River Ock, Surrey
The River Ock is a tributary of the River Wey in Surrey, England. The river rises near Hambledon and flows north past Witley, followed by Enton past Wheelerstreet and Milford on either bank, it is joined by the Busbridge tributary which drains Busbridge Lakes, passes through Ockford, part of Godalming named for the river, before flowing into the Wey at Godalming. In Godalming, the Old Mill made use of the speed of the hill-draining brook. For much of its length, the Portsmouth Main Line follows the watercourse. Rake Mill at Witley, a former fulling mill, was used by the artist Neville Lytton as a studio, but it, along with the bulk of Lytton's sketches and paintings, was destroyed by a fire in 1902
Devil's Punch Bowl
Devil's Punch Bowl is a 282.2-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest east of Hindhead in Surrey. It is part of the Wealden Heaths Phase II Special Protection AreaIt is a large natural amphitheatre and beauty spot and is the source of many stories about the area; the London to Portsmouth road skirted the rim of the site before the Hindhead Tunnel was built in 2011. The land is now owned and maintained by the National Trust as part of the "Hindhead Commons and the Devil's Punch Bowl" property. A Youth Hostel Association youth hostel has now closed down; the highest point is Gibbet Hill at 272 metres AOD. The name Devil's Punch Bowl dates from at least 1768, the year that John Rocque's map of the area was published; this was 18 years before the murder of the unknown sailor on Gibbet Hill, so this event was not the origin of the name. Prior to 1768, it was marked as "ye Bottom" on a map by John Ogilby dated 1675; the northern end of the Bowl is known as Highcombe Bottom which exists in different variants: Hackombe Bottom, Hacham Bottom, Hackham Bottom.
The soil in this part of Surrey has two layers — an upper layer of sandstone, with clay beneath. This deep depression is believed to be the result of erosion caused by spring water beneath the sandstone, causing the upper level to collapse. With its steep sides, the Devil's Punch Bowl has become a natural nature reserve, filled with heathland and woodland; the site has abundant wildlife. Most woodland species can be seen - including lesser spotted woodpecker and redstart, it has been known for the wood warbler, a rare summer visitor, but the last documented sighting was in 2009. Local legend has colourful theories as to its creation. According to one story, the Devil became so irritated by all the churches being built in Sussex during the Middle Ages that he decided to dig a channel from the English Channel through the South Downs and flood the area; as he began digging, he threw up huge lumps of earth, each of which became a local landmark — such as Chanctonbury Ring, Cissbury Ring and Mount Caburn.
He got as far as the village of Poynings. The devil assumed that dawn was about to break and leapt into Surrey, creating the Devil's Punch Bowl where he landed. Another story goes; the hollow out of which he scooped the earth became the Punch Bowl. The local village of Thursley means Thor's place. An alternative version of this story says that Thor threw the earth at the Devil, annoying Thor by jumping across the Devil's Jumps. A still older story claims that two giants clashed in the area, one scooped up earth to throw at the other, creating the landmark before missing the throw and creating the Isle of Wight; the beauty of the area and the diversity of nature it attracts that has gained the Devil's Punch Bowl the title of a Site of Special Scientific Interest. This status has helped save the Devil's Punch Bowl from above-ground redevelopment of the A3, needed to relieve traffic congestion in the area, as this section of the A3 was single-carriageway; the National Trust co-operated with developers Balfour Beatty who designed the twin-bore Hindhead Tunnel, running underneath the surrounding area.
The tunnel preserves not only the area from the road widening proposed but removes the heavy traffic congestion which affected this section of the A3 in peak hours. The old A3 road, apart from a small stub to the National Trust cafe, small private lane to the youth hostel, has been removed and the land reinstated. Punch Bowl Farm, at the northern end of the Devil's Punch Bowl, was the home of children's novelist Monica Edwards from 1947 until 1998. In her books she renamed the farm Punchbowl Farm. Edwards wrote about the area, including her years of observation of badger families, in her various volumes of memoirs. In Charles Dickens' novel Nicholas Nickleby and Smike visit it on their journey to Portsmouth; the third novel in the Horatio Hornblower series, Flying Colours by C. S. Forester, makes a one-line reference to the Devil's Punch Bowl in chapter eighteen as Hornblower is returning to London: "Even the marvellous beauty of the Devil's Punch Bowl was lost on Hornblower as they drove past it."
The "Devil's Punch-Bowl in Surrey" is mentioned in The Shining Pyramid, a short story by Arthur Machen and in The Listerdale Mystery and Other Stories by Agatha Christie. The area is the setting for Sabine Baring-Gould's novel The Broom-squire; the Devil's Punch Bowl was featured on the 2005 TV programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of the South. A lottery award from Heritage Lottery Fund was made in 2012 for a project with young people from schools in the area, celebrating the landscape. Several sculptures marked the completion in early 2013 and a carving from a 3 tonne block of Portland stone by Jon Edgar now sits on the spine of the former A3 near the visitor centre. Cheesefoot Head Devil's Jumps, Churt The Devil's Farmhouse Hindhead Tunnel List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Surrey Torberry Hill Hindhead Commons and the Devil's Punch Bowl A3 Hindhead Tunnel — Mott MacDonald Project Page Highways Agency — A3 Hindhead Improvement
Surrey Hills AONB
Surrey Hills is a 422 km2 Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Surrey, England. The AONB covers one quarter of the county of Surrey. Surrey Hills AONB adjoins the Kent Downs AONB to the east and the South Downs National Park in the south west; the highest summit of the Surrey Hills AONB, Leith Hill near Coldharbour, is 294 metres above sea level. It is part of the Greensand Ridge, which traverses the AONB from west to east, is the highest point in southeast England; the Surrey Hills area has three long-distance walks running through it: the North Downs Way, the Greensand Way and the Pilgrims' Way. Blackheath Common is part of this area; the northern ridge of these hills, predominantly formed by chalk, is separated by the Vale of Holmesdale which continues into Kent from the southern ridges which are predominantly greensand. They provide a haven for rare insects. Parts of the area are owned and managed by the National Trust, including Ranmore Common, Leith Hill and Box Hill. Chiddingfold Forest, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, lies within the area.
Surrey Hills AONB is surrounded by an Area of Great Landscape Value which covers a further 8% of the county. Surrey Hills AONB Inspiring Views Trail in the Surrey Hills
Leith Hill is a wooded hill 7 kilometres to the south west of Dorking, England. It reaches 294 metres above sea level, the highest point on the Greensand Ridge, is the second highest point in south-east England, after Walbury Hill near Newbury, Berkshire, 297 metres high. Leith Hill is the highest ground for 49 miles. Wooded areas surrounding the hill are designated Leith Hill Site of Special Scientific Interest The nearest railway station is Holmwood Station, 2 miles to the east; this station is served by Southern trains on the Mole Valley Line route. On the summit of Leith Hill is an 18th-century Gothic tower. In 1765–66 Richard Hull of nearby Leith Hill Place built "Prospect House" to become known as Leith Hill Tower, with the intention of raising the hill above 1,000 ft above sea level. A tower built contemporaneously at the summit of Bredon Hill achieves a similar purpose. Leith Hill Tower is 19.5 metres high and consisted of two rooms "neatly furnished", with a Latin inscription above the door announcing that it had been built not only for his own pleasure, but for the enjoyment of others.
Hull provided visitors with prospect glasses, similar to a small telescope, through which to survey the extensive views towards London and the English Channel, each some 25 miles away. When he died in 1772, at his request he was buried under the tower. Following his death, the building was stripped of its contents and windows, fell into ruin; as a result, the tower was filled with rubble and concrete, the entrance bricked up. In 1864, Mr Evelyn of nearby Wotton House decided to reopen it, but the concrete made this difficult, so the additional turreted side-tower was added to allow access to the top of the tower. At the top of the tower there is a viewpoint indicator to commemorate Walker Miles, whose work in the early days of the Rambler's movement contributed to the formation of The Ramblers of Great Britain, it has been claimed. The tower was restored by the National Trust in 1984; this restoration included the removal of rubble and concrete, fitting safety features such as a handrail in the narrow staircase, converting the lower portion of the tower into a servery.
Leith Hill Tower is open to the public every day from 10:00 am until 3:00 pm weekdays and 9:00 am to 5:00 pm on weekends, every day of the year except Christmas Day, with a comprehensive display explaining the history of the tower. Standing on the top of Leith Hill Tower you are at the highest point in the south-east of England. A gabled house dating from about 1600, Leith Hill Place was refaced in a Palladian style about 1760 by Richard Hull, it was bought in 1847 by Josiah Wedgwood III and remained in the family until the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, brought up there and inherited it, gave it to the National Trust in 1944. Subsequently it was leased from the Trust by his cousins Sir Ralph Wedgwood and Sir John Wedgwood becoming a boarding house for a nearby sixth form college, Hurtwood House; the property is claimed to be haunted, with several School Masters of the day reporting strange goings-on, noises and apparitions. The house was opened to the public by the National Trust in 2013 and now serves as a memorial to Ralph Vaughan Williams,Josiah Wedgwood's widow, born Caroline Darwin, created a rhododendron wood there, now open to the public.
A site on an ancient lane going up the hill was chosen by an oil company for exploratory drilling, however due to an active protest campaign and various legal objections raised by local groups and environmentalists, the lease on the land from the Forestry Commission expired before the drilling could start. The Minister for Environment subsequently decided not to renew the lease due to concerns of the effect it would have on nearby ancient woodland; the oil company has since stated it intends to find a new site from which to explore the same prospect. Locals have stated. Leith Hill Tower was 1:2500 Ordnance Survey maps of Surrey. Leith Hill information at the National Trust Computer generated summit panoramas North South index
The River Wey is a tributary of the River Thames in south east England and one of two major tributaries in Surrey. The name is of unknown meaning, it begins as two branches rising outside the county which join at Tilford between Guildford and Farnham. Once combined the flow is eastwards northwards via Godalming and Guildford to meet the Thames while in Surrey; the main sub-tributary is the Tillingbourne flowing from the western slopes of Leith Hill in Surrey westwards to a point just south of Guildford between the main village of Shalford and the hamlet of Peasmarsh. Downstream the river forms the backdrop to Newark Brooklands; the Wey has a total catchment area of 904 square kilometres, draining parts of Surrey and West Sussex. It is navigable from Godalming to its confluence with the Thames as part of the Wey and Godalming Navigations, a trade-minded 17th century canal; the river morphology and flow are well studied, with many places to take samples and record data. The Wey North branch rises in Alton in Hampshire and runs eastwards through Upper Froyle and Bentley, turning southeast at Farnham to Tilford.
This branch was the upper catchment of the Blackwater. When this branch was blocked at Farnham, the flow spilt over into areas such as Elstead; the Blackwater remains as a much shorter river to the north of Farnham, with a wind gap between it and the Wey. The Wey South branch commences in two shorter rivers leading from separate sources. One is at Blackdown, south of Haslemere, beside Gibbet Hill and the Devil's Punch Bowl, next to Hindhead village centre, runs through Liphook, Passfield, Standford and Frensham to Tilford; the other rises at Inval, below Gibbet Hill, Hindhead in the civil parish of Haslemere. This joins the Blackdown-source south branch west of Haslemere. Other smaller tributaries of the south branch are the River Slea. From Tilford the river runs through Elstead, Godalming, Peasmarsh/Shalford, Send, Old Woking, Byfleet, New Haw and forms the Addlestone/Weybridge border between Hamm Court and Whittets Ait respectively. From Godalming the river is intertwined with the Godalming Navigations.
It joins the River Thames between Hamm Court and Whittets Ait facing a weirstream of Shepperton Lock. The River Ock joins at Godalming, Cranleigh Waters and the River Tillingbourne at Shalford and the Hoe Stream at Woking; the 19.5 miles towpath of the lower section is open to pedestrians. During the seventeenth century the river was made navigable to Guildford and extended in the eighteenth century to Godalming; the Basingstoke Canal and Wey and Arun Junction Canal were connected to the river. The navigable sections are now owned by the National Trust; the river has long been used as a source of power for mills, many are recorded in the Domesday Book. At one point there were 22 mills on the river, more on its tributaries. At various times they have been used for grinding grain, fulling wool, rolling oats, crushing cattle cake, leather dressing, paper production and gunpowder manufacture. Willey Mill, at Farnham, was still in use in 1953. Guildford Town Mill, though no long used for milling, still harnesses the power of the river to generate electricity.
Wey Valley is a term for the narrowing basin of the River Wey before it empties into the River Thames. Much of the upper reaches of the river are within the Surrey Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the river passes through a variety of habitats including heathland and watermeadow, resulting in a diversity of wildlife. There are Sites of Special Scientific Nature Reserves along the river; the area of the aquifers which drain steeply to the river is great so, as with the Mole, in its natural state much of the flood plains were prone to regular flooding. This has been reduced by flood alleviation, upstream lakes such as Frensham Great Pond and, the Wey Navigation. Urban lowest parts of Godalming and Weybridge saw extensive flooding in the exceptional Winter storms of 2013–14. Aside from the River Thames, which does not belong to any one county, the river is one of the two main Surrey rivers, alongside the Mole; until its incorporation into London in 1965, next in order of size was the River Wandle.
Follow the River Bourne and the River Bourne, Chertsey which merge. They have sources in Berkshire. Surrey's Epsom area is drained by the Hogsmill River, most of, in outer London. Inland Waterways Association The River Wey and Godalming Navigation: Weybridge to Godalming Inland Waterways Association 1976 Tributaries of the River Thames Canals of the United Kingdom List of rivers of England Perseverance IV, last floating River Wey barge. Notes References River Wey and Godalming Navigations and Dapdune Wharf River Wey Catchment Flood Warnings
Amateur astronomy is a hobby where participants enjoy observing or imaging celestial objects in the sky using the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes. Though scientific research may not be their primary goal, some amateur astronomers make contributions in doing citizen science, such as by monitoring variable stars, double stars sunspots, or occultations of stars by the Moon or asteroids, or by discovering transient astronomical events, such as comets, galactic novae or supernovae in other galaxies. Amateur astronomers do not use the field of astronomy as their primary source of income or support, have no professional degree in astrophysics or advanced academic training in the subject. Most amateurs are beginners or hobbyists, while others have a high degree of experience in astronomy and may assist and work alongside professional astronomers. Many astronomers have studied the sky throughout history in an amateur framework. Amateur astronomers view the sky at night, when most celestial objects and astronomical events are visible, but others observe during the daytime by viewing the Sun and solar eclipses.
Some just look at the sky using nothing more than their eyes or binoculars, but more dedicated amateurs use portable telescopes or telescopes situated in their private or club observatories. Amateurs can join as members of amateur astronomical societies, which can advise, educate or guide them towards ways of finding and observing celestial objects. Collectively, amateur astronomers observe a variety of celestial phenomena. Common targets of amateur astronomers include the Moon, stars, meteor showers, a variety of deep sky objects such as star clusters and nebulae. Many amateurs like to specialise in observing particular objects, types of objects, or types of events which interest them. One branch of amateur astronomy, amateur astrophotography, involves the taking of photos of the night sky. Astrophotography has become more popular with the introduction of far easier to use equipment including, digital cameras, DSLR cameras and sophisticated purpose built high quality CCD cameras. Most amateur astronomers work at visible wavelengths, but a small minority experiment with wavelengths outside the visible spectrum.
An early pioneer of radio astronomy was Grote Reber, an amateur astronomer who constructed the first purpose built radio telescope in the late 1930s to follow up on the discovery of radio wavelength emissions from space by Karl Jansky. Non-visual amateur astronomy includes the use of infrared filters on conventional telescopes, the use of radio telescopes; some amateur astronomers use home-made radio telescopes, while others use radio telescopes that were built for astronomical research but have since been made available for use by amateurs. The One-Mile Telescope is one such example. Amateur astronomers use a range of instruments to study the sky, depending on a combination of their interests and resources. Methods include looking at the night sky with the naked eye, using binoculars, using a variety of optical telescopes of varying power and quality, as well as additional sophisticated equipment, such as cameras, to study light from the sky in both the visual and non-visual parts of the spectrum.
Commercial telescopes are available and used, but it is common for amateur astronomers to build their own custom telescopes. Some people focus on amateur telescope making as their primary interest within the hobby of amateur astronomy. Although specialized and experienced amateur astronomers tend to acquire more specialized and more powerful equipment over time simple equipment is preferred for certain tasks. Binoculars, for instance, although of lower power than the majority of telescopes tend to provide a wider field of view, preferable for looking at some objects in the night sky. Amateur astronomers use star charts that, depending on experience and intentions, may range from simple planispheres through to detailed charts of specific areas of the night sky. A range of astronomy software is available and used by amateur astronomers, including software that generates maps of the sky, software to assist with astrophotography, observation scheduling software, software to perform various calculations pertaining to astronomical phenomena.
Amateur astronomers like to keep records of their observations, which takes the form of an observing log. Observing logs record details about which objects were observed and when, as well as describing the details that were seen. Sketching is sometimes used within logs, photographic records of observations have been used in recent times; the information gathered is used to help studies and interactions between amateur astronomers in yearly gatherings. Although not professional information or credible, it is a way for the hobby lovers to share their new sightings and experiences; the Internet is an essential tool of amateur astronomers. The popularity of imaging among amateurs has led to large numbers of web sites being written by individuals about their images and equipment. Much of the social interaction of amateur astronomy occurs on mailing lists or discussion groups. Discussion group servers host numerous astronomy lists. A great deal of the commerce of amateur astronomy, the buying and selling of equipment, occurs online.
Many amateurs use online tools to plan their nightly observing sessions, using tools such as the Clear Sky Chart. Wh
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being, to all appearances human, from the planet Gallifrey; the Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes while working to save civilisations and help people in need; the show is a significant part of British popular culture, elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series; the programme ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who; the programme was relaunched in 2005, since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff.
Doctor Who has spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, novels, audio dramas, the television series Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9, Class, has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Thirteen actors have headlined the series as the Doctor; the transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation, a plot device in which a Time Lord "transforms" into a new body when the current one is too badly harmed to heal normally. Each actor's portrayal is unique. Together, they form a single lifetime with a single narrative; the time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor meet. The Doctor is portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the title character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who goes by the name "the Doctor".
The Doctor fled Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS, a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. Across time and space, the Doctor's many incarnations find events that pique their curiosity and try to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only ingenuity and minimal resources, such as the versatile sonic screwdriver; the Doctor travels alone and brings one or more companions to share these adventures. These companions are humans, owing to the Doctor's fascination with planet Earth, which leads to frequent collaborations with the international military task force UNIT when the Earth is threatened; the Doctor is centuries old and, as a Time Lord, has the ability to regenerate in case of mortal damage to the body, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during their travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963, it was to be each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year; the head of drama Sydney Newman was responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series; the programme was intended to appeal to a family audience as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963, Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation to write a story under the title The Mutants.
As written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert. We had a bit of a crisis of confidence. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor. The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom; the BBC drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC 1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC 1. Although it was cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th season, which would have been broadcast in 1990, the BBC affirmed, over several ye