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RAF Fylingdales

RAF Fylingdales is a Royal Air Force station on Snod Hill in the North York Moors, England. Its motto is "Vigilamus", it is a radar base and is part of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System. As part of intelligence-sharing arrangements between the United States and United Kingdom, data collected at RAF Fylingdales are shared between the two countries, its primary purpose is to give the British and US governments warning of an impending ballistic missile attack. A secondary role is the tracking of orbiting objects; as well as its early-warning and space-tracking roles, Fylingdales has a third function - the Satellite Warning Service for the UK. It keeps track of spy satellites used by other countries, so that secret activities in the UK can be carried out when they are not overhead; the armed services, defence manufacturers and research organisations, including universities, take advantage of this facility. The station was sited on a former wartime mortar range on Snod Hill, which had to be comprehensively cleared by RAF Bomb Disposal before building could begin.

The station was built by the Radio Corporation of America in 1962, was maintained by RCA, now Serco Group plc. RAF Fylingdales consisted of three 130-foot diameter'golfballs' or geodesic domes containing mechanically steered radar. Operation of the Fylingdales Site transferred to RAF Fighter Command on 15 January 1964 although the site became operational on 17 September 1963, it became a local tourist attraction as a result. Coach tours to the nearby coastal town of Whitby drove past the site, at which point drivers would switch the radio on and allow passengers to listen to the interference caused by the radars. Between 1989 and 1992, the US defence contractor, completed a contract that saw the domes replaced by the current tetrahedron structure, housing the AESA phased array radar; the site is 820 feet above sea level and the structure is nine floors high rising from its ground level to 120 feet high. In the late 1990s, the United States decided to pursue a National Missile Defense plan and RAF Fylingdales attracted further publicity.

To improve tracking capabilities the United States wanted the use of Fylingdales as part of its NMD network. After receiving a formal request from the US, the British Government agreed to its use as an NMD tracking facility, in 2003; the decision was criticised, because the proposed NMD system was for US benefit. A £449 million upgrade for RAF Fylingdales to become an NMD tracking facility is now underway by Boeing, with Raytheon as the major subcontractor, it will replace many internal systems - computers, etc - to improve resolution and tracking accuracy. No external changes are being made in direct relation to these upgrades and no power increases will occur. According to the BBC, The Independent reported that the British Government secretly agreed to a US request to station NMD missile interceptors at Fylingdales Moor in late 2004; this has subsequently been denied by the Ministry of Defence. In June 2003, concern arose locally that RAF Fylingdales was emitting harmful emissions, after a possible cancer cluster was discovered around a similar radar facility on Cape Cod in the United States.

The issue was investigated by the local NHS organisation, the Scarborough and Ryedale Primary Care Trust, a report was released in December. It concluded that there was no link between RAF Fylingdales and local cancer rates, nor any abnormal risk, as cancer rates in the immediate area proved to be normal. A 2003 MoD report on the impact of the NMD upgrade at RAF Fylingdales reiterated that the base was within health guidelines and would remain so. While the radar station remains a British asset operated and commanded by the Royal Air Force, it forms one of three stations in the United States BMEWS network; the other two stations in the network are Thule Air Base and Clear Air Force Station, Alaska. The data obtained by Fylingdales is shared and with the United States, where it feeds into the US-Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs. To this end a United States Air Force liaison officer is stationed at the base; the British Government advised in March 2018, that as of the beginning of that month, fewer than five United States military personnel and ten US contractors worked at the station.

The primary radars of RAF Fylingdales are active electronically scanned array phased array radars, mounted on each face of a truncated tetrahedron referred to as the "pyramid" or the SSPAR. This makes Fylingdales unique amongst its peers; each of the three arrays contains around 2560 transmit/receive modules. The functions of RAF Fylingdales have been subject to criticism from opposition groups, such as the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, leading to protests being held on occasion; these stem from concerns regarding the base's association with nuclear warfare and the militarisation of space. They argue against the UK assisting the US National Missile Defense programme with RAF Fylingdales' ability to detect attacks, saying it is destabilising US and European relations with Russia, makes the UK the front line in any future conflict and it co

Live at the Fairfield Halls, 1974

Live at the Fairfield Halls, 1974 is a live album by Caravan. It remained unreleased in the UK until 2002, though most of the set was issued as a double vinyl LP in France and Germany called The Best of Caravan "Live" in 1980; this issue is now rare and was only available for 3 years. This live set happened to be the first time. "Memory Lain, Hugh / Headloss" – 9:27 "Virgin on the Ridiculous" – 7:14 "Be Alright / Chance of a Lifetime" – 6:37 "The Love in Your Eye" – 15:23 "L'Auberge Du Sanglier / A Hunting We Shall Go / Pengola / Backwards / A Hunting We Shall Go" – 9:49 "The Dog the Dog He's at It Again" – 6:23 "For Richard" – 19:01 "Hoedown" – 5:58 CaravanPye Hastings – guitar, lead vocals David Sinclair – Hammond organ, electric piano, synthesizer Geoffrey Richardsonviola Mike Wedgwoodbass, backing vocals Richard Coughlandrums Caravan - Live at the Fairfield Halls, 1974 album review by Lindsay Planer, credits & releases at Caravan - Live at the Fairfield Halls, 1974 album releases & credits at Caravan - Live at the Fairfield Halls, 1974 album credits & user reviews at Caravan - Live at the Fairfield Halls, 1974 album to be listened as stream at Play.

The Road to Oz

The Road to Oz: In Which Is Related How Dorothy Gale of Kansas, The Shaggy Man, Button Bright, Polychrome the Rainbow's Daughter Met on an Enchanted Road and Followed it All the Way to the Marvelous Land of Oz. is the fifth of L. Frank Baum's Land of Oz books, it was published on July 10, 1909 and documents the adventures of Dorothy Gale's fourth visit to the Land of Oz. The book was dedicated to Joslyn Stanton Baum, the author's first grandson, the child of Baum's eldest son Frank Joslyn Baum. While Dorothy Gale is at home in Kansas one day and her pet dog Toto meet the Shaggy Man who comes walking past the Gale farm, he is a friendly, yet senile hobo with an optimistic, care free mentality. He politely asks Dorothy for directions to Butterfield, the nearest town on the prairie; the girl agrees bringing her dog with her. Further on, the road splits into seven paths, they take the seventh one and soon find. The trio meets Button-Bright, a cute and wealthy little boy in a sailor's outfit, always getting lost.

The companions encounter Polychrome, the beautiful and ethereal Daughter of the Rainbow, stranded on earth. Polychrome explains; the bow ascended into the atmosphere and back into the clouds before she was able to climb her way back on it, thus being left behind. Dorothy, the Shaggy Man, Button-Bright, Polychrome come to the peculiar town of Foxville, where anthropomorphic foxes live. With prompting from King Dox of Foxville, Dorothy deduces that she and Toto are on another "fairy adventure" that will lead them to magical Land of Oz, just in time for Princess Ozma's royal birthday party, Dorothy having mentioned that the current month is August in another passage; the king takes a particular liking to Button Bright, whom he considers astute and clever due to his tabula rasa-like mind. Believing that the human face does not suit one so clever, Dox gives him a fox's head. A similar event subsequently happens to the Shaggy Man, when King Kik-a-Bray of Dunkiton confers a donkey's head upon him — in reward for cleverness though it's implied that Foxville and Dunkiton exist at odds with one another.

After meeting the Musicker, who produces music from his breath, fighting off the Scoodlers, who fight by removing their own heads and throwing them at the travelers and her companions reach the edge of the fatal Deadly Desert surrounding Oz. There, the Shaggy Man's friend Johnny Dooit builds a "sand-boat"; this is necessary, because physical contact with the desert's sands, as of this book and Ozma of Oz, will turn the travelers to dust. Upon reaching Oz, Dorothy and her companions are warmly welcomed by the mechanical man Tik-Tok and Billina the Yellow Hen, they proceed in company to come in their travels to the Truth Pond where Button Bright and the Shaggy Man regain their true heads by bathing in its waters. They meet the Tin Woodman, the Scarecrow, Jack Pumpkinhead who journey with them to the imperial capital called Emerald City for Ozma's grand birthday bash. Dorothy meets up with Ozma as her chariot is pulled in by the Hungry Tiger; as preparations for Ozma's birthday party are made, the guests include Dorothy, Tin Woodman, Cowardly Lion, the Wizard of Oz, Jack Pumpkinhead, Tik-Tok, Jellia Jamb, Woggle-Bug, Hungry Tiger, the Good Witch of the North, Shaggy Man, Button-Bright and characters from all over Nonestica as well as invitations to King Dox, King Kik-a-Bray, Johnny Dooit.

The Shaggy Man receives permission to stay in Oz permanently. He is given, in addition to this, a new suit of clothes having bobtails in place of his former costume's ragged edges, so that he may retain his name and identity. After everyone has presented their gifts and feasted at a lavish banquet in Ozma's honor, the Wizard of Oz demonstrates a method of using bubbles as transportation by which to send everyone home. Polychrome is found by her rainbow family and she is magically lifted into the sky when she climbs back onto her bow. Button-Bright goes home with Santa Claus in a soap bubble. Dorothy and Toto are wished back home to Kansas again by Ozma's use of the Magic Belt; the sales figures of Baum's other fantasy novels always lagged behind his Oz novels. This is the only Oz book to be printed on colored pages instead of with colored pictures; the colored pages represent the signature colors of the various countries of Oz that Dorothy and her companions travel through on their way to the Emerald City.

The Tin Woodman's garden features images of Dorothy and Toto, representing them as they first arrived in Oz. The illustrator, John R. Neill takes this description by causing the statues to resemble the illustrations made by his predecessor, W. W. Denslow; this is in contrast to the "real" Dorothy, drawn here much as she is drawn in all of the Oz books illustrated by Neill. It is implied that she is amused by the differences pres

London East

London East was a federal electoral district represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1968 to 1997. It was located in the province of Ontario; this riding was created in 1966 from parts of Middlesex East ridings. It was defined as consisting of the eastern parts of the City of London and the Township of London. In 1976, it was redefined to consist of the eastern part of the City of London; the electoral district was abolished in 1996 when it was redistributed between London West, London—Adelaide and London—Fanshawe ridings. This riding elected the following members of the House of Commons of Canada:'London East' was a village, annexed by the London, Ontario on August 20, 1884 and taking effect on January 1, 1885; the boundaries of London East were Adelaide Street to the west, Oxford Street to the north, Highbury Avenue to the east and the South branch of the Thames River to the south. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts Parliamentary website


Kartir was a powerful and influential Zoroastrian priest during the reigns of four Sasanian kings in the 3rd-century. His name is cited in the Paikuli inscription of Narseh. Kartir had inscriptions of his own made in the present-day Fars Province, his inscriptions narrates his rise to power throughout the reigns of Shapur I, Hormizd I, Bahram I, Bahram II. During the brief reign of Bahram II's son and successor Bahram III, Kartir was amongst the nobles who supported the rebellion of Narseh, who overthrew Bahram III and ascended the throne. During Narseh's reign, Kartir fades into obscurity, due not doing anything noteworthy as high priest. Kartir's name is spelled in several ways in the engravings; the name was used in the northeastern Iranian world, being spelt <krt'yr> in Sogdian and as Kirdira in Bactrian. Kartir may have been a eunuch, due to being depicted without a beard in the Sasanian reliefs, he first appears in historical records in Shapur I's inscription at the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, most created between 260–262.

Kartir is the only religious bureaucrat mentioned in the inscription. Shapur I, a "lukewarm Zoroastrian", was known for his tolerance towards other religions. Although admiring the teachings of his own religion and encouraging the Zoroastrian clergy, Shapur I let the Jews, Christians and Hindus to practice their religion, he was friendly towards the founder of Manichaeism, whom he allowed to preach and to be an escort in his military expeditions. Shapur I religious practices seems to have been somewhat unusual, with animal sacrifice being made for the soul of the kings and queens of the Sasanian family; this seemed "pagan" to Zoroastrian priests. Kartir, who "abhorred animal sacrifice" was unable to stop Shapur I from doing them. Shapur I died in 270, was succeeded by Hormizd I, who gave Kartir clothes that were worn by the upper class, the cap and belt and appointed him as the chief priest. Hormizd I died the following year. Bahram I made a settlement with his brother Narseh to give up his entitlement to the throne in return for the governorship of the important frontier province of Armenia, the subject of war between the Roman and Sasanian Empires.

Narseh held the title of Vazurg Šāh Arminān, used by the heir to the throne. Narseh still most viewed Bahram I as a usurper; the previous Sasanian shahs had pursued a policy of religious tolerance towards the non-Zoroastrian minorities in the empire. However, with Bahram I's accession to the throne, the rise of the authority of the Zoroastrian priesthood and the increasing influence of Kartir, this changed. Kartir, along with other Zoroastrian priests protested and made Bahram I have Mani imprisoned and sentenced to death in 274. Mani's death was followed by the persecution of his followers by Kartir and the Zoroastrian clergy, who used the persecution of religious minorities as a method to increase and spread their vast influence. Mani was seen by the Zoroastrian clergy as heterogeneous philosopher and a threatening pagan, presenting an obscure perception of Zoroastrianism, tainted by non-Zoroastrian ideas. With the backing of Bahram I, Kartir laid foundations to a Zoroastrian state church; as a result, Bahram I became applauded in Sasanian-based sources as a "benevolent and worthy king."

His son Bahram II succeeded him as shah. This most frustrated Narseh, who had now been neglected from succession several times. Bahram II, like his father, received Kartir well, he saw him as his mentor, handed out several honors to Kartir, giving him the rank of grandee, appointing him as the supreme judge of the whole empire, which indicates that thenceforth priests were given the office of judge. Kartir was appointed the steward of the Anahid fire-temple at Istakhr, under the care of the Sasanian family; the Sasanian kings thus lost much of their religious authority in the empire. The clergy from now on served as judges all over the country, with court cases most being based on Zoroastrian jurisprudence, with the expection of when representatives of other religions had conflicts with each other, it is thus under Bahram II. According to the modern historian Parvaneh Pourshariati: "it is not clear, however, to what extent Kartir's declarations reflect the actual implementation, or for that matter, success, of the measures he is supposed to have promoted."

Indeed and Christian sources, for example, makes no mention of persecutions during this period. Before Bahram II, all the previous Sasanian shahs had been "lukewarm Zoroastrians." He died in 293 and was succeeded by his son Bahram III. Four months into Bahram III's reign, Narseh was summoned to Mesopotamia at the request of many members of