern Oregon Coast Range, the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range; the largest river in the national forest is the Rogue River, which originates in the Cascade Range and flows through the Klamath Mountains and Coast Range. The Illinois River is a major tributary of the Rogue in the Klamath Mountains, while the Sixes, Pistol and Winchuck rivers drain the Coast Range directly to the Pacific Ocean; the Siskiyou National Forest was established on October 5, 1906. On July 1, 1908, it absorbed other lands. Rogue River National Forest traces its establishment back to the creation of the Ashland Forest Reserve on September 28, 1893, by the General Land Office; the lands were transferred to the Forest Service in 1906, it became a National Forest on March 4, 1907. On July 1, 1908, Ashland was combined with other lands from Cascade and Siskiyou National Forests to establish Crater National Forest.
On July 18, 1915, part of Paulina National Forest was added, on July 9, 1932, the name was changed to Rogue River. On September 9, 1942, an airplane dropped bombs on Mount Emily in the Siskiyou National Forest, turned around, flew back over the Pacific Ocean; the bombs exploded and started a fire, put out by several forest service employees. Bomb fragments were said to have Japanese markings. Stewart Holbrook vividly described this event in his essay "First Bomb", it was confirmed that the plane was indeed Japanese, the incident became known as the Lookout Air Raid. It was the first bombing of the continental United States by an enemy aircraft; the national forest is home to some stands of old growth, including Port Orford cedar and Douglas fir in the Copper Salmon area. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 345,300 acres some of which occurs in the Red Buttes Wilderness. Blue oak, Quercus douglasii, Canyon live oak, Quercus chrysolepis occur in the Siskiyou National Forest.
For the California endemic Blue Oak, the disjunctive stands are occurring near the northern limit of its range, which occur no farther north than Del Norte County. The world's tallest pine tree is located in the national forest. In 2002, the massive Biscuit Fire burned nearly 500,000 acres, including much of the Kalmiopsis Wilderness; the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest contains all or part of eight separate wilderness areas, which together add up to 565,900 acres: High Cascades Complex Fires List of U. S. National Forests List of old growth forests Media related to Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S