John Hope Simpson
Sir John Hope Simpson KBE CIE OBJ was a British Liberal politician who served as a Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom and in the Government of the Dominion of Newfoundland. Simpson was born in West Derby, son of John Hope Simpson of Sefton Park, Simpson was in the Indian Civil Service between 1897 and 1916. He held numerous posts, having been acting chief commander of the Andaman. He was Private Secretary to the Ministry of Labour in 1917, Simpson ran as Liberal candidate and was elected at the 1922 general election becoming Member of Parliament for the previously Conservative-held constituency of Taunton in Somerset. He was re-elected in 1923 general election, but was defeated at the 1924 general election and he did not stand for Parliament again. He was posted to Greece for the British Army, where he was the vice-president for the Refugee Settlement Committee and he authored the Hope Simpson Report in 1930, following the widespread 1929 Palestine riots. He is known for his work on the question of refugees, in 1931 he became director-general of the Chinese National Government Flood Relief Commission, where in 1934 he commented on the Japanese bombing of a flood refugee camp.
Simpson established the Newfoundland Rangers No Report Found a welfare and police force meant to link the people of Newfoundland, in 1937 Sir John received the Knights Commander of the Order of the British Empire medal not so very long after his return from Newfoundland. He continued to be involved in the Jewish/Palestine Question after World War II and he contributed to the Report to General-Assembly, in 1947, for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. Sir John Hope Simpson died on 10 April 1961 and he left £29,764 16s to an unknown heir. Hope Simpson Royal Commission Sir John Hope Simpson and Labrador Heritage Craig, F. W. S. Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Craig, F. W. S, John Osborn Williams 48 years l. Katie Doreen Williams, daughter JO Williams, Port Hope Simpson, r
Dominion of Newfoundland
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949. The dominion was situated in northeastern North America along the Atlantic coast and comprised the island of Newfoundland, before attaining dominion status, Newfoundland was a British colony, self-governing from 1855. Newfoundland was one of the dominions within the meaning of the Statute of Westminster of 1931. In 1934, Newfoundland became the only dominion to give up its self-governing status and this episode was precipitated by a crisis in Newfoundlands public finances in 1932. Newfoundland had accumulated a significant amount of debt by building a railroad across the island, in November of that year, the government warned that Newfoundland would default on payments on the public debt. The United Kingdom government quickly established the Newfoundland Royal Commission to inquire, the Commissions report was published in October 1933. It recommended that Newfoundland give up its system of self-government temporarily, the dominion was never to be self-governing again.
The system of a six-member Commission of Government continued to govern Newfoundland until it joined Canada in 1949 to become Canadas tenth province, the official name of the dominion was “Newfoundland” and not, as is sometimes reported, “Dominion of Newfoundland”. In 1854 the British government established Newfoundlands responsible government, in 1855, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a parliamentary majority over Sir Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858, Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Prime Minister of Canada Sir John Thompson came very close to negotiating Newfoundlands entry into confederation in 1892 and it remained a colony until acquiring dominion status in 1907 after the 1907 Imperial Conference decided to confer dominion status on all self-governing colonies. The annual holiday of Dominion Day was celebrated each 26 September to commemorate the occasion, Newfoundlands own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War.
On 1 July 1916, the German Army wiped out most of that regiment at Beaumont Hamel on the first day on the Somme, yet the regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix Royal. In the 1920s, political scandals wracked the dominion, in 1923, the attorney general arrested Newfoundlands prime minister Sir Richard Squires on charges of corruption. Despite his release soon after on bail, the British-led Hollis Walker commission reviewed the scandal, soon after, the Squires government fell. Squires returned to power in 1928 because of the unpopularity of his successors, but found himself governing a country suffering from the Great Depression. Prior to 1867, the Quebec North Shore portion of the Labrador coast had shuttled back, maps up to 1927 showed the coastal region as part of Newfoundland, with an undefined boundary. Quebec has long rejected the outcome, and Quebecs provincially issued maps do not mark the boundary in the way as boundaries with Ontario
David Murray Anderson
Admiral Sir David Murray Anderson KCB, KCMG, MVO, KStJ was a British naval officer and governor. Anderson served in the Royal Navy from the age of 13 and served in many Colonial wars and was given various Empire postings, leaving Newfoundland in 1935, he was appointed as Governor of New South Wales but served only briefly due to his ill health. He died while in office aged 62 and his elder brother was Lieutenant General Sir Warren Hastings Anderson. In 1887, as a 13-year-old, he became a cadet at the Royal Naval College, seeing action against King Koko slave traders on the Niger River, he became a lieutenant on 23 February 1895 at age 20. Anderson saw further action against West-African rebels and in the Ashanti Campaign, in May 1902, he was posted as First and gunnery lieutenant to the cruiser HMS Brilliant on the Channel Squadron. In 1905 he was promoted to commander and was posted to the Royal Yacht HMY Victoria and that year, he married a New Zealander, Edith Teschemaker. On 29 July 1910 Anderson was appointed a Member of the Royal Victorian Order, on 11 August 1911, he was promoted to captain and posted as Flag Captain on HMS Hyacinth from 1913 to 1917.
When the First World War broke out he took part in the operations that resulted in the destruction of the SMS Königsberg in German East Africa, and was Mentioned in Despatches in 1915. For his actions leading to the capture of Dar es Salaam he was appointed a Commander of the Order of St Michael and he was invested by the Sultan of Zanzibar with the Order of the Brilliant Star of Zanzibar, Second Class. From 1918 to 1919 Anderson was posted to command the battleship HMS Ajax in the Grand Fleet, in May 1921 he was appointed as an aide-de-camp to King George V, which he held until April 1922. After a posting in England, he was promoted to admiral in 1922. On 2 June 1923 he was appointed as a Companion of the Order of the Bath and he was posted from August 1923 to October 1925 as the Senior Naval Officer and briefly served as temporary Commander-in-Chief China Station in 1925. For his efforts in China, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun, Third Class, further promoted to vice admiral in 1927, he was appointed to command the Africa Station.
From June to September 1928 he served as High Commissioner to the Union of South Africa, being fluent in French, he was further appointed to Geneva as the Admiralty representative to the League of Nations permanent advisory commission from 1929 to 1931. On 3 June 1930 he was appointed as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath and he retired at his own request on 5 July 1932. Anderson was appointed on 20 October 1932 as the Governor of Newfoundland and he became His Majestys Representative at a time of great instability in the Dominion of Newfoundland. The Government, led by Prime Minister Frederick C, called upon the British government to take direct control until Newfoundland could become self-sustaining. The United Kingdom, concerned over Newfoundlands likelihood of defaulting on its loans, asked the government to establish the Newfoundland Royal Commission, headed by a Scottish peer, acting on the reports recommendations, Alderdices government voted itself out of existence in December 1933
Newfoundland National Convention
The Newfoundland National Convention of 1946 was a forum established to decide the constitutional future of Newfoundland. Nominations to the National Convention were held on May 31,1946 and on June 21,1946, two women offered themselves as candidates, but neither was elected. Lester Burry of Labrador secured a seat, the first time that Labrador had elected representation, the National Convention was convened on September 11,1946. Judge Cyril J. Fox, a Supreme Court of Newfoundland Justice and he was succeeded as chairman by Convention Member Gordon Bradley for most of the rest of the conventions duration, but after Bradleys resignation, the lawyer J. B. McEvoy served in the chair. The Commissioner of Home Affairs issued pay cheques to delegates, $15 a day, observers allowed in the gallery and the general public could listen to the debates on radio stations VOCM, VOAR and the state-run Broadcasting Corporation of Newfoundland station, VONF. Some delegates who were critical of the Commission of Government used the opportunity to demand that Commissioners justify to the some of their policies.
Many delegates believed Newfoundland should return to government and self-determination. On October 28,1946, Joseph R. Smallwood moved that a delegation be sent to Ottawa to discuss Terms of Union with Canada. More motions and amendments were passed in the following, when on October 30 Kenneth M. Brown. Tragedy struck again when on November 16, Judge Fox suffered a heart attack, the RGL was dedicated to the resumption of the former constitution for the Dominion. In 1946, the National Convention dispatched the London Delegation to seek guarantees of continued assistance if Newfoundland were to resume responsible government, the British government favoured Newfoundland joining Canada, so it did not offer any promises of continued financial aid. While the British government had offered nothing, the Canadian Government wanted Newfoundland as a province so they were prepared to support for the new province. There was a limit to that however as it was not possible to offer Newfoundland any special deal that was not allowed other provinces under the British North America Act, the Ottawa Delegation was supposed to return to Newfoundland after one week.
But the negotiations went on longer, each delegate received a travelling subsidy of $25 per day. P. W. Crummey had the hardest portfolio, because the economy of his district was almost exclusively fishery-oriented, he was assigned to negotiate maritime issues. Crummey quickly discovered that after Confederation, Newfoundland would lose control of the Grand Banks because the BNA designated fisheries as under federal jurisdiction, Crummey sensed that the federal negotiators intended to draw out the negotiations. A National Delegate named Robert Brown Job suggested economic union with the United States, another National Delegate named Chesley Crosbie subsequently created the Economic Union Party. Jackman moved that a delegation be sent to Washington, D. C. to seek terms of union, union with the United States was effectively taken off the table
The London Gazette
The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette. This claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrows Worcester Journal. It does not have a large circulation, in turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating specifically to entities or people in England and Wales. However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette, the London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majestys Stationery Office. They are subject to Crown Copyright, the London Gazette is published each weekday, except for Bank Holidays. The official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office, the content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed.
The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, the Gazette was Published by Authority by Henry Muddiman, and its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, and the Gazette moved too, the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense, it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majestys Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889, publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office. In time of war, dispatches from the conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have mentioned in dispatches. When members of the forces are promoted, and these promotions are published here. Man tally-ho, Miss piano, Wife silk and satin, Boy Greek and Latin, the phrase gazetted fortune hunter is probably derived from this.
Notices of engagement and marriage were published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions
Debt is money owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor. The borrower may be a state or country, local government, company. The lender may be a bank, credit card company, payday loan provider, Debt is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest. Loans, bonds and mortgages are all types of debt, the term can be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value. For example, in Western cultures, a person who has been helped by a person is sometimes said to owe a debt of gratitude to the second person. Interest is the fee paid by the borrower to the lender, interest is calculated as a percentage of the outstanding principal, which percentage is known as an interest rate, and is generally paid periodically at intervals, such as monthly or semi-annually. Interest rates may be fixed or floating, in floating-rate structures, the rate of interest that the borrower pays during each time period is tied to a benchmark such as LIBOR or, in the case of inflation-indexed bonds, inflation.
There are many different conventions for calculating interest, depending on the terms of the debt, compound interest may accumulate at a specific interval. In addition, different day count conventions exist, for example, sometimes each month is considered to have thirty days. The annual percentage rate is a way to calculate and compare interest rates on an annual basis. Quoting interest rates using APR is required by regulation for most loans to individuals in the United States, for some loans, the amount actually loaned to the debtor is less than the principal sum to be repaid. This may be because upfront fees or points are charged, or because the loan has been structured to be sharia-compliant, the additional principal due at the end of the term has the same economic effect as a higher interest rate. This is sometimes referred to as a dozen, a play on bakers dozen – owe twelve, receive a loan of eleven. Amortization structures are common in mortgages and credit cards, debtors of every type default on their debt from time to time, with various consequences depending on the terms of the debt and the law governing default in the relevant jurisdiction.
If the debt was secured by collateral, such as a car or home. In more serious circumstances and companies may go into bankruptcy, riskier borrowers must generally pay higher rates of interest to compensate lenders for taking on the additional risk of default. Debt investors assess the risk of default prior to making a loan, for example through credit scores and corporate, common types of debt owed by individuals and households include mortgage loans, car loans, and credit card debt. For individuals, debt is a means of using anticipated income, people in industrialized nations use consumer debt to purchase houses and other things too expensive to buy with cash on hand
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions, although the term is not only a metonym for the State. The Crown is a sole that represents the legal embodiment of executive, legislative. These monarchies are united by the union of their monarch. The concept of the Crown developed first in the Kingdom of England as a separation of the crown and property of the nation state from the person. The concept spread through English and British colonisation and is now rooted in the lexicon of the other 15 independent realms. In this context it should not be confused with any physical crown, the concept of the Crown took form under the feudal system. Though not used this way in all countries that had this system, in England, all rights, for instance, was granted by the Crown to lords in exchange for feudal services and they, in turn, granted the land to lesser lords. One exception to this was common socage—owners of land held as socage held it only to the Crown.
The Crown as ultimate owner of all property owns any property which has become bona vacantia, the monarch is the living embodiment of the Crown and, as such, is regarded as the personification of the state. He office cannot exist without the office-holder, the Crown represents the legal embodiment of executive and judicial governance. While the Crowns legal personality is usually regarded as a sole, it can, at least for some purposes. Historically, the Crown was considered to be indivisible, two judgments—Ex parte Indian Association of Alberta and Ex parte Quark —challenged that view. The Crown in each of the Commonwealth realms is a similar, because both Canada and Australia are federations, there are crowns in right of each Canadian province and each Australian state. The Succession to the Crown Law 2013 defined the Crown, for the purposes of implementing the Perth Agreement in Jersey law, as the Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Jersey. Legislation in the Isle of Man defines the Crown in right of the Isle of Man as being separate from the Crown in right of the United Kingdom and this constitutional concept is worded as the Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Guernsey.
The reserve powers of the Crown for each territory are no longer considered to be exercisable on the advice of the UK government, often cases are brought by the Crown according to the complaint of a claimant. The title of the case follows the pattern of R v Y. Thus R v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union is R v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, where Miller is Gina Miller, in Scotland, criminal prosecutions are undertaken by the Lord Advocate in the name of the Crown
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, many financial crises were associated with banking panics, other situations that are often called financial crises include stock market crashes and the bursting of other financial bubbles, currency crises, and sovereign defaults. Financial crises directly result in a loss of wealth but do not necessarily result in significant changes in the real economy. Many economists have offered theories about how financial crises develop and how they could be prevented, There is no consensus and financial crises continue to occur from time to time. When a bank suffers a sudden rush of withdrawals by depositors, an event in which bank runs are widespread is called a systemic banking crisis or banking panic. Examples of bank runs include the run on the Bank of the United States in 1931, Banking crises generally occur after periods of risky lending and resulting loan defaults.
There is no accepted definition of a currency crisis, which is normally considered as part of a financial crisis. Frankel and Rose define a crisis as a nominal depreciation of a currency of at least 25%. A speculative bubble exists in the event of large, sustained overpricing of some class of assets, however, it is difficult to predict whether an assets price actually equals its fundamental value, so it is hard to detect bubbles reliably. Some economists insist that bubbles never or almost never occur, the 2000s sparked a real estate bubble where housing prices were increasing significantly as an asset good. When a country fails to pay back its debt, this is called a sovereign default. Several currencies that formed part of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism suffered crises in 1992–93 and were forced to devalue or withdraw from the mechanism, another round of currency crises took place in Asia in 1997–98. Many Latin American countries defaulted on their debt in the early 1980s, the 1998 Russian financial crisis resulted in a devaluation of the ruble and default on Russian government bonds.
Negative GDP growth lasting two or more quarters is called a recession, an especially prolonged or severe recession may be called a depression, while a long period of slow but not necessarily negative growth is sometimes called economic stagnation. Some economists argue that many recessions have been caused in part by financial crises. One important example is the Great Depression, which was preceded in many countries by bank runs and stock market crashes. The subprime mortgage crisis and the bursting of real estate bubbles around the world led to recession in the U. S. It is often observed that successful investment requires each investor in a market to guess what other investors will do
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. They included Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and from the late 1940s India and Ceylon. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as autonomous Communities within the British Empire, earlier usage of dominion to refer to a particular territory dates to the 16th century and was used to describe Wales from 1535 to 1801 and New England between 1686 and 1689. At the outset, a distinction must be made between a British dominion and British Dominions, all territories forming part of the British Empire were British dominions but only some were British Dominions. At the time of the adoption of the Statute of Westminster, there were six British Dominions, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Newfoundland, at the same time there were many other jurisdictions that were British dominions, for example Cyprus. The Order in Council annexing the island of Cyprus in 1914 declared that, from 5 November, Dominion, as an official title, was conferred on the Colony of Virginia about 1660 and on the Dominion of New England in 1686.
These dominions never had full self-governing status, the creation of the short-lived Dominion of New England was designed—contrary to the purpose of dominions—to increase royal control and to reduce the colonys self-government. Under the British North America Act 1867, what is now eastern Canada received the status of Dominion upon the Confederation of several British possessions in North America. However, it was at the Colonial Conference of 1907 when the colonies of Canada. Two other self-governing colonies—New Zealand and Newfoundland—were granted the status of Dominion in the same year and these were followed by the Union of South Africa in 1910 and the Irish Free State in 1922. The Statute of Westminster 1931 converted this status into legal reality, following the Second World War, the decline of British colonialism led to Dominions generally being referred to as Commonwealth realms and the use of the word dominion gradually diminished. Nonetheless, though disused, it remains Canadas legal title and the phrase Her Majestys Dominions is still used occasionally in legal documents in the United Kingdom.
The phrase His/Her Majestys dominions is a legal and constitutional phrase that refers to all the realms and territories of the Sovereign, for example, the British Ireland Act,1949, recognised that the Republic of Ireland had ceased to be part of His Majestys dominions. The sense of Dominion was capitalised to distinguish it from the general sense of dominion. The word dominions originally referred to the possessions of the Kingdom of England, oliver Cromwells full title in the 1650s was Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging. In 1660, King Charles II gave the Colony of Virginia the title of dominion in gratitude for Virginias loyalty to the Crown during the English Civil War, the Commonwealth of Virginia, a State of the United States, still has the Old Dominion as one of its nicknames. Dominion occurred in the name of the short-lived Dominion of New England, in all of these cases, the word dominion implied no more than being subject to the English Crown.
The foundation of Dominion status followed the achievement of internal self-rule in British Colonies, Colonial responsible government began to emerge during the mid-19th century
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Responsible government of parliamentary accountability manifests itself in several ways, ministers account to Parliament for their decisions and for the performance of their departments. When the lower house has passed a motion of no confidence in the government, the head of state is in turn required to effectuate his executive power only through these responsible ministers. They must never attempt to set up a government of executives or advisors and attempt to use them as instruments of government. The British colonies that formed the Dominion of Canada in 1867 evolved gradually into responsible government rather than achieving it through a revolution as in the United States, early Canadian governors and administrators were answerable only to British authorities. Even after the formation of elected assemblies and their executive councils did not require the consent of elected legislators in order to govern.
Responsible government was an element of the gradual development of Canada towards independence. It did not regain responsible government until it became a province of Canada in 1948, in the aftermath of the American Revolution in 1776, the British government became more sensitive to unrest in its remaining colonies with large populations of British colonists. In his report, one of his recommendations was that colonies which were developed enough should be granted responsible government and this term specifically meant the policy that British-appointed governors should bow to the will of elected colonial assemblies. The plaque in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada reads, the first Executive Council chosen exclusively from the party having a majority in the representative branch of a colonial legislature was formed in Nova Scotia on 2 February 1848. Following a vote of want of confidence in the preceding Council, James Boyle Uniacke, joseph Howe, the long-time campaigner for this Peaceable Revolution, became Provincial Secretary.
Other members of the Council were Hugh Bell, Wm. F. Desbarres, Herbert Huntingdon, James McNab, Michael Tobin, and George R. Young. This was a law that provided compensation to French-Canadians who suffered losses during the Rebellions of 1837–1838 in Lower-Canada, the Governor General, Lord Elgin, had serious misgivings about the bill but nonetheless assented to it despite demands from the Tories that he refuse to do so. Elgin was physically assaulted by an English-speaking mob for this, the Rebellion Losses Bill helped entrench responsible government into Canadian politics. In time, the granting of responsible government became the first step on the road to complete independence, this took the form of appointed or partially elected Legislative Councils. Then, during the 1850s, all Australian colonies except Western Australia, along with New Zealand, the Cape Colony, in Southern Africa, was under responsible self-government from 1872 until 1910 when it became the Cape Province of the new Union of South Africa.
A popular political movement for responsible government soon emerged, under local leader John Molteno, not everyone favoured responsible government though, and pro-imperial press outlets even accused the movement of constituting crafts and assaults of the devil. The ensuing period saw a recovery, a massive growth in exports