Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Banksia is a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae. These Australian wildflowers and popular garden plants are recognised by their characteristic flower spikes and fruiting "cones" and heads. Banksias range in size from prostrate woody shrubs to trees up to 30 metres tall, they are found in a wide variety of landscapes. Heavy producers of nectar, banksias are a vital part of the food chain in the Australian bush, they are an important food source for all sorts of nectarivorous animals, including birds, rats, stingless bees and a host of invertebrates. Furthermore, they are of economic importance to Australia's cut flower industries; however these plants are threatened by a number of processes including land clearing, frequent burning and disease, a number of species are rare and endangered. Banksias grow as trees or woody shrubs. Trees of the largest species, B. integrifolia and B. seminuda grow over 15 metres tall, some grow to standing 30 metres tall. Banksia species that grow as shrubs are erect, but there are several species that are prostrate, with branches that grow on or below the soil.
The leaves of Banksia vary between species. Sizes vary from the narrow, 1–1½ centimetre long needle-like leaves of B. ericifolia, to the large leaves of B. grandis, which may be up to 45 centimetres long. The leaves of most species have serrated edges. Leaves are arranged along the branches in irregular spirals, but in some species they are crowded together in whorls. Many species have differing adult leaves; the flowers are arranged in flower spikes or capitate flower heads. The character most associated with Banksia is the flower spike, an elongated inflorescence consisting of a woody axis covered in tightly-packed pairs of flowers attached at right angles. A single flower spike contains hundreds or thousands of flowers. Not all Banksia have an elongate flower spike, however: the members of the small Isostylis complex have long been recognised as Banksias in which the flower spike has been reduced to a head. Dryandra, they have capitate flower heads rather than spikes. Banksia flowers are a shade of yellow, but orange, red and violet flowers occur.
The colour of the flowers is determined by the colour of the perianth parts and the style. The style is much longer than the perianth, is trapped by the upper perianth parts; these are released over a period of days, either from top to bottom or from bottom to top. When the styles and perianth parts are different colours, the visual effect is of a colour change sweeping along the spike; this can be most spectacular in B. prionotes and related species, as the white inflorescence in bud becomes a brilliant orange. In most cases, the individual flowers are thin saccate in shape. Multiple flower spikes can form; this is most seen in Banksia marginata and B. ericifolia. As the flower spikes or heads age, the flower parts dry up and may turn shades of orange, tan or dark brown colour, before fading to grey over a period of years. In some species, old flower parts are lost. Old flower spikes are referred to as "cones", although they are not technically cones according to the botanical definition of the term: cones only occur in conifers and cycads.
Despite the large number of flowers per inflorescence, only a few of them develop fruit, in some species a flower spike will set no fruit at all. The fruit of Banksia is a woody follicle embedded in the axis of the inflorescence. In many species, the resulting structure is a massive woody structure called a cone; each follicle consists of two horizontal valves that enclose the seeds. The follicle opens to release the seed by splitting along the suture, in some species each valve splits too. In some species the follicles open as soon as the seed is mature, but in most species most follicles open only after stimulated to do so by bushfire; each follicle contains one or two small seeds, each with a wedge-shaped papery wing that causes it to spin as it falls to the ground. Specimens of Banksia were first collected by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Daniel Solander, naturalists on the Endeavour during Lieutenant James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Cook landed on Australian soil for the first time on 29 April 1770, at a place that he named Botany Bay in recognition of "the great quantity of plants Mr Banks and Dr Solander found in this place".
Over the next seven weeks and Solander collected thousands of plant specimens, including the first specimens of a new genus that would be named Banksia in Banks' honour. Four species were present in this first collection: B. serrata, B. integrifolia, B. ericifolia and B. robur. In June the ship was careened at Endeavour River; the genus Banksia was described and named by Carolus Linnaeus the Younger in his April 1782 publication Supplementum Plantarum.
Division of Calare
The Division of Calare is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division was first contested at the 1906 election; the Aboriginal name is pronounced Kal-ah-ree, but the pronunciation Kul-air is established for the division. The division stretches from Mudgee, Dubbo, Wellington in the north-west, to Orange, Bathurst and Oberon in the south-east; the current Member for Calare, since the 2016 federal election, is Andrew Gee, a member of the National Party. The division encompassed Forbes and Parkes. Subsequent boundary changes moved it eastwards to encompass Bathurst and Oberon. On these boundaries it was notionally a marginal seat between the Australian Labor Party and the National Party, but it was held comfortably by an independent, Peter Andren, from 1996 to 2007. Andren was not a candidate for the 2007 election: he intended to run for a Senate seat but was diagnosed with cancer in 2007 and died during the election campaign. A redistribution in 2006 moved the boundaries west to take in Cowra and the vast north-west of New South Wales from Brewarrina to Menindee, making Calare New South Wales's largest electorate.
Lithgow and Oberon, which tend to favour Labor, were transferred to the neighbouring seat of Macquarie. At the 2007 federal election, Calare was won by the Nationals' representative John Cobb on a margin of 12.1 percent. Cobb had represented the Division of Parkes, parts of which were redistributed into Calare in 2006; the 2009 redistribution of NSW moved the boundaries back east, to again include Lithgow and Oberon. Most of the northwestern area of the division was transferred to the neighbouring Division of Parkes; the changes took effect at the 2010 election. Division of Calare - Australian Electoral Commission
A goanna is any of several Australian monitor lizards of the genus Varanus, as well as certain species from Southeast Asia. Around 30 species of goanna are known, 25 of which are found in Australia; this varied group of carnivorous reptiles ranges in size and fills several ecological niches. The goanna features prominently in Australian folklore. Being predatory lizards, goannas are quite large, or at least bulky, with sharp teeth and claws; the largest is the perentie. Not all goannas are gargantuan. Pygmy goannas may be smaller than the arm of an adult human; the smallest of these, the short-tailed monitor reaches only 20 cm in length. They survive on smaller prey, such as mice. Goannas combine scavenging behaviours. A goanna will prey on any animal it is small enough to eat whole. Goannas have been blamed for the death of sheep by farmers, though most erroneously, as goannas are eaters of carrion and are attracted to rotting meat. Most goannas are dark-coloured, with greys, browns and greens featuring prominently.
Many desert-dwelling species feature yellow-red tones. Camouflage ranges from bands and stripes to splotches and circles, can change as the creature matures, with juveniles sometimes being brighter than adults. Like most lizards, goannas lay eggs. Most lay eggs in a nest or burrow; this offers incubation. Unlike some other species of lizards, goannas do not have the ability to regrow tails; the name goanna derived from iguana, since early European bush settlers in Australia likened goannas to the South American lizards.. Over time, the initial vowel sound was dropped. A similar explanation is used to link possum to the American opossum. Another possibility is that the name might have derived from the South African term for a monitor lizard, leguaan, as the Cape of Good Hope was a popular refresher stop for immigrant ships to Australia from Britain. For a list of all monitor lizards of the genus, see Complete list of genus Varanus; the following are found in Australia. For the most part, in common names, "goanna" and "monitor" are interchangeable.
Perentie – V. giganteus Lace monitor – V. varius Sand goanna – V. gouldii Mertens' water monitor – V. mertensi Spiny-tailed monitor – V. acanthurus Mangrove monitor – V. semiremex Black-headed monitor – V. tristis Short-tailed monitor – V. brevicauda Argus monitor – V. panoptes Rosenberg's monitor – V. rosenbergi Spencer's goanna – V. spenceri Storr's monitor – V. storri Dampier Peninsula monitor – V. sparnus Mitchell's water monitor – V. mitchelli Kings' monitor – V. kingorum Hamersley Range rock monitor – V. hamersleyensis Black-palmed rock monitor – V. glebopalma Kimberley rock monitor – V. glauerti Pygmy mulga monitor – V. gilleni Rusty desert monitor – V. eremius Stripe-tailed goanna – V. caudolineatus Pilbara monitor – V. bushi Black-spotted ridge-tailed monitor – V. baritji Emerald tree monitor – V. prasinus Canopy goanna – V. keithhornei Goannas are found throughout most of Australia, except for Tasmania, manage to persist in a variety of environments. Most species are known to climb outcrops.
The lace monitor is the best-known among these, but is not the most common. The lace monitor is the second-largest of all goannas, reaching lengths of up to 2 m. Other more common tree goannas, such as the Timor tree monitor and mournful tree monitor do not grow to quite such lengths, averaging a maximum of 61 cm, nose-to-tail. Other goannas are adapted to swampy coastal environments, such as the mangrove goanna. Further still, the Mertens' water monitor, found in lagoons and rivers across northern Australia, is streamlined for swimming, using its tail as a paddle. Most other goannas are good tend not to voluntarily venture into the water; the diets of goannas vary depending on the species and the habitat. Prey can include all manner of small animals: insects, smaller lizards, mammals and eggs. Meals are eaten whole, thus the size of their meals may depend on the size of the animals. Many of the small species feed on insects, with some being small lizard experts. Many of the medium to large species will feed on.
This includes eggs, birds, smaller lizards, snakes and other small mammals, such as rodents. The giant perentie has been observed killing a young kangaroo, biting out chunks of flesh like a dog. All species are carrion eaters, so will feed on the carcasses of dead animals, including livestock and other large creatures; the smell of rotting meat will attract these lizards. Like most native fauna, goannas are rather wary of human intrusions into their habitat, will most run away. A goanna is a rather swift mover, when pressed, will sprint short distances on its hind legs. Goannas rear up when threatened, either chased or cornered, inflate flaps of skin around their throats and emit harsh hissing noises; some goannas recover from their initial fear of humans when food is involved. This reinforces the wildlife authority's recommendation of not feeding animals while camping or adventuring, but most authorities doub
Wallerawang is a small township in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 14 kilometres northwest of Lithgow adjacent to the Great Western Highway from Sydney, it is located on the Main Western railway line at the junction of the Gwabegar line. The original inhabitants of the area west of the Blue Mountains were the Wiradjuri Aboriginal Australians, it is believed. It is understood to mean plenty of water. James Blackman was the first European to discover the area when he marked out the route of the new road from Bathurst to the area now known as Wallerawang. In 1824, 11 years after the first exploration led by Blaxland over the Blue Mountains, a James Walker was granted a large portion of land in the area now known as Wallerawang. In 1836 the property was to become known as Barton Park. Two of Walker's convict servants took up land leases in the area in the 1850s, one of them was Maddox who named his lease Lidsdale. Charles Darwin, the English naturalist, stayed at "Wallerowang House" in 1836.
In the book, Darwin describes the countryside around the Wallerawang area and the wildlife including Platypus in his book "The Voyage of the Beagle". The local school has operated at three sites, in 1860 the first small stone school opened near the present power station, in 1882 the school relocated nearer the township and to its present location near Lake Wallace in 1995; the 1860 school, still standing, was opened by James Walker's widow. The Church of St John the Evangelist, built 1881, was financed by private funding, it was designed by architect Edmund Blacket, is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register. Wallerawang has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Main Street: St John the Evangelist Church, Wallerawang Main Western railway: Coxs River railway bridges, Wallerangang Main Western railway: Wallerawang railway station The Main Western railway line passes through the town of Wallerawang. In 1870 the track was opened to Wallerawang on its way to the next temporary terminus at Rydal in 1870 and Tarana in 1872.
The railway station closed during the early 1990s. A proposal for a new power station designed to use the lower grade coal of the area was approved in 1950. Built beside the Coxs River, the site was determined in April 1950 with construction commencing properly in November 1951, it was declared open in 1957. The Wallerawang Power Station was a coal fired station located on the eastern side of the township. In 1951 the Electricity Commission of New South Wales commenced construction of the power station, power being generated in 1957. In 1978 Lake Wallace was constructed to provide additional water cooling capacity for the power station. With various upgrades the station generated power for the Australian national power grid, it is marked for demolition. During World War 2, Wallerawang was the location of RAAF No.4 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot, completed in 1942 and closed in 1944. Consisting of 4 tanks, 31 fuel depots were built across Australia for the storage and supply of aircraft fuel for the RAAF and the US Army Air Forces at a total cost of £900,000.
Media related to Wallerawang at Wikimedia Commons
City of Lithgow
The City of Lithgow is a local government area in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is located adjacent to the Main Western railway line; the Mayor of the City of Lithgow Council is Cr. Stephen Lesslie, unaligned with any political party; the council seat is located in the city of the largest regional centre. The area includes the towns and villages of Ben Bullen, Capertee, Cullen Bullen, Glen Alice, Glen Davis, Hartley, Hartley Vale, Little Hartley, Meadow Flat, Portland, Sodwalls and Wallerawang. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics on 2006 census night there were: 20,981 people living in the area, making the City the 77th largest Local Government Area in New South Wales, it was equal to 0.3% of the New South Wales population of 6,827,694 116 more people living in the area than the previous period, giving the City the 82nd largest population growth in a Local Government Area in New South Wales. It was equal to 0.2% of the 58,753 increase in the population of New South Wales in percentage terms, an increase of 0.6% in the number of people over the year, the 92nd fastest growth in population of a Local Government Area in New South Wales.
In New South Wales the population grew by 0.9% was an increase in population over the 10 years of 733 people or 3.6%, the 81st highest rate of a Local Government Area in New South Wales. In New South Wales the population grew by 10 % over the same period. Lithgow City Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as a single ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office; the Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 10 September 2016, the makeup of the Council is as follows: The current Council, elected in 2016, in order of election, is: The City of Lithgow has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Ben Bullen, Wallerawang-Gwabegar railway: Ben Bullen railway station Bowenfels, Great Western Highway: Fernhill, Bowenfels Bowenfels, via Kirkley Street: Lithgow Heavy Anti Aircraft Gun Stations and Dummy Station Bowenfels, Main Western railway: Bowenfels railway station Bowenfels, Main Western railway: Bowenfels rail viaducts Hartley, Great Western Highway: Hartley historic site Hartley, 200 Jenolan Caves Road: Military Station archaeological site Hartley, The Old Bathurst Road: Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Hartley, Clarence Hilly Range and Mount Blaxland Precinct Hartley Vale, Hartley Vale Road: Collits' Inn Lithgow, Bent Street: Lithgow Valley Colliery and Pottery Site Lithgow, Brewery Lane: Lithgow Zig Zag Lithgow, Gas Works Lane: Lithgow Coal Stage Signal Box Lithgow, Inch Street: Lithgow Blast Furnace Lithgow, Jenolan Caves Road: McKanes Falls Bridge Lithgow, Main West Line 156.334 km, James Street: Lithgow Underbridge Lithgow, Main Western railway: Eskbank railway station, New South Wales Lithgow, Main Western railway: Ten Tunnels Deviation Lithgow, Railway Parade: Lithgow railway station Lithgow, Top Points Zig Zag railway: Cooerwull railway footbridge Marrangaroo, Main Western railway: Marrangaroo railway viaduct Old Bowenfels, 70 Mudgee Street: Bowenfels National School Site Portland, Carlton Road: Raffan's Mill and Brick Bottle Kilns Portland, Williwa Street: Portland Cement Works Precinct Rydal, Main Western railway: Rydal railway station Rydal, Main Western railway: Rydal rail underbridges Sodwalls, off Cuthill Road: Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Sodwalls, Fish River Descent Precinct Tarana, Main Western railway: Tarana railway station Wallerawang, Main Street: St John the Evangelist Church, Wallerawang Wallerawang, Main Western railway: Coxs River railway bridges, Wallerangang Wallerawang, Main Western railway: Wallerawang railway station Wambool, Main Western railway: Wambool old-rail truss overbridges Lithgow Tourism Information
Wombats are short-legged, muscular quadrupedal marsupials that are native to Australia. They are about 1 m in length with stubby tails. There are three extant species and they are all members of the family Vombatidae, they are adaptable and habitat tolerant, are found in forested and heathland areas of south-eastern Australia, including Tasmania, as well as an isolated patch of about 300 ha in Epping Forest National Park in central Queensland. Though genetic studies of the Vombatidae have been undertaken, evolution of the family is not well understood. Wombats are estimated to have diverged from other Australian marsupials early, as long as 40 million years ago, while some estimates place divergence at around 25 million years. While some theories place wombats as miniaturised relatives of diprotodonts, such as the rhinoceros-sized Diprotodon, more recent studies place the Vombatiformes as having a distinct parallel evolution, hence their current classification as a separate family. Wombats dig extensive burrow systems with powerful claws.
One distinctive adaptation of wombats is their backward pouch. The advantage of a backward-facing pouch is that when digging, the wombat does not gather soil in its pouch over its young. Although crepuscular and nocturnal, wombats may venture out to feed on cool or overcast days, they are not seen, but leave ample evidence of their passage, treating fences as minor inconveniences to be gone through or under, leaving distinctive cubic feces. As wombats arrange these feces to mark territories and attract mates, it is believed that the cubic shape makes them more stackable and less to roll, which gives this shape a biological advantage; the method by which the wombat produces them is not well understood, but it is believed that the wombat intestine stretches preferentially at the walls. The adult wombat produces between 80 and 100, two-centimetre pieces of feces in a single night, four to eight pieces each bowel movement. Wombats are herbivores, their incisor teeth somewhat resemble those of rodents, being adapted for gnawing tough vegetation.
Like many other herbivorous mammals, they have a large diastema between their incisors and the cheek teeth, which are simple. The dental formula of wombats is 22.214.171.124.0.1.4 × 2 = 24. Wombats' fur can vary from a sandy colour from grey to black. All three known extant species weigh between 20 and 35 kg. Female wombats give birth to a single young in the spring, after a gestation period, which like all marsupials can vary, in the case of the wombat: 20–21 days, they have well-developed pouches. Wombats are weaned after 15 months, are sexually mature at 18 months. A group of wombats is known as a mob, or a colony. Wombats live up to 15 years in the wild, but can live past 20 and 30 years in captivity; the longest-lived captive wombat lived to 34 years of age. Wombats have an extraordinarily slow metabolism, taking around eight to 14 days to complete digestion, which aids their survival in arid conditions, they move slowly. When threatened, they can reach up to 40 km/h and maintain that speed for up to 90 seconds.
Wombats defend home territories centred on their burrows, they react aggressively to intruders. The common wombat occupies a range of up to 23 ha, while the hairy-nosed species have much smaller ranges, of no more than 4 ha. Dingos and Tasmanian devils prey on wombats. Extinct predators were to have included Thylacoleo and the thylacine, their primary defence is their toughened rear hide, with most of the posterior made of cartilage. This, combined with its lack of a meaningful tail, makes it difficult for any predator that follows the wombat into its tunnel to bite and injure its target; when attacked, wombats dive into a nearby tunnel. A wombat may allow an intruder to force its head over the wombat's back, use its powerful legs to crush the skull of the predator against the roof of the tunnel, or drive it off with two-legged kicks, like those of a donkey. Wombats are quiet animals. Bare-nosed wombats can make a number of more than the Hairy-nosed wombats. Wombats tend to be more vocal during mating season.
When angered, they can make hissing sounds. Their call sounds somewhat like a pig's squeal, they can make grunting noises, a low growl, a hoarse cough, a clicking noise. The three extant species of wombat all are endemic to a few offshore islands, they are protected under Australian law. Common wombat Northern hairy-nosed wombat or yaminon Southern hairy-nosed wombat Depiction of the animals in rock art are exceptionally rare, though examples estimated to be up to 4,000 years old have been discovered in the Wollemi National Park; the wombat is depicted in aboriginal Dreamtime as an animal of little worth. The mainland stories tell of the wombat as originating from a person named Warreen whose head had been flattened by a stone and tail amputated as punishment for selfishness. In contrast, the Tasmanian aboriginal story first recorded in 1830 tells of the wombat the great spirit Moihernee had asked hunters to leave alone. In both cases, the wombat is regarded as having been banished to its burrowing habitat.
Estimates of wombat distribution prior to European settlement are that numbers of all three surviving species were prolific and that they