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Newsarama is an American website that publishes news and essays about the American comic book industry. It is owned by Future US. Newsarama began in the mid-1995 as a series of Internet forum postings on the Prodigy comic book message boards by fan Mike Doran. In the forum postings, Doran shared comic book-related news items he had found across the World Wide Web and, as these postings became more regular and read he gave them the title "Prodigy Comic Book Newswire." In January 1997, Doran began to post a version of the column titled The Comics Newswire on Usenet's various rec.arts.comics communities. The name of the column evolved to The Newswire, to CBI Newsarama, before becoming Newsarama in 1898; the posts became popular due to the speed of reporting via the Internet. This meant Doran could break stories faster than other comic book news sources that appeared in printed publications, as the printed stories had to be edited weeks before they were released. By the time other online comic journalists arrived on the scene, Newsarama had become an established brand.

Although the column in its earliest forms reported both news and rumors, it adopted a standard journalistic news approach. Doran's postings left Usenet in 1998, becoming a Newsarama column on such websites as,, and It continued to become a semi-autonomous site, hosted by Kevin Smith's network of sites in August 2002. Three months Doran left Newsarama, by now its own website, to take a staff position at Marvel Comics. Matt Brady, a writer who had written extensively for the site, took over. Doran returned to work at Newsarama, while Brady continued working as primary writer for the site; the site left the network and became independent in early April 2006. Newsarama was acquired by the Imaginova corporation in October 2007; when Brady left the site in July 2009, Doran and Lucas Siegel stepped up to run it, with Siegel taking the position of Site Editor. The site was acquired by TopTenREVIEWS in October 2009. After the acquisition, TopTenREVIEWS was rebranded TechMedia Network before becoming Purch Group.

Newsarama has been quoted as a source of comic news by the mainstream media, including The New York Times. In 2006, Entertainment Weekly listed Newsarama as one of its "25 favorite online entertainment sites" in 2006 and as one of its "100 Greatest Websites" in 2007. Newsarama maintained a registered member forum known as talk@Newsarama. In 2010, Newsarama closed down the forum and redirected readers to comment on the site's Facebook page. Purch consumer brands were acquired by Future US in 2018. Marvel Comics editor-in-chief Joe Quesada's column "Joe Fridays" appeared weekly until 2008, when the column moved to MySpace. Quesada began writing the column "Cup of Joe" on Comic Book Resources. Former DC Comics editor Michael Siglain contributed the weekly "5.2 About 52", in 2007, DC Executive Editor Dan DiDio announced he would write a column similar to "New Joe Fridays", focusing on the series Countdown. Didio has participated in the weekly "10 Answers and 1 Question" column for the site. Regular columns have included "Animated Shorts" by Steve Fritz, "Write or Wrong" by Dirk Manning, "Best Shots" by reviewers from, "10 Answers and 1 Question with Dan DiDio", "Weekly Webbing", "Right to Assemble", covering Marvel's Avengers titles by Troy Brownfield, "Column... for JUSTICE" by Brownfield, covering Justice League titles, "Getting Animated" and "Friday Flashback" by Brownfield and "Agent of S.

T. Y. L. E." By Alan Kistler, covering the evolution of costumes and designs for different comic book characters. Newsarama has run a series of "Post Game" columns offering coverage and commentary of popular genre-related television programs on a regular basis. Covered shows include Lost, Batman: The Brave and the Bold, Flash Forward, others. In November 2005, Michael Dean, writing in The Comics Journal, studied Internet comic book industry news sources and evaluated Newsarama's journalistic performance; the study praised the site for the depth of coverage provided in some articles, but criticized its reliance on press releases and the "softness" of the questions asked in its interviews. Dean focused on one story in particular, "Diamond Changes Thresholds" by Matt Brady. Though he found the piece qualified as "journalism", Dean found it: "contained factual inaccuracies, failed to get multiple points of view and sucked up to its corporate subject." The site has been the recipient of a number of awards and award nominations, including: 1999 Eagle Award nomination for Favorite Comics-Related Website.

2000 Eagle Award nomination for Favourite Comics-Related Website. 2004 Eagle Award for Favorite Comics E-Zine. 2005 Eagle Award nomination for Favourite Comics-Related Website. 2006 Eagle Award for Favorite Comics-Related Website. 2007 Eagle Award nomination for Favorite Comics Related Website. 2008 Eisner Award for Best Comics-Related Periodical/Journalism. Newsarama Alexa site statistics for

Narrow-gauge railways in China

The gauge for the most of the China national railway network is standard gauge. In the national railway network, only the 1,000 mm metre gauge Kunming–Hai Phong Railway uses narrow gauge. In addition, there are some industrial lines still using narrow gauge 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge or 600 mm narrow gauge; as of 2003, 600+ km narrow-gauge railways, 50000+ km standard gauge railways, 9.4 km broad gauge railways were in use in mainland China. The 1,000 mm metre gauge Kunming–Hekou Railway was built by French colonists between Vietnam and China. Due to landslides and the opening of the new standard-gauge Kunming-Yuxi-Hekou Railway, this meter-gauge line is now inoperative for passengers but does have freight services; this railway, opened in 1910, had a 600 mm gauge branch line from Caoba to Shiping which operated 0-10-0 tender locos built by Baldwin Locomotive Works. This branch has been converted to 1,000 mm gauge as well, presently is used by tourist excursion trains around Jianshui The meter gauge section was administered in more or less the same way as the Indochinese networks, it was physically possible for through trains to be run from Kunming to Saigon, as meter gauge was used in both these countries.

During the Japanese occupation Japanese National Railways Class 9600 2-8-0 locomotives were shipped to aid their invasion. After the completion of the "death railway" in Thailand, it would have been possible for a time for through traffic to Burma; this is now impossible as sections of this railway have been destroyed during the conflicts since World War II. In Manchuria, lumber industries built narrow-gauge railways into the forests; these used Japanese locomotives, copied from Soviet or Eastern European designs. Now most of them have disappeared; these railways use a gauge of 2 ft 6 in. Several 3 ft 6 in gauge railways were constructed by the Japanese. There were several 3 ft 6 in gauge military railways in Manchuria during the Russo-Japanese War; these Japanese military railways – which includes a section converted from the 1,520 mm Russian gauge Chinese Eastern Railway – used Japanese National Railways stock and were converted back to standard gauge after the war to facilitate through traffic with the British controlled Peking Mukden Railway, standard gauge.

As a result, the South Manchurian Railway, a creation of the Japanese Kwantung Army, was standard gauge. In 1941–43, during the Japanese occupation of Hainan, several 3 ft 6 in gauge rail lines were constructed in the western part of the island. Of particular importance for the Japanese war effort was the line connecting the iron ore mine in Shilu with the Basuo Harbor; the lines fell into disrepair and were abandoned after the fall of Hainan to the Communists in April 1950. They were rebuilt and converted to the standard gauge between the mid-1950s and 1985. Metre-gauge railways were popular in China in several regions before the 1949 communist revolution. Several lines were constructed, with the intention to join all the railways, forming a new sphere of influence for the French which never materialized; the 466 km Chinese section of the French built Kunming–Hai Phong Railway, a few surviving branches. The system includes a short new meter-gauge connector to the new standard-gauge Hekou North Station.

The railway from Shijiazhuang to Taiyuan was opened at the turn of the 20th century. It was French and Belgian controlled, since it was a feeder of the Belgian controlled Peking–Hankow Railway. To minimise costs, it was built to the same 1,000 mm metre gauge of the Kunming Hekou Railway, with the hope that the latter could be extended to Shanxi province; the railway was built to the nature of a light railway and used rolling stock built in France and Belgium. The Railway from Datong to Pukou, opened in 1933, funded by the Japanese and controlled by the Shanxi warlord, Yan Xishan, which connected the Shijiazhuang–Taiyuan Railway at Taiyuan, had to be built to metre gauge as well; the Datong–Pukou Railway used rolling stock built by Japanese companies withdrawn old "Japanese National Railways" or "Imperial Taiwan Railway" stock. When the Japanese invaded the Shanxi and Hebei provinces during the Sino-Japanese War, these two railways were converted to standard gauge. Construction of the 1,000 mm metre gauge Yunnan Burma line started in 1941 but had to be aborted due to Japanese advances, has never been completed.

In many rural or suburban areas, metre-gauge railways were built to transport agricultural produce. Such was the case of two light railways east of Shanghai, they were isolated systems using small tank engines, like 4-4-2Ts. Experiments were made with gasoline railcar and trailer sets having Ford engines, they were closed in the 1950s and 1970s and replaced by bus services. In many provinces 2 ft 6 in gauge light railways were used for mines and prominently in Henan and Sichuan they were used for rural transportation. Most of them were built in an era when most European light railways had started to dwindle in favour of roads; the Shibanxi Railway in Sichuan is being preserved as China's first heritage steam railway. The Bagou–Shixi Railway is still operating with steam locomotives for heritage purposes. Sichuan Province Hongbitan coal

Victoria (sternwheeler)

The Victoria sternwheeler was a passenger and freight steamer, built for service on the Soda Creek to Quesnel route on the upper Fraser River in British Columbia. She was built at Quesnel by pioneer shipbuilder James Trahey of Victoria for Gustavus Blin-Wright and Captain Thomas Wright and was put into service in the spring of 1869 to augment the service of the Enterprise built by Trahey for the Wrights. Although the Victoria's hull was new, her engines and boiler had been in the Prince of Wales from Lillooet Lake; the Victoria was the second of twelve sternwheelers. She was more powerful; the two steamers worked together for only three years, when in 1871, the Enterprise was taken up to Takla Landing and abandoned on Trembleur Lake. The Victoria would work alone on the Soda Creek to Quesnel route for fifteen more years until 1886; the Fraser River was not considered navigable by sternwheeler between Yale and Soda Creek due to many hazardous canyons and rapids. The last obstacle to navigation was just downriver from Soda Creek, the Soda Creek Canyon, so the terminus of river navigation on the upper Fraser River was located at Soda Creek.

From there a steamer could travel with no obstructions to Quesnel where a stage road ran to Barkerville. The stages of Barnard's Express would travel on the Cariboo Road up from Yale and connect with the Victoria at Soda Creek, a distance of 167 miles. Passengers and freight would be transferred onto the sternwheeler and travel upriver 56 miles to Quesnel. Once there they would be transferred to company stages again to Barkerville for the last 54 miles; the Victoria made this trip three times a week, from May to October, from 1869 until 1886. She would be taken out of the river and berthed at Steamboat Landing near Alexandria in the fall of 1886. With her departure the upper Fraser River would be without steamer service until 1906. Steamboats of the Upper Fraser River in British Columbia List of ships in British Columbia Downs, Art. Paddlewheels on the Frontier Volume 1. Foremost Publishing. ISBN 0-88826-033-4. West, Willis. Stagecoach and Sternwheel Days in the Cariboo and Central BC. Heritage House.

ISBN 0-919214-68-1. West, Willis; the BX and the Rush to Fort George. British Columbia Historical Quarterly


Blitzkrieg is a method of warfare where an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, powerful attacks and dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority. Through the employment of combined arms in manoeuvre warfare, blitzkrieg attempts to unbalance the enemy by making it difficult for it to respond to the continuously changing front defeat it in a decisive Vernichtungsschlacht. During the interwar period and tank technologies matured and were combined with systematic application of the traditional German tactic of Bewegungskrieg, deep penetrations and the bypassing of enemy strong points to encircle and destroy enemy forces in a Kesselschlacht. During the Invasion of Poland, Western journalists adopted the term blitzkrieg to describe this form of armoured warfare; the term had appeared in 1935, in a German military periodical Deutsche Wehr, in connection to quick or lightning warfare.

German manoeuvre operations were successful in the campaigns of 1939–1941 and by 1940 the term blitzkrieg was extensively used in Western media. Blitzkrieg operations capitalized on surprise penetrations, general enemy unreadiness and their inability to match the pace of the German attack. During the Battle of France, the French made attempts to re-form defensive lines along rivers but were frustrated when German forces arrived first and pressed on. Despite being common in German and English-language journalism during World War II, the word Blitzkrieg was never used by the Wehrmacht as an official military term, except for propaganda. According to David Reynolds, "Hitler himself called the term Blitzkrieg'A idiotic word'"; some senior officers, including Kurt Student, Franz Halder and Johann Adolf von Kielmansegg disputed the idea that it was a military concept. Kielmansegg asserted that what many regarded as blitzkrieg was nothing more than "ad hoc solutions that popped out of the prevailing situation".

Student described it as ideas that "naturally emerged from the existing circumstances" as a response to operational challenges. The Wehrmacht never adopted it as a concept or doctrine. In 2005, the historian Karl-Heinz Frieser summarized blitzkrieg as the result of German commanders using the latest technology in the most beneficial way according to traditional military principles and employing "the right units in the right place at the right time". Modern historians now understand blitzkrieg as the combination of the traditional German military principles and doctrines of the 19th century with the military technology of the interwar period. Modern historians use the term casually as a generic description for the style of manoeuvre warfare practised by Germany during the early part of World War II, rather than as an explanation. According to Frieser, in the context of the thinking of Heinz Guderian on mobile combined arms formations, blitzkrieg can be used as a synonym for modern manoeuvre warfare on the operational level.

The traditional meaning of blitzkrieg is that of German tactical and operational methodology in the first half of the Second World War, hailed as a new method of warfare. The word, meaning "lightning war" or "lightning attack" in its strategic sense describes a series of quick and decisive short battles to deliver a knockout blow to an enemy state before it could mobilize. Tactically, blitzkrieg is a coordinated military effort by tanks, motorized infantry and aircraft, to create an overwhelming local superiority in combat power, to defeat the opponent and break through its defences. Blitzkrieg as used by Germany had considerable psychological, or "terror" elements, such as the Jericho Trompete, a noise-making siren on the Junkers Ju 87 dive-bomber, to affect the morale of enemy forces; the devices were removed when the enemy became used to the noise after the Battle of France in 1940 and instead bombs sometimes had whistles attached. It is common for historians and writers to include psychological warfare by using Fifth columnists to spread rumours and lies among the civilian population in the theatre of operations.

The origin of the term blitzkrieg is obscure. It was never used in the title of a military doctrine or handbook of the German army or air force, no "coherent doctrine" or "unifying concept of blitzkrieg" existed; the term seems to have been used in the German military press before 1939 and recent research at the German Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt at Potsdam found it in only two military articles from the 1930s. Both used the term to mean a swift strategic knock-out, rather than a radical new military doctrine or approach to war; the first article deals with supplies of food and materiel in wartime. The term blitzkrieg is used with reference to German efforts to win a quick victory in the First World War but is not associated with the use of armoured, mechanised or air forces, it argued that Germany must develop self-sufficiency in food, because it might again prove impossible to deal a swift knock-out to its enemies, leading to a long war. In the second article, launching a swift strategic knock-out is described as an attractive idea for Germany but difficult to achieve on land under modern conditions, unless an exceptionally high degree of surprise could be achieved.

The author vaguely suggests that a ma

French ship Le Terrible

16 ships of the French Navy have borne the name Terrible: French ship Terrible, a 68-gun ship of the line, built at Brest. She took part in the Battle of Schooneveld on 7 June 1673, she was wrecked in the Caribbean Sea on the 11 May 1678. French ship Terrible, an 80-gun ship of the line. Built at Brest in 1679, she took part in the Battle of Bévézier on 10 July 1690 and in the Battle of La Hougue. French ship Terrible, a Fulminante-class bomb ship built in Toulon French ship Terrible, a 100-gun ship of the line built at Brest, which took part in the Battle of Lagos and in the Battle of Vélez-Málaga on 24 August 1704 French ship Terrible, a 74-gun ship of the line. Built at Toulon, she was launched in 1739 and took part in the Battle of Toulon in 1744, she was captured by the English in the 25 October 1747. French ship Terrible, a 110-gun ship of the line, lead ship of her class. Built at Toulon, she took part in the Battle of the Glorious First of June and to the cruise of Bruix in 1799. French ship Terrible, a gunboat built at Dieppe, renamed to Trombe in 1795.

French ship Terrible, a gunboat. Terrible, a privateer captured by HMS Penguin on the 24 May 1797. Terrible, a bomb ship Terrible, a 110-gun Commerce de Paris-class ship of the line built in Antwerp, never finished and sold for scrap. Bretagne, a steam and sail ship of the line started in Brest in 1849 as Bretagne, she was launched in 1855. In 1866, she was used as barracks, she took part in the Crimean War. French ship Terrible, an ironclad coast-guard. Launched in 1881, she displaced 7,700 tonnes with 6,200 horsepower, she carried four 100 mm guns and two torpedo launchers. She was used as a target ship. French destroyer Le Terrible, a destroyer of the Le Fantasque class. French submarine Le Terrible, a strategic nuclear submarine of the Redoutable class launched on 12 December 1969 and decommissioned on the 1 July 1996. French submarine Le Terrible, a strategic nuclear submarine of the Triomphant class, launched on 21 March 2008 and join active service in 2010

Catoosa County, Georgia

Catoosa County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,942; the county seat is Ringgold. The county was created on December 5, 1853; the meaning of the Cherokee language name "Catoosa" is obscure. Catoosa County is part of the TN -- GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. On April 27, 2011, a devastating tornado touched down in the town of Ringgold, located in Catoosa County, leaving a path of severe destruction. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 162 square miles, of which 162 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The entire county is located in the Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga sub-basin of the Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin. Hamilton County, Tennessee Whitfield County Walker County Chattahoochee National Forest Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park As of the census of 2000, there were 53,282 people, 20,425 households, 15,400 families living in the county; the population density was 328 people per square mile.

There were 21,794 housing units at an average density of 134 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.39% White, 1.26% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. 1.17 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 20,425 households of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.60% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $39,998, the median income for a family was $45,710. Males had a median income of $31,746 versus $23,790 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,009. About 6.40% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,942 people, 24,475 households, 17,785 families living in the county; the population density was 394.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26,606 housing units at an average density of 164.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.6% white, 2.2% black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.0% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. Of the 24,475 households, 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families, 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals.

The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 38.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,544 and the median income for a family was $54,796. Males had a median income of $39,962 versus $31,505 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,563. About 8.5% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Catoosa County, Georgia are: Catoosa County Public Schools Catoosa County elementary schools: Battlefield Elementary, Battlefield Primary, Boynton Elementary, Cloud Springs Elementary, Graysville Elementary, Ringgold Elementary, Ringgold Primary, Tiger Creek Elementary, West Side Elementary, Woodstation Elementary. Catoosa County middle schools: Heritage Middle School, Lakeview Middle School, Ringgold Middle School. Catoosa County high schools: Heritage High School, Lakeview-Fort Oglethorpe High School, Performance Learning Center, Ringgold High School.

Fort Oglethorpe Ringgold Tunnel Hill Indian Springs Lakeview Graysville Woodstation Shawn Mullins' 2010 album Light You Up included a song titled "Catoosa County", a semi-fictional account of the Civil War conflicts that took place in the county. 2011 Super Outbreak National Register of Historic Places listings in Catoosa County, Georgia Northwest Georgia Joint Development Authority Official website Catoosa county, GA, genealogy Catoosa County historical marker Old Stone Presbyterian Church historical marker