South Wales is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, mid Wales to the north, west Wales to the west. With an estimated population of around 2.2 million, three-quarters of the whole of Wales, Cardiff has 400,000, Swansea has 250,000 and Newport has 150,000. The region is loosely defined, but it is considered to include the historic counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire, extending westwards to include Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people would recognise that they lived in both south Wales and west Wales; the Brecon Beacons national park covers about a third of South Wales, containing Pen y Fan, the highest British mountain south of Cadair Idris in Snowdonia. Between the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284 and the Laws in Wales Act 1535, crown land in Wales formed the Principality of Wales; this was divided into a Principality of North Wales. The southern principality was made up of the counties of Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire, areas, part of the Welsh kingdom of Deheubarth.
The legal responsibility for this area lay in the hands of the Justiciar of South Wales based at Carmarthen. Other parts of southern Wales were in the hands of various Marcher Lords; the Laws in Wales Acts 1542 created the Court of Great Sessions in Wales based on four legal circuits. The Brecon circuit served the counties of Brecknockshire and Glamorgan while the Carmarthen circuit served Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire. Monmouthshire was attached to the Oxford circuit for judicial purposes; these seven southern counties were thus differentiated from the six counties of north Wales. The Court of the Great Sessions came to an end in 1830, but the counties survived until the Local Government Act 1972 which came into operation in 1974; the creation of the county of Powys merged one northern county with two southern ones. There are thus different concepts of south Wales. Glamorgan and Monmouthshire are accepted by all as being in south Wales, but the status of Breconshire or Carmarthenshire, for instance, is more debatable.
In the western extent, from Swansea westwards, local people might feel that they live in both south Wales and west Wales. Areas to the north of the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains are considered to be in Mid Wales. A further point of uncertainty is whether the first element of the name should be capitalized:'south Wales' or'South Wales'; as the name is a geographical expression rather than a specific area with well-defined borders, style guides such as those of the BBC and The Guardian use the form'south Wales'. The South Wales Valleys and upland mountain ridges were once a rural area noted for its river valleys and ancient forests and lauded by romantic poets such as William Wordsworth as well as poets in the Welsh language, although the interests of the latter lay more in society and culture than in the evocation of natural scenery; this natural environment changed to a considerable extent during the early Industrial Revolution when the Glamorgan and Monmouthshire valley areas were exploited for coal and iron.
By the 1830s, hundreds of tons of coal were being transported by barge to ports in Cardiff and Newport. In the 1870s, coal was transported by rail transport networks to Newport Docks, at the time the largest coal exporting docks in the world, by the 1880s coal was being exported from Barry, Vale of Glamorgan; the Marquess of Bute, who owned much of the land north of Cardiff, built a steam railway system on his land that stretched from Cardiff into many of the South Wales Valleys where the coal was being found. Lord Bute charged fees per ton of coal, transported out using his railways. With coal mining and iron smelting being the main trades of south Wales, many thousands of immigrants from the Midlands, Ireland and Italy came and set up homes and put down roots in the region. Many came from other coal mining areas such as Somerset, the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire and the tin mines of Cornwall such as Geevor Tin Mine, as a large but experienced and willing workforce was required. Whilst some of the migrants left, many settled and established in the South Wales Valleys between Swansea and Abergavenny as English-speaking communities with a unique identity.
Industrial workers were housed in cottages and terraced houses close to the mines and foundries in which they worked. The large influx over the years caused overcrowding which led to outbreaks of Cholera, on the social and cultural side, the near-loss of the Welsh language in the area; the 1930s inter-war Great Depression in the United Kingdom saw the loss of half of the coal pits in the South Wales Coalfield, their number declined further in the years following World War II. This number is now low, following the UK miners' strike, the last'traditional' deep-shaft mine, Tower Colliery, closed in January 2008. Despite the intense industrialisation of the coal mining valleys, many parts of the landscape of South Wales such as the upper Neath valley, the Vale of Glamorgan and the valleys of the River Usk and River Wye remain distinctly beautiful and unspoilt and have been designated Sites of Special Scientific Interest. In addition, many once industrialised sites have reverted to wilderness, some provided with a series of cycle tracks and other outdoor amenities.
Large areas of forestry and open moorland contribute to the amenity of the landscape. Merthyr Tydfil grew around the Dowlais Ironworks, founded to exploit the locally abundant seams of ir
St Mellons is a district and suburb of southeastern Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Prior to 1996 St Mellons was the name given to the community north of Newport Road which included the old St Mellons village. After 1996 the old community was divided and renamed as Old St Mellons and Pontprennau, with the newer, much larger area of modern housing and business parks to the south of Newport Road retaining the St Mellons name. In Monmouthshire, St Mellons became part of South Glamorgan and Cardiff in 1974. St Mellons village began as a small commercial centre in the historic county of Monmouthshire, relying on rural agriculture and travel. Owners of coach houses or coaching inns would cater for travellers using Newport Road, the old Roman Road between Cardiff and London. St Mellons became a community and part of the city of Cardiff district of South Glamorgan under the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974; the St Mellons community was divided and renamed in 1996: Old St Mellons was created from the eastern part.
The remaining part of the St Mellons community became Pontprennau. When people refer to St Mellons today, they are not talking about the historic St Mellons, but the larger and more modern housing estate, built to the south and east; the newer estate has retained the name'St Mellons'. Many buildings in Old St Mellons date back to the 19th century while the vast majority of buildings in St Mellons were built in the late 20th and early 21st centuries; the English name St Mellons is believed to be derived from the 6th-century Saint Melaine who became Bishop of Rennes in Brittany, rather than the more legendary 4th-century Mellonius, Bishop of Rouen. One of these bishops are known to have been born and brought up in the area where the estate now exists, though stories of the two have become hopelessly confused in many biographies over the years leaving historians unsure as to, which; the Welsh translation of St Mellons is Llaneirwg, made up of Llan, a Welsh word meaning'enclosure'. Wales was evangelised by Celtic monks whose practice was to move into an area, erect small premises within a fenced area -'the enclosure'.
From here they continued their work and subsequently a church would be erected on the site. The extent of the missionary activity in Wales is shown by the number of place names beginning with'Llan', followed by the name of the missionary monk who founded the church in that place. In the case of LLaneirwg,'Eurwg' is the name of a mythical King of Gwent. Eurwg is said to have lived on the hill at St Mellons during the Romano-British era, he and his people were converted to Christianity and baptised in the nearby Rhymney River. Eurwg's church was erected near the site of the former church of 1360 and the area has since been known as Llaneirwg "Church of Eirwg/Eurwg"; the modern St Mellons is included in electoral ward. The 2001 Census put the population of Trowbridge as 14,801, the 4th most populated ward in Cardiff. Located on the eastern edge of Cardiff, St Mellons is bordered by the unitary authority of Newport; the area is home to two major retail complexes. The largest features a Tesco petrol station and superstore, which hit the headlines in January 2010 when it banned customers from shopping in their nightwear, The Willows and a parade of small retail units including a hairdresser, betting shop, fish & chip takeaway and newsagent.
Plans for a massive overhaul of the site were approved in March 2009. The plans include demolition of the existing 5,000sq M store and six smaller units, to be replaced by a brand new 11,000sq M store built over a ground floor car park, however due to the economic downturn of recent years, these plans have now been axed; the other complex, located one mile away, has Shamrat, a Boots Chemist, doctor's surgery and two empty supermarket units which once belonged to Hyper Value and Kwik Save until both companies went into liquidation in 2006 and 2007. Further to the east, near the A48 Junction, there is the 3 star St Mellons Hotel and Spa, the St Mellons Golf Club, The Heron Marsh public house, the Wyevale'Blooms' Garden centre complex. There are a number of sports and leisure facilities dotted around the district, including floodlit outdoor courts, playing fields and children's play parks as well as community centres, a bowls club, job centre and St Mellons Library. There is Hendre Lake Park; the Beacon Centre Toward the south of the estate there is the Beacon Centre, a community centre created in the early 2000's.
The centre runs a large variety of events for the community. The centre is home to an Elim Pentecostal church. Shops and public houses In Old St Mellons there is a Texaco petrol station and convenience store, fish & chip shop,and hairdresser; the Post Office closed in 2009. There are four public houses situated in close proximity along Newport Road: The Bluebell Inn, The Star Inn, The Coach House and The Fox and Hounds; these establishments were able to gain extra business on weekends by exploiting the Sunday Closing Act 1881. The act prohibited the sale of alcohol in Welsh establishments on the Sabbath, but St Mellons was in the ancient county of Monmouthshire where the act did not take effect until 1921. Public houses in Old St Mellons St Mellons has 5 state primar
Newport is a city and unitary authority area in south east Wales, on the River Usk close to its confluence with the Severn Estuary, 12 miles northeast of Cardiff. At the 2011 census, it was the third largest city in Wales, with a population of 145,700; the city forms part of the Cardiff-Newport metropolitan area, with a population of 1,097,000. Newport has been a port since medieval times, when the first Newport Castle was built by the Normans; the town outgrew the earlier Roman town of Caerleon upstream, gained its first charter in 1314. It grew in the 19th century, when its port became the focus of coal exports from the eastern South Wales Valleys; until the rise of Cardiff from the 1850s, Newport was Wales' largest coal-exporting port. Newport was the site of the last large-scale armed insurrection in Britain, the Newport Rising of 1839 led by the Chartists. In the 20th century, the docks declined in importance, but Newport remained an important manufacturing and engineering centre, it was granted city status in 2002.
Newport was the venue for the 2014 NATO summit. Bronze Age fishermen settled around the fertile estuary of the River Usk and the Celtic Silures built hillforts overlooking it. In AD 75, on the edge of their empire, the Roman legions built a Roman fort at Caerleon to defend the river crossing. According to legend, in the late 5th century Saint Gwynllyw, the patron saint of Newport and King of Gwynllwg founded the church which would become Newport Cathedral; the church was in existence by the 9th century and today has become the seat of the Bishop of Monmouth. The Normans arrived from around 1088–1093 to build the first Newport Castle and river crossing downstream from Caerleon and the first Norman Lord of Newport was Robert Fitzhamon; the settlement of'Newport' is first mentioned as novo burgus established by Robert, Earl of Gloucester in 1126. The name was derived from the original Latin name Novus Burgus, meaning new town; the city can sometimes be found labelled as Newport-on-Usk on old maps.
The original Welsh language name for the city, Casnewydd-ar-Wysg means'New castle-on-Usk' and this refers to the twelfth-century castle ruins near Newport city centre. The original Newport Castle was a small motte-and-bailey castle in the park opposite Newport Cathedral, it was buried in rubble excavated from the Hillfield railway tunnels that were dug under Stow Hill in the 1840s and no part of it is visible. Around the settlement, the new town grew to become Newport, obtaining its first charter in 1314 and was granted a second one, by Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford in 1385. In the 14th century friars came to Newport where they built an isolation hospital for infectious diseases. After its closure the hospital lived on in the place name "Spitty Fields". "Austin Friars" remains a street name in the city. During the Welsh Revolt in 1402 Rhys Gethin, General for Owain Glyndŵr, forcibly took Newport Castle together with those at Cardiff, Abergavenny, Caerphilly and Usk. During the raid the town of Newport was badly burned and Saint Woolos church destroyed.
A third charter, establishing the right of the town to run its own market and commerce came from Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham in 1426. By 1521, Newport was described as having "....a good haven coming into it, well occupied with small crays where a great ship may resort and have good harbour." Trade was thriving with the nearby ports of Bristol and Bridgwater and industries included leather tanning, soap making and starch making. The town's craftsmen included bakers, brewers and blacksmiths. A further charter was granted by James I in 1623. During the English Civil War in 1648 Oliver Cromwell's troops camped overnight on Christchurch Hill overlooking the town before their attack on the castle the next day. A cannonball dug up from a garden in nearby Summerhill Avenue, dating from this time, now rests in Newport Museum; as the Industrial Revolution took off in Britain in the 19th century, the South Wales Valleys became key suppliers of coal from the South Wales Coalfield, iron. These were transported down local rivers and the new canals to ports such as Newport, Newport Docks grew as a result.
Newport became one of the largest towns in Wales and the focus for the new industrial eastern valleys of South Wales. By 1830 Newport was Wales' leading coal port, until the 1850s it was larger than Cardiff; the Newport Rising in 1839 was the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain. John Frost and 3,000 other Chartists marched on the Westgate Hotel at the centre of the town; the march was met with an attack by militia, called to the town by the Mayor, Thomas Phillips: at least 20 marchers were killed and were buried in Saint Woolos churchyard. John Frost was sentenced to death for treason, but this was commuted to transportation to Australia, he returned to Britain in his life. John Frost Square, in the centre of the city, is named in his honour. Newport had a Welsh-speaking majority until the 1830s, but with a large influx of migrants from England and Ireland over the following decades, the town and the rest of Monmouthshire came to be seen as "un-Welsh", a view compounded by ambiguity about the status of Monmouthshire.
In the 19th century, the St George Society of Newport asserted. It was at a meeting in Newport, attended by future Prime Minister David Lloyd Geor
Pennsylvania Route 772
Pennsylvania Route 772 is an east–west 38.5-mile-long state highway located in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The western terminus of PA 772 is at PA 441 in Marietta, its eastern terminus is at U. S. Route 30 just west of Gap; the route is a two-lane road that passes through rural areas of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country to the north of the city of Lancaster. The highway goes through the boroughs of Mount Joy and Lititz, along with the villages of Rothsville and Intercourse; the eastern portion of PA 772 follows the Newport Road, a colonial road connecting Mount Hope and Newport, Delaware. PA 772 was first designated by 1930 to run from PA 672 southeast of Manheim east to US 222 and PA 722 in Brownstown. PA 141 was designated in 1928 to run from PA 441 in Marietta north to US 230 in Mount Joy. PA 772 was extended south from Brownstown to PA 340 east of Lancaster in the 1930s, replacing a former section of US 222, realigned; the route followed its current alignment to Leacock. The route was extended west to PA 72 in Manheim in the 1940s, replacing the northernmost section of PA 672.
Between the 1950 and 1960s, PA 772 followed a different alignment further to the north between Lititz and Rothsville. In the 1960s, PA 772 was rerouted to head to its current eastern terminus in Gap; the route was extended west from Manheim to Marietta in the 1980s, replacing the entire length of PA 141. In the 2000s, a study was undertaken to move PA 772 to a different alignment further to the north between Manheim and Lititz. PA 772 begins at an intersection with PA 441 north of the borough of Marietta in East Donegal Township, Lancaster County, where Waterford Avenue continues south into Marietta. From here, the route heads northeast on two-lane undivided Anderson Ferry Road, passing through agricultural areas with some trees and homes; the road crosses Donegal Creek and continues through rural land before it heads into residential areas and passes to the east of Donegal Heights and to the west of Donegal High School. PA 772 heads into the borough of Mount Joy and becomes Marietta Avenue, running past multiple homes and turning to the east-northeast.
The route passes over Amtrak's Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line near Mount Joy Station before it comes to an intersection with PA 230. At this point, PA 772 turns west to form a concurrency with PA 230 on East Main Street, passing through the residential and commercial downtown; the road becomes West Main Street upon crossing Market Street. PA 772 splits from PA 230 by heading northeast on Manheim Street, passing homes before crossing a railroad spur in an industrial area; the road continues through residential areas before it leaves Mount Joy for Rapho Township upon crossing Little Chiques Creek. At this point, the route becomes Mt. Joy Road and passes through farmland with some residential and commercial development. PA 772 comes to an interchange with the PA 283 freeway; the road continues northeast through agricultural areas with occasional developlemt, coming to the residential community of Sporting Hill. The route continues into a mix of woods with some homes, curving to the north. PA 772 enters the borough of Manheim, where it becomes West High Street and runs through residential areas.
The route heads into the commercial downtown and becomes Market Square, a divided highway with a town square and parking spaces in the median. In the center of Manheim, PA 772 intersects PA 72 and turns southeast for a concurrency with that route on two-lane undivided South Main Street, passing more downtown businesses before becoming lined with homes; the road crosses Norfolk Southern's Lititz Secondary and enters commercial areas, where PA 772 splits from PA 72 by heading east on Fruitville Pike. The route crosses Chiques Creek and heads into Penn Township, where it heads southeast through farmland with some trees and homes. PA 772 splits from Fruitville Pike by turning northeast onto Temperance Hill Road, heading through agricultural areas and bending southeast; the road curves east to continue into Warwick Township. At this point, the route becomes West Orange Street and runs between farmland to the north and residential neighborhoods to the south. PA 772 continues into the borough of Lititz and passes south of Warwick High School, running past more homes.
In the center of town, the route intersects PA 501 and turns north for a concurrency with that route on South Broad Street, passing downtown homes and businesses. PA 772 splits from PA 501 by heading east along East Main Street, where a fountain is located in the middle of the road; the route continues as a two-lane undivided road past more of the downtown before it continues into residential areas, passing north of the Linden Hall boarding school. PA 772 leaves Lititz for Warwick Township again and heads southeast past a mix of homes and businesses, becoming Rothsville Road; the road winds east through woods parallel to Lititz Run before it turns northeast and crosses the stream and passes through a mix of fields and woods. The route heads east and runs through the community of Rothsville, where it passes homes along with a couple businesses. In Rothsville, PA 772 heads through more developed areas; the road turns southeast and runs through a mix of farms and residences. The route turns south and crosses Cocalico Creek into West Earl Township, where it heads through farmland and passes to the west of a couple warehouses.
PA 772 heads into business areas and gains a center left-turn lane before it comes to an intersection with PA 272. Past this intersection, the road becomes a four-lane divided highway and reaches an interchange with the
Penylan is a district and community in the east of Cardiff, the capital city of Wales, known for its Edwardian era period houses and spacious tree lined roads and avenues. Situated to both the north and south of the A48 dual carriageway, it is one of the most affluent districts of Cardiff, although subdivision of the large Victorian period properties is starting to occur in the areas at the south end of the ward, mimicking the trend in neighbouring Plasnewydd. Penylan has a number of large parks, including the southern part of Roath Park, is one of the greenest areas in Cardiff, it is known for its strong sense of community due to the parks, road layouts and local post offices and newsagents. It is served by Penylan Library. Penylan Synagogue was opened in 1955, closed in 2003 when a new synagogue had been built in nearby Cyncoed Gardens; the electoral ward of Penylan falls within the parliamentary constituency of Cardiff Central. It is bounded by the wards of Cyncoed to the northwest. A proposal to amend the ward boundaries for the creation of a new ward'Ty Gwyn' north of the A48 will not be carried forward.
Waterloo Gardens Shops Numerous parks Penylan Library Roath Church House and Scout Hall St Andrews United Reformed Church, Roath St Margaret's Parish Church Marlborough Primary School Penylan Quarry Melrose Apartments
Cardiff Royal Infirmary
Cardiff Royal Infirmary is a hospital in central Cardiff, Wales. It is managed by Vale University Health Board; the hospital has its origins in the Cardiff Dispensary, which began on Newport Road in 1822. It became the Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire Infirmary and Dispensary in 1837; the current main hospital building facing Glossop Road, was designed by Edwin Seward and opened in 1883. It became known as King Edward VII Hospital in 1911, before returning to its current name, Cardiff Royal Infirmary, in 1923. By the time it joined the National Health Service in 1948 it had expanded to become a 500-bed facility; the hospital ceased operating as a casualty facility in 1999, with the Accident and Emergency department being moved to University Hospital of Wales in the north of the city. Some services were retained at the site after a public campaign. In the 2010s further medical facilities returned to the site, including a GP service and a sexual health clinic. Mental health and substance misuse facilities were planned, as well as an out-of-hours pharmacy.
£30 million was to be the initial spend, with a second phase including renovation of the hospital's chapel. In 2005 the CRI buildings became Albion Hospital, in a two-part episode of the BBC's Dr Who series, entitled Aliens of London/World War Three
Cardiff University is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales. Founded in 1883 as the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, it became one of the founding colleges of the University of Wales in 1893, in 1997 received its own degree-awarding powers, it merged with the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology in 1988. The college adopted the public name of Cardiff University in 1999, in 2005 this became its legal name, when it became an independent university awarding its own degrees; the third oldest university institution in Wales, it is composed of three colleges: Arts and Social Sciences. Cardiff is the only Welsh member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, it is recognised as providing high-quality, research-based university education, placed between 100th and 200th in the world by the four major international rankings, in the top 60 in all three UK achievement tables. It ranked 5th in the UK among multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 17th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework.
For 2017–2018, Cardiff had a turnover of £516.1 million, including £106.0 million from research grants and contracts. The university has an undergraduate enrolment of 23,085 and a total enrolment of 31,595 making it one of the ten largest universities in the UK; the Cardiff University Students' Union works to promote the interests of the student body within the University and further afield. The university's sports teams compete in the British Universities and Colleges Sport leagues. Discussions on the founding of a university college in South Wales began in 1879, when a group of Welsh and English MPs urged the government to consider the poor provision of higher and intermediate education in Wales and "the best means of assisting any local effort which may be made for supplying such deficiency."In October 1881, William Gladstone's government appointed a departmental committee to conduct "an enquiry into the nature and extent of intermediate and higher education in Wales", chaired by Lord Aberdare and consisting of Viscount Emlyn, Reverend Prebendary H. G. Robinson, Henry Richard, John Rhys and Lewis Morris.
The Aberdare Report, as it came to be known, took evidence from a wide range of sources and over 250 witnesses and recommended a college each for North Wales and South Wales, the latter to be located in Glamorgan and the former to be the established University College of Wales in Aberystwyth. The committee cited the unique Welsh national identity and noted that many students in Wales could not afford to travel to University in England or Scotland, it advocated a national degree-awarding university for Wales, composed of regional colleges, which should be non-sectarian in nature and exclude the teaching of theology. After the recommendation was published, Cardiff Corporation sought to secure the location of the college in Cardiff, on 12 December 1881 formed a University College Committee to aid the matter. There was competition to be the site between Cardiff. On 12 March 1883, after arbitration, a decision was made in Cardiff's favour; this was strengthened by the need to consider the interests of Monmouthshire, at that time not incorporated into Wales, the greater sum received by Cardiff in support of the college, through a public appeal that raised £37,000 and a number of private donations, notably from the Lord Bute and Lord Windsor.
In April Lord Aberdare was appointed as the College's first president. The possible locations considered included Cardiff Arms Park, Cathedral Road, Moria Terrace, before the site of the Old Royal Infirmary buildings on Newport Road was chosen; the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire opened on 24 October 1883 with courses in Biology, English, German, History, Latin and Astronomy, Welsh and Philosophy, Physics. It was incorporated by Royal Charter the following year, this being the first in Wales to allow the enrolment of women, forbidding religious tests for entry. John Viriamu Jones was appointed as the University's first Principal at the age of 27; as Cardiff was not an independent university and could not award its own degrees, it prepared its students for examinations of the University of London or for further study at Oxford or Cambridge. In 1888 the University College at Cardiff and that of North Wales proposed to the University College Wales at Aberystwyth joint action to gain a university charter for Wales, modelled on that of Victoria University, a confederation of new universities in Northern England.
Such a charter was granted to the new University of Wales in 1893, allowing the colleges to award degrees as members. The Chancellor was set ex officio as the Prince of Wales, the position of operational head would rotate among heads of the colleges. In 1885, Aberdare Hall opened as the first hall of residence, allowing women access to the university; this remains a single-sex hall. In 1904 came the appointment of the first female associate professor in the UK, Millicent Mackenzie, who in 1910 became the first female full professor at a chartered UK university. In 1901 Principal Jones persuaded Cardiff Corporation to give the college a five-acre site in Cathays Park. Soon after, in 1905, work on a new building commenced under the architect W. D. Caröe. Money ran short for the project, however. Although the side-wings were completed in the 1960s, the planned Great Hall has n