Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Richard Mentor Johnson
Richard Mentor Johnson was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. He is the vice president ever elected by the United States Senate under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment. Johnson represented Kentucky in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate, he began, Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1806. He became allied with fellow Kentuckian Henry Clay as a member of the War Hawks faction that favored war with Britain in 1812. At the outset of the War of 1812, Johnson was commissioned a colonel in the Kentucky Militia and he and his brother James served under William Henry Harrison in Upper Canada. Johnson participated in the Battle of the Thames, some reported that he personally killed the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, which he used to his political advantage. After the war, Johnson returned to the House of Representatives, the legislature appointed him to the Senate in 1819 to fill the seat vacated by John J.
Crittenden. As his prominence grew, his relationship with Julia Chinn. It worked against his political ambitions, unlike other upper class leaders who had African American mistresses but never mentioned them, Johnson openly treated Chinn as his common law wife. He acknowledged their two daughters as his children, giving them his surname, much to the consternation of some of his constituents. The relationship is believed to have led to the loss of his Senate seat in 1829, in 1836, Johnson was the Democratic nominee for vice-president on a ticket with Martin Van Buren. Campaigning with the slogan Rumpsey Dumpsey, Rumpsey Dumpsey, Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh, virginias delegation to the Electoral College went against the states popular vote and refused to endorse Johnson, abstaining instead. However, he was elected to the office by the Senate, Johnson proved such a liability for the Democrats in the 1836 election that they refused to renominate him for vice-president in 1840. President Van Buren campaigned for re-election without a running mate and he lost to William Henry Harrison, a Whig.
Johnson tried to return to office but was defeated. He finally was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1850, Richard Mentor Johnson was born on October 17,1780, the fifth of Robert and Jemima Johnsons eleven children. At the time, the family was living in the newly founded settlement of Beargrass, near present-day Louisville, by 1782, the Johnsons had moved to Bryans Station in Fayette County. Johnsons mother was considered among the women of the community because of her actions during Simon Girtys raid on Bryans Station in August 1782
Kentucky in the War of 1812
During the War of 1812, Kentucky supplied numerous troops and supplies to the war effort. Because Kentucky did not have to commit manpower to defending fortifications and this led to Kentucky seeing more battle casualties than all other states combined. With the impending onset of hostilities, the governor of the Indiana Territory, after being appointed brigadier general of the Kentucky militia on August 22, Harrison went to attain the force in order to defend the Indiana territorial government at Vincennes, Indiana. As a result, most of Kentuckys militia during the war fought in what was the old Northwest Territory, some 25,010 Kentuckians served in war, which is about five out of every six men of military age. John Allen, a gubernatorial candidate and Kentucky state legislator, on June 5,1812, was made colonel of the 1st Kentucky Rifle Regiment. Allen was killed while rallying his men at the Battle of the River Raisin in Michigan and he was buried in Frankfort Cemetery, and Kentucky and Ohio would all name counties in his honor.
Eight other Kentucky officers died in either the battle or the massacre that followed it, the River Raisin casualties included about 400 Kentuckians killed in the fighting, plus eighty wounded prisoners who were tomahawked by the Indians as soon as the British troops departed. The murder of the led to the Kentuckians rallying cry for the rest of the war - Remember the River Raisin. Many Kentuckians took part in Andrew Jacksons defeat of the British regulars at the Battle of New Orleans, almost all the American soldiers at the Battle of Wild Cat Creek, fought in northern Indiana, were residents of the Hopkinsville, Kentucky area in southwestern Kentucky. A major supply depot for the war was at Newport, dubbed Newport Barracks, the staging area would serve as a supply depot for conflicts with Mexico in the century. Saltpeter was heavily mined in Carter County and at the Great Saltpeter Cave in Rockcastle County, but the most notable mining was at Mammoth Cave, whose saltpeter, considered exceptional quality, was numbered at 570,000 pounds produced during the war.
The war affected the states economy, due to the inability to trade during the war with Britain, rudimentary manufacturing was spurred during the timeframe. To help pay for the war, a distilled spirits excise tax was levied during the war, the next such tax would not be levied until the Civil War in 1862. The War of 1812 had an effect on Kentucky. One consequence was that the Shawnee never again challenged white control of the state, also, a number of Kentuckys future leaders served in the war. Counting Isaac Shelbys second term, which began just after the outbreak of hostilities, governors Charles A. Wickliffe and John J. Crittenden served as aides-de-camp in the war. Twenty-two of Kentuckys one hundred twenty counties are named for participants in the War of 1812, Indiana in the War of 1812 Kleber, John E. ed. Causation of the War of 1812, register of the Kentucky Historical Society
The Hunters of Kentucky
In both 1824 and 1828 Jackson used the song as his campaign song during his presidential campaigns. Hunters of Kentucky was written in 1821 by Samuel Woodworth, whose fame rest on Hunters and The Old Oaken Bucket, one-fourth of Jacksons men at the Battle of New Orleans were from Kentucky. It was sung the way Irish singers told stories in narrative form and it was first sung in New Orleans in 1822 by Noah M. Ludlow. Throughout the term of Andrew Jackson, Hunters of Kentucky proved to be a popular song and this is ironic as Jacksons fieriest rival, Henry Clay, was the one from Kentucky, Jackson was actually from Tennessee, near Nashville. However, Americans who entered Canada in 1837 and 1838 did sing the song, Hunters of Kentucky propagated various beliefs about the war. One of them was calling the Pennsylvania Rifle the Kentucky Rifle, another was crediting the riflemen with the victory of the Battle of New Orleans, when it could be said it was Jacksons artillery that was actually responsible for the win.
Finally, one said that the British planned to ransack New Orleans. This song was covered in the musical Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson as the closing number, bivouac of the Dead Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone, The Life and Legend of an American Pioneer, Donald R. Dont Give Up the Ship. Myths of the War of 1812, Harry L. Andrew Jackson Vs. Henry Clay
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. The 981-mile river flows through or along the border of six states, through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U. S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people and it is named in Iroquoian or Seneca, Ohi, yó, lit. Good River or Shawnee and Spelewathiipi, the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation, in 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated and its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. During the 19th century, the river was the boundary of the Northwest Territory. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates, in winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohios confluence with the Mississippi, Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, from there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line.
From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia, the river follows a roughly southwest and west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the borders of West Virginia and Kentucky. The Ohio drains parts of 15 states in four regions, northeast New York, a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania, a corridor from the corner to north central border
Kentucky in the American Civil War
Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln recognized the importance of the Commonwealth when he declared I hope to have God on my side, in a September 1861 letter to Orville Browning, Lincoln wrote, I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we cannot hold Missouri, nor Maryland and these all against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capitol, being a border state, was among the chief places where the Brother against brother scenario was prevalent. After early 1862 Kentucky came largely under Union control, Kentucky was the site of several fierce battles, including Mill Springs and Perryville. Forrest proved to be a scourge to the Union Army in western Kentucky, kentuckian John Hunt Morgan further challenged Union control, as he conducted numerous cavalry raids through the state. Kentucky was the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, his wife Mary Todd, Kentuckys citizens were split regarding the issues central to the Civil War.
In 1860, slaves composed 19. 5% of the Commonwealths population, the ancestors of many Kentuckians hailed from Southern states like Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, but many Kentucky children were beginning to migrate toward the North. Kentucky, along with North Carolina, boasted the best educational systems in the South, the Commonwealth had produced some of the countrys best known leaders. Breckinridge and Richard M. Johnson both hailed from the state, as did Henry Clay, John J. Crittenden, U. S. President Abraham Lincoln, however, by the time of the Civil War, Kentucky was in a politically confused state. The decline of the Whig Party, which Clay had founded, had left many politicians looking for an identity. Many joined the Democratic Party, a few joined the newly formed Republican Party, the party was composed mainly of former Whigs and Know-Nothings. Kentucky was strategically important to both the North and South, the Commonwealth ranked ninth in population by 1860, and was a major producer of such agricultural commodities as tobacco, wheat and flax.
Geographically, Kentucky was important to the South because the Ohio River would provide a boundary along the entire length of the state. Kentucky governor Beriah Magoffin believed that the rights of the Southern states had been violated and favored the right of secession, Magoffin proposed a conference of slave states, followed by a conference of all the states to secure these concessions. Due to the pace of events, neither conference was ever held. Magoffin called a session of the Kentucky General Assembly on December 27,1860. The majority of the General Assembly had Unionist sympathies, when the General Assembly convened again on March 20, it called for a convention of the border states in the Kentucky capital of Frankfort on May 27,1861
Cincinnati is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio that serves as county seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located on the side of the confluence of the Licking with the Ohio River. With a population of 298,550, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and its metropolitan statistical area is the 28th-largest in the United States and the largest centered in Ohio. The city is part of the larger Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area. In the 19th century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the heart of the country, it rivaled the larger cities in size. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S and it was by far the largest city in the west. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnatis growth slowed considerably. Cincinnati is home to two sports teams, the Cincinnati Reds, the oldest franchise in Major League Baseball. The University of Cincinnati, founded in 1819, is one of the 50 largest in the United States, Cincinnati is known for its historic architecture.
In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as Paris of America, due mainly to such ambitious projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel. The original surveyor, John Filson, named it Losantiville, in 1790, Arthur St. Ethnic Germans were among the early settlers, migrating from Pennsylvania and the backcountry of Virginia and Tennessee. General David Ziegler succeeded General St. Clair in command at Fort Washington, after the conclusion of the Northwest Indian Wars and removal of Native Americans to the west, he was elected as the mayor of Cincinnati in 1802. Cincinnati was incorporated as a city in 1819, exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew rapidly over the two decades, reaching 115,000 persons by 1850.
Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21,1825, the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown, by 1840, during this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City
Charles Scott (governor)
Charles Scott was an 18th-century American soldier who was elected the fourth governor of Kentucky in 1808. Orphaned at an age, Scott enlisted in the Virginia Regiment in October 1755 and served as a scout and escort during the French. He quickly rose through the ranks to become a captain, in August 1776, he was promoted to colonel and given command of the 5th Virginia Regiment. The 5th Virginia joined George Washington in New Jersey that year, Scott commanded Washingtons light infantry, and by late 1778 was serving as his chief of intelligence. Furloughed at the end of the Philadelphia campaign, Scott returned to service in March 1779 and was ordered to South Carolina to assist General Benjamin Lincoln in the southern theater. He arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, just as Henry Clinton had begun his siege of the city, Scott was taken as a prisoner of war when Charleston surrendered. Paroled in March 1781 and exchanged for Lord Rawdon in July 1782, after the war, Scott visited the western frontier in 1785 and began to make preparations for a permanent relocation.
He resettled near present-day Versailles, Kentucky, in 1787, confronted by the dangers of Indian raids, Scott raised a company of volunteers in 1790 and joined Josiah Harmar for an expedition against the Indians. After Harmars Defeat, President Washington ordered Arthur St. Clair to prepare for an invasion of Indian lands in the Northwest Territory. In the meantime, Scott, by now holding the rank of general in the Virginia militia, was ordered to conduct a series of preliminary raids. In July 1791, he led the most notable and successful of these raids against the village of Ouiatenon, St. Clairs main invasion, conducted that year, was a failure. Shortly after the separation of Kentucky from Virginia in 1792, the Kentucky General Assembly commissioned Scott as a major general and gave him command of the 2nd division of the Kentucky militia. Scotts division cooperated with Mad Anthony Waynes Legion of the United States for the rest of the Northwest Indian War, having previously served in the Virginia House of Delegates and as a presidential elector, the aging Scott now ran for governor.
His 1808 campaign was managed by his step-son-in-law, Jesse Bledsoe. A fall on the icy steps of the governors mansion early in his term confined Scott to crutches for the rest of his life, and left him reliant on Bledsoe. After his term expired, Scott returned to his Canewood estate and his health declined rapidly, and he died on October 22,1813. Scott County and Scott County, are named in his honor, as are the cities of Scottsville, Charles Scott was born in 1739, probably in April, in the part of Goochland County, that is now Powhatan County. His father, Samuel Scott, was a farmer and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses and his mother, whose name is not known, died most likely around 1745
Battle of Perryville
Confederate Gen. Braxton Braggs Army of Mississippi initially won a tactical victory against primarily a single corps of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buells Union Army of the Ohio. The battle is considered a strategic Union victory, sometimes called the Battle for Kentucky, the Union retained control of the critical border state of Kentucky for the remainder of the war. On October 7, Buells army, in pursuit of Bragg, Union forces first skirmished with Confederate cavalry on the Springfield Pike before the fighting became more general, on Peters Hill, when the Confederate infantry arrived. Both sides were desperate to get access to fresh water, the next day, at dawn, fighting began again around Peters Hill as a Union division advanced up the pike, halting just before the Confederate line. After noon, a Confederate division struck the Union left flank—the I Corps of Maj. Gen. Alexander M. McCook—and forced it to fall back. When more Confederate divisions joined the fray, the Union line made a stand, counterattacked.
Buell, several miles behind the action, was unaware that a battle was taking place. The Union troops on the flank, reinforced by two brigades, stabilized their line, and the Confederate attack sputtered to a halt. Later, three Confederate regiments assaulted the Union division on the Springfield Pike but were repulsed and fell back into Perryville, Union troops pursued, and skirmishing occurred in the streets until dark. By that time, Union reinforcements were threatening the Confederate left flank, short of men and supplies, withdrew during the night, and continued the Confederate retreat by way of Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee. Considering the casualties relative to the strengths of the armies. It was the largest battle fought in the state of Kentucky, in September 1861, Kentucky-born President Abraham Lincoln wrote in a private letter, I think to lose Kentucky is nearly to lose the whole game. This neutrality was first violated on September 3,1861, when Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, two days Union Brig.
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant seized Paducah. Henceforth, the proclaimed neutrality was a dead letter, while the state never seceded from the Union, Confederate sympathizers who were members of the legislature set up a temporary Confederate capital in Bowling Green in November 1861. It never wielded significant power inside the state, the Confederate States recognized Kentucky and added a star representing the state to the Confederate flag. The initiative to invade Kentucky came primarily from Confederate Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith and he believed the campaign would allow them to obtain supplies, enlist recruits, divert Union troops from Tennessee, and claim Kentucky for the Confederacy. In July 1862 Col. John Hunt Morgan carried out a cavalry raid in the state. The raid caused considerable consternation in Buells command and in Washington, during the raid and his forces were cheered and supported by many residents
Fort Thomas, Kentucky
Fort Thomas is a home rule-class city in Campbell County, United States, on the southern bank of the Ohio River and the site of an 1890 US Army post. The population was 16,325 at the 2010 census, making it the largest city in Campbell County, in 1887, a site was needed to house a United States Army post to replace Newport Barracks located in the adjoining city of Newport, Kentucky. Built in 1803, Newport Barracks replaced the smaller Fort Washington, located across the Ohio River in Cincinnati and that army post was located at the junction of the Licking and Ohio Rivers, but it was prone to flooding and flooded numerous times during the early 1880s. A new, less flood prone location was sought, General Philip Sheridan personally selected 11 acres of the city and dubbed the area the Highlands, predicting it to become the West Point of the West. The new post was named Fort Thomas in honor of General George Henry Thomas, the area has many remnants of this era with a 102-foot high Stone Water Tower as a familiar landmark which stands at the entrance to Tower Park.
It was the 16th structure built on the grounds of the Military Reservation and it encloses a standpipe which has a capacity of 100,000 gallons, pumped from the Water District reservoirs just across South Fort Thomas Avenue. In 1890 when the base was established, such provisions for water supply was necessary as there was no other water tower in this area. Cannons that were captured in Cubas Havana Harbor during the Spanish–American War rest on stone platforms in front of the Tower, the dates marked on these cannons, reflecting the date they were made in Barcelona, are 1768 and 1769. The U. S. 6th Infantry Regiment moved to Fort Thomas, samuel Woodfill was transferred to the Fort Thomas Army post in 1912. He married Lorena Wiltshire on Christmas Day in 1917 and they purchased a house near the fort, in World War I he was courageous, leading his men against the Germans. His bravery earned him many medals and awards and he was described as the most decorated soldier of the war, in civilian life, however, he struggled to pay his bills.
He was unsuccessful at creating an orchard, and worked as a carpenter, a watchman and his wife died in March,1942, but two months later, the Army commissioned Woodfill and another World War I hero, Alvin C. York as Majors to build morale and promote enlistments, Woodfill retired again in 1944, but memories of his wife in Fort Thomas caused him to return to Indiana, where he was born. On February 25,1937, Paul Tibbets enlisted here as a cadet in the United States Army Air Corps. During the last days of World War II, Paul became known as the pilot dropped the first atomic bomb on August 6,1945. Fort Thomas served as a depot, induction center, and military hospital, most of the garrison was transferred to the Veterans Administration in 1946, but military activities continued until the fort was closed in 1964. Fort Thomas is located at 39°4′34″N 84°27′5″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.4 square miles, of which,5.7 square miles of it is land and 0.8 square miles of it is water.
Fort Thomas is located within a transition zone at the extreme northern limit of the humid subtropical climate
Battle of Lucas Bend
The Battle of Lucas Bend took place on January 11,1862 near Lucas Bend, four miles north of Columbus on Mississippi River in Kentucky as it lay at the time of the American Civil War. The Essex, under Commander William D. Porter, and the St Louis forced the Confederate ships to fall back after an hour of skirmishing during which the Union commander was wounded. They retreated to the safety of a nearby Confederate battery at Columbus, the term timberclad is usually reserved for the Union ships Lexington and Conestoga which had heavy timber attached as armor. Most Confederate gunboats used cotton bales as their armor, see battle of Plum Run where Confederate timberclads fought well against the ironclads. The USS Essex had been constructed in 1856 and she was a 1000-ton river gunboat, converted from her original role as a timberclad ferry named New Era. She was armed with one 32-pounder cannon, three 11-inch Dahlgren smooth bores, one 10-inch Dahlgren smoothbore and a 12-pounder howitzer, the USS St Louis was a City class ironclad built in 1861 at Carondelet, Missouri.
She was armed with three 8-inch smoothbores, four 42-pounder rifles, six 32-pounder rifles and one 12-pounder rifle at the time of her service at Lucas Bend. Both ships were sent to Cairo, early in the Civil War as part of troop transports moving the army into Tennessee. Illinois, a Union state which contributed 250,000 men to the Union Army, a figure surpassed by only New York and Ohio, was a key theater. Cairo, at the confluence between the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, was a key supply point and headquarters for Flag Officer Andrew Hull Foote and it was defended by Fort Defiance. The Confederate Ivy was launched in 1845 as a privately owned commercial vessel originally named Roger Williams, originally based in New Orleans following her commission in 1861, she was armed with one 8-inch smoothbore cannon and one 32-pounder rifle. The CSS Jackson was another privately owned vessel built in 1849 before being acquired in May 1861 by the Confederacy and she was armed with two 32-pounder guns, and was ordered to Columbus on June 6,1861, to join Hollins in the defence of the Mississippi River.
She had already seen action against the USS Conestoga on the river, the floating battery New Orleans had been towed up from her namesake city in Louisiana. Lastly, the General Polk was a former side-wheel river steamer named either Ed Howard or Howard and she was built in 1852, and the Confederacy bought her in 1861. She was the vessel from which Hollins commanded the Confederates during the battle, the Union vessels arrived in October 1861, venturing up the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio, on October 30. The Essex underwent her conversion to an ironclad warship in nearby dockyards. Their path was blocked for part of the night by a steamer which had run aground north of Cairo, William Porter moving off-route to investigate two suspicious, but revealed to be legitimate, boats moored on the riverside. Lucas Bend was simply a bend or meander in the Mississippi River roughly four miles north of Columbus and seven miles west of Arlington, Kentucky
Thomas Sidney Jesup was a United States Army officer known as the Father of the Modern Quartermaster Corps. His 52-year military career was one of the longest in the history of the United States Army, in 1836, Jesup was placed in command of all U. S. troops in Florida during the Second Seminole War. Jesup violated terms of truce in order to capture Seminole leaders Osceola and Micanopy and he was famously quoted as having said about the Seminole that he country can be rid of them only by exterminating them. He was born in Berkeley County, Virginia and he began his military career in 1808, and served in the War of 1812, seeing action in the battles of Chippewa and Lundys Lane in 1814, where he was wounded. He was appointed Quartermaster General on May 8,1818, by President James Monroe and his actions in violating truces to capture Seminole leaders, such as Osceola and Micanopy, provoked controversy. At the conclusion of the hostilities, Jesup returned to his official post, during the Mexican-American War, Jesup traveled from his headquarters in Washington, D. C.
to oversee the supplying of troops in Mexico. He served as Quartermaster General for 42 years, having the second longest continual service in the position in U. S. military history. He died in office in Washington, D. C. at age 72,1986, Jesup was inducted into the Quartermaster Hall of Fame. Battery Jesup at the Spanish American War fort, Fort Fremont http, //www. fortfremont. org/history. html Thomas Jesup