Fashion Island is a mall in Newport Beach, California. It is served by Orange County Transportation Authority bus routes 1, 55, 57, 79. Fashion Island is owned by The Irvine Company. Opened in 1967 as part of Newport Center, the center featured four department stores: Buffum's, J. W. Robinson's, The Broadway, J. C. Penney; these four initial buildings were designed by architects William Pereira and Welton Becket, were flanked by several smaller stores. The Spanish architectural theme which would define the property was evident in the Robinson's building. Bullocks Wilshire opened in August 1977 and Neiman Marcus opened in March 1978. J. C. Penney closed its doors in April 1982, the building it occupied was reconstructed and reopened as "Atrium Court," which contained numerous smaller shops and a food court on the lower level; the southwest entrance to Robinson's features a bronze wind-chime sculpture by mural artist Tom Van Sant, installed in September 1967, recorded by the Guinness Book of Records as the world's largest wind chime.
In 1988, the center underwent a major expansion and renovation based on the design of Jon Jerde, adding the Island Terrace Food Court, an eight-screen movie theater, three new avenues of shops, all of which converge in a circular courtyard with an animated fountain that shoots jets of water up to 30 feet high. This fountain is known as the "Iris Fountain" because of the radial-leaves pattern of its marble lining coupled with the jets of water that represents the iris plant. In February 1990, the Bullocks Wilshire store became an I. Magnin. Buffum's closed in May 1991 due to the chain being liquidated, its space was subdivided into smaller stores; the Robinson's store became a Robinson's-May store in January 1993 due to both J. W. Robinson's and May Company California merging to form Robinson's-May. I. Magnin closed in January 1995 due to the chain being liquidated, the site became a Bullock's Women's Store in June of that same year; the Bullock's Women's Store became a Macy's Women's Store in 1996.
The last original anchor store The Broadway closed in 1996 due to the chain being purchased by Macy's and liquidated, the site reopened as one of the first Bloomingdale's stores on the West Coast in the fall of that same year. In the early 2000s, the center underwent additional minor renovations resulting in the alteration and replacement of landscape elements, building facades, outdoor furniture, floor materials to better reflect the Mediterranean theme. Included in this renovation was the installment of a carousel and a new wing with restaurants and shops, although the carousel was removed in January 2010 as part of major renovations of the center; the Federated-May merger in 2006 affected Fashion Island, resulting in the closure and demolition of the 80,000 square feet Macy's Women's Store and conversion of the former Robinsons-May into a full-line Macy's store. On January 29, 2008, Nordstrom announced that it had signed a letter of intent to open a 138,000 sq ft store in 2010 in the former Macy's Women's Store location.
On April 16, 2010, Nordstrom opened at Fashion Island. In 2009, the Irvine Company began a $100 million renovation of the property. On September 12, 2012, Whole Foods Market opened on the east side of the mall near Noble; the store includes a bar and restaurant. The large courtyard outside the Bloomingdale's building is occupied annually by a large Christmas tree; every year, the tree is lit in mid-November The tree lighting is preceded by extravagant holiday performances. The trees are taken from a private timber area near Mount Shasta and shipped to Fashion Island in several pieces, which are re-assembled using steel rods and a large crane. Fashion Island takes an environmentally friendly approach with the tree: its harvesting had no detrimental impact on the environment and is recycled once holiday festivities conclude. Since 1983, the tree at Fashion Island has been one the nation's tallest; the M Resort held this distinction for 2009. The tree is 90 feet tall with ornaments. Official website
Welton David Becket was an American modern architect who designed many buildings in Los Angeles, California. Becket was born in Seattle and graduated from the University of Washington program in Architecture in 1927 with a Bachelor of Architecture degree, he moved to Los Angeles in 1933 and formed a partnership with his University of Washington classmate Walter Wurdeman and Angelean architect Charles F. Plummer, their first major commission was the Pan-Pacific Auditorium in 1935, which won them residential jobs from James Cagney, Robert Montgomery, other film celebrities. Plummer died in 1939; the successor firm Wurdeman and Becket went on to design Bullock's Pasadena and a couple of corporate headquarters. Wurdeman and Becket developed the concept of "total design," whereby their firm would be responsible for master planning, interiors, fixtures, landscaping and menus, silverware and napkins. After Wurdeman's death in 1949, Becket formed Welton Becket and Associates and continued to grow the firm to the extent that it was one of the largest architectural offices in the world by the time of his death in 1969.
In 1987, his firm was acquired by Ellerbe Associates, the merged firm continued as Ellerbe Becket until the end of 2009, when it was acquired by AECOM. It is now known as an AECOM Company. Becket's buildings used unusual facade materials such as ceramic tile and stainless steel grillwork, repetitive geometric patterns, a heavy emphasis on walls clad in natural stone travertine and flagstone. With The Walt Disney Company and the United States Steel Corporation, Becket's firm co-designed Disney's Contemporary Resort, which opened in 1971 at Walt Disney World Resort; the Contemporary was designed as a 14-story steel A-frame with a monorail running through the building. Modular guest rooms were assembled, furnished equipped and their doors locked, on the ground lifted by crane and inserted into the frame. Welton Becket was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1952. Becket's sons, Welton MacDonald Becket & Bruce Becket, are practicing architects, as well as his nephew MacDonald G. Becket and granddaughter Alexandra Becket.
Becket's extensive list of credits includes: Pan-Pacific Auditorium, Los Angeles, 1935 Jones Dog & Cat Hospital, West Hollywood, California, 1938 Manila Jai Alai Building, Philippines, 1939 General Petroleum Building, Los Angeles, 1949 Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, 1953 Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, 1953 Parker Center, Los Angeles, 1955 Capitol Records Building, Los Angeles, Project Designer Lou Naidorf, 1956 Texaco Building on Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, 1957 Santa Monica Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, 1958 Hotel Tryp Habana Libre, Cuba, 1958 The Nile Ritz-Carlton, Cairo, Egypt, 1959 Sheraton Dallas Hotel, Dallas, 1959 100 California Street, San Francisco, 1960 Kaiser Center, Oakland, 1960 Grosmont Center, La Mesa CA, 1961 Christown Mall, Phoenix Arizona, 1961 Petersen Automotive Museum, Los Angeles, 1962 Walt Whitman Shops, Huntington Station, NY, 1962 Southern Cross Hotel, Australia, 1962 U. S. Embassy, Poland, 1963 Cinerama Dome, Los Angeles, 1963 Century City, Los Angeles, 1963 Gateway West Building, Century City, Los Angeles, 1963 Hartford National Bank, Hartford, CT 1963 McCarran International Airport, Las Vegas, NV 1963 Phillips Petroleum Building, Bartlesville, OK 1964 Federal Building, Los Angeles, 1964 Los Angeles Music Center, Los Angeles, 1964 General Electric Pavilion, New York City, 1964 Pauley Pavilion at UCLA, Los Angeles, 1965 Santa Monica Shores Apartments, Santa Monica CA, 1967 Gulf Life Tower, Florida, 1967 Xerox Tower, New York, 1967 City Hall, Project Designer Marvin Taff, 1969 Equitable Life Building, Los Angeles, 1969 800 Wilshire, Los Angeles, 1970 PNC Plaza, Louisville, 1971 Beverly Wilshire Hotel expansion, Beverly Hills CA 1971 Disney's Contemporary Resort, Lake Buena Vista, 1971 Worcester Center, Worcester, MA, 1971 Chase Tower, Phoenix, 1972 Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum, New York, 1972 Regions Center, Birmingham, 1972 Glendale Central Library, Project Designer, Marvin Taff, 1973 100 Summer Street, Boston, 1974 Reunion Tower, Dallas, 1978 One Market Plaza, San Francisco, 1972 Orange Civic Center, Orange, 1963 Park Plaza Mall, Oshkosh, WI, 1970, now City Center a commercial business center for Oshkosh.
Interiors of the new Los Angeles International Airport, 1962 Oral history — Perkins quote Bigfloridacountry.com: Video clip of construction of the Contemporary Resort Bigfloridacountry.com: Contemporary Pictures MacDonald Becket papers, Welton Becket and Associates Welton Becket architectural drawings and photographs Welton Becket at Find a Grave
California State Route 1
California State Route 1 is a major north–south state highway that runs along most of the Pacific coastline of the U. S. state of California. At a total of just over 659 miles, it is the longest state route in California. SR 1 has several portions designated as either Pacific Coast Highway, Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway, or Coast Highway, its southern terminus is at Interstate 5 near Dana Point in Orange County and its northern terminus is at U. S. Route 101 near Leggett in Mendocino County. SR 1 at times runs concurrently with US 101, most notably through a 54-mile stretch in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, across the Golden Gate Bridge; the highway is designated as an All-American Road. In addition to providing a scenic route to numerous attractions along the coast, the route serves as a major thoroughfare in the Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, several other coastal urban areas. SR 1 was built piecemeal in various stages, with the first section opening in the Big Sur region in the 1930s.
However, portions of the route had several numbers over the years as more segments opened. It was not until the 1964 state highway renumbering that the entire route was designated as SR 1. Although SR 1 is a popular route for its scenic beauty, frequent landslides and erosion along the coast have caused several segments to be either closed for lengthy periods for repairs, or re-routed inland. SR 1 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, through the Los Angeles metro area, Santa Cruz, San Francisco metro area, Leggett is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 1 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System; the Big Sur section from San Luis Obispo to Carmel is an official National Scenic Byway. The entire route is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway to recognize those in the United States armed forces. In Southern California, the California State Legislature has designated the segment between Interstate 5 in Dana Point and US 101 near Oxnard as the Pacific Coast Highway.
Between US 101 at the Las Cruces junction and US 101 in Pismo Beach, between US 101 in San Luis Obispo and Interstate 280 in San Francisco, the legislature has designated SR 1 as the Cabrillo Highway, after the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo who sailed along the coast line. The legislature has designated the route as the Shoreline Highway between the Manzanita Junction near Marin City and Leggett. Smaller segments of the highway have been assigned several other names by the state and municipal governments; the legislature has relinquished state control of segments within Dana Point, Newport Beach, Santa Monica, Oxnard. In addition to connecting the coastal cities and communities along its path, SR 1 provides access to beaches and other attractions along the coast, making it a popular route for tourists; the route annually helps bring several billion dollars to the state's tourism industry. The route runs right besides the coastline, or close to it, for the most part, it turns several miles inland to avoid several federally controlled or protected areas such as Vandenberg Air Force Base, Diablo Canyon Power Plant and Point Reyes National Seashore.
Segments of SR 1 range from a rural two-lane road to an urban freeway. Because of the former, long distance thru traffic traveling between the coastal metropolitan areas are instead advised to use faster routes such as US 101 or I-5. At its southernmost end in Orange County, SR 1 terminates at I-5 in Capistrano Beach in Dana Point, it travels west into the city center. After leaving Dana Point, Pacific Coast Highway becomes "Coast Highway" while at the same time continues northwest along the coast through Laguna Beach and Crystal Cove State Park. SR 1 enters Newport Beach and passes through several affluent neighborhoods, including Newport Coast and Corona Del Mar, spans the entrance to the Upper Newport Bay, which marks the boundary between East Coast Highway and West Coast Highway, crosses California State Route 55 near its southern terminus. Upon entering Huntington Beach, SR 1 regains the Pacific Coast Highway designation, it passes Huntington State Beach and the southern terminus of California State Route 39 before reaching Bolsa Chica State Beach and the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve.
PCH continues along the coast into Seal Beach, the final city on its journey in Orange County. PCH enters the city of Long Beach after crossing the San Gabriel River. SR 1 continues northwest through the city to its junction with Lakewood Boulevard and Los Coyotes Diagonal at the Los Alamitos Circle, more than 2 miles from the coast. From the traffic circle, it continues inland west through Long Beach, including one mile adjacent to the southern boundary of Signal Hill. PCH is marked as such in Long Beach, but bore the name of Hathaway Avenue east of the traffic circle and State Street west of there. PCH passes through the Los Angeles districts of Wilmington and Harbor City. While bypassing the immediate coastline of Palos Verdes, SR 1 continues to head west
National Scout jamboree (Boy Scouts of America)
The national Scout jamboree is a gathering, or jamboree, of thousands of members of the Boy Scouts of America held every four years and organized by the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America. Referred to as "the Jamboree", "Jambo", or NSJ, Scouts from all over the nation and world have the opportunity to attend, they are considered to be one of several unique experiences. The first jamboree was scheduled to be held in 1935 in Washington, D. C. to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Scouting, but was delayed two years after being cancelled due to a polio outbreak. The 1937 jamboree in Washington attracted 25,000 Scouts, who camped around the Washington Monument and Tidal Basin; the event was attended by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Following the disruption of World War II, the next jamboree was not held until 1950 in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. Subsequent jamborees have been held around the country as a means to promoting Scouting nationally. From 1981 to 2010, the jamboree was located in Fort A.
P. Hill, Virginia. Since 2013, jamborees are permanently held at The Summit: Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in Mount Hope, West Virginia. A jamboree is held for a week and a half and offers many activities for youth participants and the 300,000 members of the general public who visit it. Staff members arrive several days in advance, depart several days after participants leave, depending on their assignments. Subcamp staff stay in the subcamps with the troops; the first national jamboree was held in Washington, D. C. for ten days in July 1937, attended by 25,000 Scouts. Region campsites were set up around the Washington Tidal Basin; the event was covered extensively by radio and newspapers. A press tent accommodated 626 news media reporters and broadcasters. Sixty-four news releases were issued and the BSA assisted in the making of 11 newsreels and 53 magazine articles; the three major U. S. radio networks of the time, NBC, CBS, Mutual, had broadcasting studios near the jamboree headquarters to produce 19 hours of live, on-site jamboree coverage broadcast coast-to-coast.
Celebrities visited the jamboree, including well-known broadcaster Lowell Thomas and U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. While at the jamboree, Scouts attended a three-game baseball series between the Washington Senators and the Boston Red Sox at Griffith Stadium, as well as toured nearby Mount Vernon; the National Scout jamborees have been held at a number of different locations. Like the Boy Scouts of America's national organization, the jamboree were divided into regions—Western, Central and Northeast; each region was made up with twenty in all. Each subcamp has shower facilities, food commissaries; each subcamp contains a number of troops, identified by a three or four digit number depending on the location of the subcamp within the encampment. The 2005 National Scout Jamboree had 20 subcamps, identified by number and named after famous explorers Effective with the 2013 Jamboree, subcamps are not operated by the regions, but by sub camps that contain contingents from different parts of the country.
Separate subcamps are maintained for adult staff and co-ed Venturers and international contingents. National jamborees are now traditionally held two years after a World Jamboree. 2010 was a slight aberration in the schedule due to the 100th anniversary of BSA. Attending the jamboree is an intensive and expensive process. Considering the logistics of having thousands of youth and their leaders concentrated in one area at one time, the Jamboree Division of the National Council coordinates the entire jamboree process. A normal Boy Scout troop cannot petition to attend the jamboree as participants, the local council establishes a jamboree committee, charged with promoting and facilitating the experience to their members. Local council committees have volunteer members responsible for finance, training, transportation, touring while en route to the jamboree site, other functions where appropriate. Youth members sign up for the jamboree through an application process to the local council, who places each boy into the jamboree troop.
Large councils are granted multiple jamboree troops. Each troop comprises four adults and 36 youth in four traditional patrols of eight boys each, plus a leadership corps of four older boys. Scouts must be at least 12 years old on the first day of the jamboree and at least First Class Scouts. After being assigned a jamboree troop, members are given their troop numbers, a participant's patch for wear on the Scout's field uniform, the council's Jamboree Shoulder Patch. Training and preparation for the jamboree begins more than a year before the actual jamboree begins. Most troops require the adult leaders to obtain Basic Scoutmaster training, some require Wood Badge, an intensive management training course offered by the BSA. Additionally, the Scoutmaster and one assistant Scoutmaster must be over 21, another assistant Scoutmaster must be between 18 and 21 throughout the jamboree; the final assistant Scoutmaster may be any age over 18. Youth and adult volunteer and professional Scouters provide a number of services to the jamboree by being on staff.
Additionally, when the jamboree was at Fort A. P. Hill, members of the military and government services assisted with providing services
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest scouting organizations and youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.4 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, since about 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time; the BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922. The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law. Youth are trained in responsible citizenship, character development, self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to instill typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping and hiking.
To further these outdoor activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases: Northern Tier, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sea Base, Summit Bechtel Reserve, as well as close to a hundred separate camps and reservations dedicated to scouts. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for ages 5 to 11 years, Scouts BSA for ages 11 to 17, Venturing for ages 14 through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional affiliate. On February 1, 2019, the Boy Scouts of America renamed their flagship program, Boy Scouting, to Scouts BSA to reflect their change of policy to allow girls to join in separate troops; the BSA operates traditional Scouting by chartering local organizations, such as churches, civic associations, or educational organization, to implement the Scouting program for youth within their communities. Units are led by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, who are supported by local councils using both paid professional Scouters and volunteers; the progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century.
With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical and religious development.:72–82 BSA had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 in Cos Cob and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905 in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works among other influences. Several Scout programs for boys started independently in the US.. Many of these Scout programs in the US merged with the BSA.:52 In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered a boy who came to be known as the Unknown Scout. Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination.
The boy refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Boy Scouts, Boyce met with staff at the Boy Scouts Headquarters and, by some accounts, Baden-Powell. Upon his return to the US, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Charles Eastman, other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had long complained of the decline in American manhood, became an ardent supporter. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the US:148 The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach patriotism, self-reliance, kindred values.":7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission: "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows."
The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law." Boy Scouts of America is distinct in its use of the term "Scout Oath" rather than "Scout Promise". The difference is that while the former phrase implies that a Scout is making his promise before God, the latter phrasing indicates that the Scout makes his commitment in the presence of fellow human beings; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first partner to sponsor Scouting in the United States, adopting the program in 1913 as part of its Mutual Improvement Association program for young men. In May 2018, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that, effective year-end 2019, it would no longer sponsor scouting units with the Boy Scouts of America to focus on its own global youth leadership and development program, although Mormon youth are free to join scouting units sponsored by other organizations.
The BSA holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare "Title
Newport Beach, California
Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, United States. Its population was 85,287 at the 2010 census. Newport Beach is home to Balboa Island; the Upper Bay of Newport is a canyon, carved by a stream in the Pleistocene period. The Lower Bay of Newport was formed much by sand, brought along by ocean currents, which constructed the offshore beach, now recognized as the Balboa Peninsula of Newport Beach. Before settlers reached the coasts of California, the Newport area and surrounding areas were prominent Indian lands. Indian shells and relics can still be found today scattered throughout the area. Though, throughout the 1800s, settlers began to settle the area due to the availability of land; the State of California sold acre-plots of land for $1 a piece in the Newport area. Anglo-American inhabitation in the area grew following the events of 1870 when a 105-ton steamer named The Vaquero, captained by Captain Samuel S. Dunnells safely steered through the lower and upper bay of Newport where it unloaded its cargo.
James Irvine, after hearing the astonishing news traveled from his home in San Francisco to the San Joaquin Ranch. Meeting in Irvine's ranch house near current day UC Irvine with his brother, Robert Irvine, friend James McFadden, they all agreed that the newly found port should be named "Newport" thus where Newport Beach gets its name. In 1905, city development increased when Pacific Electric Railway established a southern terminus in Newport connecting the beach with downtown Los Angeles. In 1906, the scattered settlements were incorporated as the City of Newport Beach. Settlements filled in on West Newport, Newport Island, Balboa Island and Lido Isle. In 1923 Corona del Mar was annexed and in 2002 Newport Coast, East Santa Ana Heights and San Joaquin Hills, were annexed. In 2008, after a long battle with the city of Costa Mesa, Newport Beach annexed West Santa Ana Heights. Newport Beach extends in elevation from sea level to the 1161 ft summit of Signal Peak in the San Joaquin Hills, but the official elevation is 25 feet above sea level at a location of 33°37′0″N 117°53′51″W.
The city is bordered on the west by Huntington Beach at the Santa Ana River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 53.0 square miles. 23.8 square miles of it is land and 29.2 square miles of it is water. Areas of Newport Beach include Corona del Mar, Balboa Island, Balboa Peninsula, Lido Peninsula, Newport Coast, San Joaquin Hills, Santa Ana Heights, West Newport. Newport Harbor is a semi-artificial harbor, formed by dredging Newport Bay estuary during the early 1900s. Several artificial islands were built, which are now covered with private homes: Newport Island, Balboa Island, Little Balboa Island, Collins Island, Bay Island, Harbor Island, Lido Isle and Linda Isle. Newport Harbor once supported maritime industries such as boatbuilding and commercial fishing, but today it is used for recreation, its shores are occupied by private homes and private docks. With 9,000 boats, Newport Harbor is one of the largest recreational boat harbors on the U. S. west coast.
It's a popular destination for all boating activities, including sailing, rowing, canoeing and paddleboarding. Commercial maritime operations today include the Catalina Flyer ferry to Catalina Island, harbor tours, sport fishing and whale watching day trips and charters, a few small commercial fishing boats. Newport Bay is divided by the Pacific Coast Highway bridge, too low for most sailboats and large boats to pass under. North of the bridge is referred to as the Back Bay. South of the bridge is called Lower Newport Bay, or Newport Harbor; however the Back Bay has harbor facilities the marina and launch ramp at The Dunes. The north end of the Newport Harbor channels around Lido Island have a number of small business centers and were at one time used by the fishing fleets as their home. On the North East side of the channel, the Lido Marina Village now provides the local port to many "Newport Party Boats" as well as small merchants and local restaurants, it hosts the area boat show each year as well as an organic "Farmers Market" Sundays, in addition to being the port for the local Gondola Company.
In 2014, the center was closed for a renovation. In 1927 a home was built at the mouth of the entrance of Newport Harbor that came to be known as the China House of China Cove; the home was built using the traditional Chinese architecture. It was a landmark in the Newport Beach Harbor; some of the original roof can be seen on a home located in the China Cove. Upper Newport Bay is an estuary, formed by a prehistoric flow of the Santa Ana River. Today it is fed by a small stream from San Diego Creek. Much of Upper Newport Bay is a protected natural area known as the Upper Newport Bay Ecological Reserve, established in 1975. Newport Beach has a mid-latitude semi-arid climate with Mediterranean characteristics. Like many coastal cities in Los Angeles and Orange counties, Newport Beach exhibits weak temperature variation, both diurnally and seasonally, compared to inland cities a few miles from the ocean; the Pacific Ocean moderates Newport Beach's climate by warming winter temperatures and cooling summer temperatures.
Newport Beach does not receive enough precipita
The Irvine Company is an American private company focused on real estate development. It is headquartered in Newport Beach, with a large portion of its operations centered in and around Irvine, California, a planned city of 250,000 people designed by the Irvine Company; the company was founded by the Irvine family and is wholly owned by Donald Bren. Since the company is private, its financials are not released to the public. However, Donald Bren is the most wealthy real estate developer in the United States, valued at $15.2 billion. The Irvine Company grew from the premise of a 185-square-mile ranch founded by James Irvine I, Benjamin and Thomas Flint, Llewellyn Bixby in 1864 from three adjoining Mexican land grants. Irvine and his partners began by purchasing the Rancho San Joaquin, which constitutes the coastal half of the present-day ranch, from Jose Antonio Sepulveda. A drought that killed his livestock forced Sepulveda to sell his ranch in 1864; the partners purchased Rancho Lomas de Santiago—largely unfarmable due to its steep, hilly terrain—in 1866 from William Wolfskill, who had used it as a sheep ranch.
Flint and Irvine were among the claimants of a title lawsuit that divided Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana in 1868. Unlike other early Newport Beach landowners and his partners had no interest in subdividing and selling, instead, upon identifying the most lucrative agricultural uses for their enormous tract of land, spanning over 120,000 acres. Irish-born Irvine met Collis Huntington, soon to become one of the Central Pacific Railroad magnates on the trip across the Atlantic. Rather than cementing a friendship, a disagreement that lasted throughout their lives resulted; when Huntington's Southern Pacific Railroad needed Irvine's land for its route between Orange County and San Diego, Irvine refused. When SP crews began laying tracks on Irvine land without permission, ranch hands with shotguns confronted the crews. Irvine gave the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway permission to build on his ranch; when Irvine died in 1886, left in control of the ranch until James II turned 25, tried to sell it at auction.
When this auction was declared illegal, his son took over the reins of the ranch and accelerated efforts to increase its agricultural production In 1894, Irvine's son, James Irvine II, incorporated the land holdings as the Irvine Company. Between the late 1800s to the 1970s, the Irvine Company engaged in cattle operations on the property, with "Bommer Canyon Cattle Camp" serving as its center. James Irvine remarked in 1867 that he and his men "rode about a good deal, sometimes coming home in the evening after a thirty- or forty-mile ride pretty tired out, but we had to do it in order to see much of the ranch and the flock." At the time, his Irvine Company had been purchasing further adjoining parcels of land, "o there considerable riding to be done, if one to see much of." In 1953, the National Scout Jamboree was held on Irvine Ranch land in the area of what is now Fashion Island Shopping Center. Jamboree Road, running from Newport Beach to Orange, was built to allow people to travel to the jamboree from nearby train stations.
In 1959, the Irvine Company donated 1,000 acres and sold 500 acres near Newport Beach to the University of California for construction of a new UC campus. The university and company, together with architect William Pereira, designed the Irvine Ranch Master Plan for developing the surrounding area; the city of Irvine, whose citizens incorporated it in 1971, grew around the campus. By the late 1970s, the Irvine Company had ceased its cattle business. In 1977, real estate developer Donald Bren began buying Irvine Company shares from the Irvine family. With the Irvine Company's cattle operations finished, the Irvine Company sold the Bommer Canyon area to the City of Irvine between 1981 and 1982; the City of Irvine purchased the land with grants obtained from the 1974 California Bond Act. By 1983, Bren was the majority owner of the Irvine Company. By 1996, he had purchased all outstanding shares to be the sole owner of the Irvine Company; the Irvine Company develops suburban master-planned communities throughout central and southern Orange County, in addition to residential buildings in Santa Monica, Silicon Valley, San Diego.
The company owns and manages office buildings in Milpitas, San Jose, Downtown San Diego, Mission Valley, San Diego, La Jolla Village/University City, Sorrento Mesa, Del Mar Heights, Newport Center, UCI locations, West Los Angeles, Pasadena and New York City. Donald Bren is its Chairman and sole shareholder; the 93,000-acre Irvine Ranch remains the core holding of The Irvine Company. Of the total ranch area, 44,000 acres is retained for development whilst the remainder are preserved as wilderness and recreational preserves collectively known as the Irvine Ranch Natural Landmarks. In August 2014, the Irvine Company announced plans to donate and preserve 2,500 additional acres of land approved for housing; the Ranch encompasses one fifth of Orange County, from the Pacific Ocean and Newport Harbor, Laguna Beach, Santa Ana Canyon, to the boundary of the Cleveland National Forest. In part because of its land preservation grants, in 2018 The Irvine Company was named Business Philanthropist of the Year by the Greater Irvine Chamber of Commerce.
The Chamber cited gifts of more than $220 million to city schools and universities. A partial list of cities within the boundaries of the Irvine Ranch includes