Shropshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south. Shropshire Council was created in 2009, a unitary authority taking over from the previous county council and five district councils; the borough of Telford and Wrekin has been a separate unitary authority since 1998 but continues to be included in the ceremonial county. The county's population and economy is centred on five towns: the county town of Shrewsbury, culturally and important and close to the centre of the county; the county has many market towns, including Whitchurch in the north, Newport northeast of Telford and Market Drayton in the northeast of the county. The Ironbridge Gorge area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, covering Ironbridge, Coalbrookdale and a part of Madeley. There are other historic industrial sites in the county, such as at Shrewsbury, Broseley and Highley, as well as the Shropshire Union Canal.
The Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers about a quarter of the county in the south. Shropshire is one of England's most rural and sparsely populated counties, with a population density of 136/km2; the Wrekin is one of the most famous natural landmarks in the county, though the highest hills are the Clee Hills and the Long Mynd. Wenlock Edge is another significant geological landmark. In the low-lying northwest of the county overlapping the border with Wales is the Fenn's, Whixall and Bettisfield Mosses National Nature Reserve, one of the most important and best preserved bogs in Britain; the River Severn, Great Britain's longest river, runs through the county, exiting into Worcestershire via the Severn Valley. Shropshire is landlocked and with an area of 3,487 square kilometres is England's largest inland county; the county flower is the round-leaved sundew. The area was once part of the lands of the Cornovii, which consisted of the modern day counties of Cheshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of Powys.
This was a tribal Celtic iron age kingdom. Their capital in pre-Roman times was a hill fort on the Wrekin. Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography names one of their towns as being Viroconium Cornoviorum, which became their capital under Roman rule and one of the largest settlements in Britain. After the Roman occupation of Britain ended in the 5th century, the Shropshire area was in the eastern part of the Welsh Kingdom of Powys, it was annexed to the Angle kingdom of Mercia by King Offa in the 8th century, at which time he built two significant dykes there to defend his territory against the Welsh or at least demarcate it. In subsequent centuries, the area suffered repeated Viking incursions, fortresses were built at Bridgnorth and Chirbury. After the Norman conquest in 1066, major estates in Shropshire were granted to Normans, including Roger de Montgomerie, who ordered significant constructions in Shrewsbury, the town of which he was Earl. Many defensive castles were built at this time across the county to defend against the Welsh and enable effective control of the region, including Ludlow Castle and Shrewsbury Castle.
The western frontier with Wales was not determined until the 14th century. In this period, a number of religious foundations were formed, the county falling at this time under the Diocese of Hereford and that of Coventry and Lichfield; some parishes in the north-west of the county in times fell under the Diocese of St. Asaph until the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, when they were ceded to the Lichfield diocese; the county was a central part of the Welsh Marches during the medieval period and was embroiled in the power struggles between powerful Marcher Lords, the Earls of March and successive monarchs. The county contains a number of significant towns, including Shrewsbury and Ludlow. Additionally, the area around Coalbrookdale in the county is seen as significant, as it is regarded as one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution; the village of Edgmond, near Newport, is the location of the lowest recorded temperature in England and Wales. Shropshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle annal for 1006.
The origin of the name is the Old English Scrobbesbyrigscīr, which means "Shrewsburyshire". The name may, therefore, be derived indirectly from a personal name such as Scrope. Salop is an old name for Shropshire used as an abbreviated form for post or telegrams, it is thought to derive from the Anglo-French "Salopesberia", it is replaced by the more contemporary "Shrops" although Shropshire residents are still referred to as "Salopians". Salop however, is used as an alternative name for the county town, which shares the motto of Floreat Salopia; when a county council for the county was first established in 1889, it was called Salop County Council. Following the Local Government Act 1972, Salop became the official name of the county; the name was not well-regarded locally however, a subsequent campaign led by a local councillor, John Kenyon, succeeded in having both the county and council renamed as Shrops
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research. Referred to during development as the ZX81 Colour and ZX82, it was launched as the ZX Spectrum by Sinclair to highlight the machine's colour display, compared with the black and white of its predecessor, the ZX81; the Spectrum was released as eight different models, ranging from the entry level with 16 KB RAM released in 1982 to the ZX Spectrum +3 with 128 KB RAM and built in floppy disk drive in 1987. The Spectrum was among the first mainstream-audience home computers in the UK, similar in significance to the Commodore 64 in the US; the introduction of the ZX Spectrum led to a boom in companies producing software and hardware for the machine, the effects of which are still seen. Some credit it as the machine. Licensing deals and clones followed, earned Clive Sinclair a knighthood for "services to British industry"; the Commodore 64, Dragon 32, Oric-1, Oric Atmos, BBC Micro and the Amstrad CPC range were rivals to the Spectrum in the UK market during the early 1980s.
While the machine was discontinued in 1992, new software titles continue to be released – over 40 so far in 2018. The Spectrum is based on a Zilog Z80 A CPU running at 3.5 MHz. The original model has 16 KB of ROM and either 16 KB or 48 KB of RAM. Hardware design was by Richard Altwasser of Sinclair Research, the outward appearance was designed by Sinclair's industrial designer Rick Dickinson. Video output is through an RF modulator and was designed for use with contemporary television sets, for a simple colour graphic display. Text can be displayed using 32 columns × 24 rows of characters from the ZX Spectrum character set or from a set provided within an application, from a palette of 15 shades: seven colours at two levels of brightness each, plus black; the image resolution is 256×192 with the same colour limitations. To conserve memory, colour is stored separate from the pixel bitmap in a low resolution, 32×24 grid overlay, corresponding to the character cells. In practice, this means that all pixels of an 8x8 character block share one foreground colour and one background colour.
Altwasser received a patent for this design. An "attribute" consists of a foreground and a background colour, a brightness level and a flashing "flag" which, when set, causes the two colours to swap at regular intervals; this scheme leads to what was dubbed colour clash or attribute clash, where a desired colour of a specific pixel could not be selected. This became a distinctive feature of the Spectrum, meaning programs games, had to be designed around this limitation. Other machines available around the same time, for example the Amstrad CPC or the Commodore 64, did not suffer from this limitation; the Commodore 64 used colour attributes in a similar way, but a special multicolour mode, hardware sprites and hardware scrolling were used to avoid attribute clash. Sound output is through a beeper on the machine itself, capable of producing one channel with 10 octaves. Software was available that could play two channel sound; the machine includes an expansion bus edge connector and 3.5 mm audio in/out ports for the connection of a cassette recorder for loading and saving programs and data.
The "ear" port has a higher output than the "mic" and is recommended for headphones, with "mic" for attaching to other audio devices as line in. It was manufactured in Scotland, in the now closed Timex factory; the machine's Sinclair BASIC interpreter is stored in ROM and was written by Steve Vickers on contract from Nine Tiles Ltd. The Spectrum's chiclet keyboard is marked with BASIC keywords. For example, pressing "G" when in programming mode would insert the BASIC command GO TO; the BASIC interpreter was developed from that used on the ZX81 and a ZX81 BASIC program can be typed into a Spectrum unmodified, but Spectrum BASIC included many extra features making it easier to use. The ZX Spectrum character set was expanded from that of the ZX81, which did not feature lower-case letters. Spectrum BASIC included extra keywords for the more advanced display and sound, supported multi-statement lines; the cassette interface was much more advanced and loading around five times faster than the ZX81, unlike the ZX81, the Spectrum could maintain the TV display during tape storage and retrieval operations.
As well as being able to save programs, the Spectrum could save the contents of arrays, the contents of the screen memory, the contents of any defined range of memory addresses. Rick Dickinson came up with a number of designs for the "ZX82" project before the final ZX Spectrum design. A number of the keyboard legends changed during the design phase including ARC becoming CIRCLE, FORE becoming INK and BACK becoming PAPER; the Spectrum reused a number of design elements of the ZX81: The ROM code for things such as floating point calculations and expression parsing were similar. The simple keyboard decoding and cassette interfaces were nearly identical; the central ULA integrated circuit was somewhat similar although it implemented the major enhancement over the ZX81: A hardware based television raster generator that indirectly gave the new machine four times as much processing power as the ZX81 due to the Z80 now being released from this video generation task. A bug in the ULA as designed
Graham Masterton is a British horror author. Editor of Mayfair and the British edition of Penthouse, Graham Masterton's first novel The Manitou was released in 1976; this novel was adapted in 1978 for the film The Manitou. Further works garnered critical acclaim, including a Special Edgar Award by the Mystery Writers of America for Charnel House and a Silver Medal by the West Coast Review of Books for Mirror, he is the only non-French winner of the prestigious Prix Julia Verlanger for his novel Family Portrait, an imaginative reworking of the Oscar Wilde novel The Picture of Dorian Gray. Masterton was the editor of Scare Care, a horror anthology published for the benefit of abused children in Europe and the USA. Masterton's novels contain visceral sex and horror. In addition to his novels Masterton has written a number of sex instruction books, including How To Drive Your Man Wild In Bed and Wild Sex for New Lovers. Masterton lives in Surrey, England, his wife and agent Wiescka died on 27 April 2011, aged 65.
In 2002, while living with his wife in Cork, Ireland, he added crime fiction to his repertoire with A Terrible Beauty featuring Irish Detective Superintendent Katie Maguire. This was sold 100,000 ebook copies in a month, it is to be followed by further Katie Maguire adventures, Broken Angels, Red Light, "Taken For Dead", "Blood Sisters", "Buried", Living Death", "Dead Girls Dancing" and "Dead Men Whistling" (2018". In 2010, Masterton published Rules of Duel, a short novel from the early 1970s that he wrote in collaboration with William S. Burroughs. In 2017, after a visit to Wolow, the maximum security prison near Wroclaw in southern Poland, Masterton set up the Graham Masterton Written In Prison Award for the inmates of all of Poland's penal institutions to enter a short story contest; the contest is now an annual event and is supported by the Polish Prison Service, the Wroclaw Agglomeration for Culture and Sport, both Rebis and Albatros publishing houses and Wroclaw Library. The Prix Graham Masterton is organised annually in Belgium by the publisher Marc Bailly for the best French horror novel and short story of the year.
The first prize is a sculpture of a demon. In 2019 Graham Masterton was given a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Horror Writers' Association; the Djinn, 1977 The Sphinx, 1978 Charnel House, 1978 The Devils of D-Day, 1978 The Hell Candidate, 1981 The Heirloom, 1981 The Wells of Hell, 1981 Tengu, 1983 The Pariah, 1983 Family Portrait, 1985 Death Trance, 1986 Mirror, 1988 Ritual, 1988 Walkers, 1989 Black Angel, 1991 The Hymn, 1991 Prey, 1992 The Sleepless, 1993 Flesh & Blood, 1994 Spirit, 1995 The House That Jack Built, 1995 The Chosen Child, 1996 House of Bones, 1998 The Doorkeepers, 2001 Hair Raiser, 2001 Trauma, 2001 The Hidden World, 2003 The Devil In Gray, 2004 Unspeakable, 2004 Descendant, 2006 Edgewise, 2006 The 5th Witch, 2008 Ghost Music, 2008 Fire Spirit, 2010 Forest Ghost, 2013 Community, 2014 Scarlet Widow 2015 The Manitou, 1976 Revenge of the Manitou, 1979 Burial, 1991 Spirit Jump, 1996 Manitou Blood, 2005 Blind Panic, 2009 Plague of the Manitou, 2015 Night Warriors, 1986 Death Dream, 1988 Night Plague, 1991 Night Wars, 2006 The Ninth Nightmare, 2011 Rook, 1997 Tooth and Claw, 1997 The Terror, 1998 Snowman, 1999 Swimmer, 2001 Darkroom, 2004 Demon's Door, 2010 Garden of Evil, 2012 Touchy and Feely, 2005 The Painted Man, 2008 The Red Hotel, 2012 Basilisk, 2009 Petrified, 2011 1.
White Bones, 2003 2. Broken Angels, 2012 3. Red Light, 2014 4. Taken for Dead, 2014 5. Blood Sisters, 2015 5.5 Eye for an Eye, 2015 6. Buried, 2016 7. Living Death, 2016 7.5 The Drowned, 2016 8. Dead Girls Dancing, 2016 9. Dead Men Whistling, 2018 Heartbreaker, 1978 Rich, 1979 Railroad, 1981 Solitaire, 1982 Corroboree, 1984 Maiden Voyage, 1984 Lady of Fortune, 1984 Headlines, 1986 Silver, 1987 Lords of the Air, 1988 Empress, 1990 Fireflash 5, 1977 Plague, 1977 The Sweetman Curve, 1979 Famine, 1981 Ikon, 1983 Condor, 1984 Sacrifice, 1985 Genius, 1998 Holy Terror, 1999 Innocent Blood, 2004 Chaos Theory, 2007 Rules of Duel, 2010 Drought, 2014 Confessions of a Wanton Waitress, 1975 Confessions of a Racy Receptionist, 1976 Inserts, 1976 Phobia, 1980 Fortnight of Fear, 1994 Flights of Fear, 1995 Faces of Fear, 1996 Feelings of Fear, 2000 Festival of Fear, 2005 Figures of Fear, 2014 Absence of Beast Anaïs Anka A Polite Murder The Ballyhooly Boy Beijing Craps Beholder Bridal Suite The Burgers of Calais Camelot Changeling Cold Turkey Eau Noire Edgewise (also published as Night o
Oliver "Oli" Frey is an artist. A resident of Britain, he is known for his book and magazine illustrations – for British computer magazines of the 1980s – and erotic illustrations and erotic comics – in British gay male porn magazines of the 1970s and 1980s. Frey was born in Zurich, Switzerland on 30 June 1948, he grew up fluent in German. His family subsequently returned to Switzerland. During his high school years in Switzerland, Frey enrolled in the American Famous Artists School correspondence course. After spending six months in the Swiss army and dropping out of Berne University, Frey moved back to Britain and started a two-year course at the London Film School, during which he supported himself with freelance work, including illustrating War Picture Library comic books; as a child Frey had loved The Eagle comics magazine, as an adult worked on the 1980s revival, drawing the strip Dan Dare. During the 1970s, he illustrated for IPC Media's Look and Learn magazine, including the strip The Trigan Empire.
He was commissioned to create 1930s-era comic book art for the pre-title sequence of the 1978 movie Superman. Through the late 1970s and the 1980s Frey was a prolific creator of gay erotic art published under the pen name Zack; these included a comics series featuring a big, muscular bad-boy hero named "Rogue" for HIM Magazine, a monthly gay male pornography publication which he and his partner Roger Kean owned, along with related titles. He produced and illustrated several issues of Man-to-Man Magazine. Frey illustrated twelve of the HIM Libraries, the first two written by Kean, the remainder by various authors who submitted manuscripts; the company was raided by the police in 1981, all of its stock was destroyed under then-current laws. His gay pornographic work was featured on front covers and in volumes of the Meatmen series of gay erotic comics. Russell T. Davies, writer of the British television series Queer as Folk, praised Frey's serial "The Street" as an important influence on his ground-breaking gay TV drama.
When Roger Kean and his brother Franco founded the computer magazine CRASH in 1983, Frey became the magazine's illustrator. He went on to illustrate for CRASH's sister magazines Zzap!64, The Games Machine. He illustrated the comic strip "Terminal Man", written by Kelvin Gosnell, serialized in both CRASH and Zzap!64 in 1984, published as a complete story in a large format book in 1988. During the late 90s, Frey worked as publishing director for Thalamus Publishing in Shropshire, which specialized in illustrated historical reference titles. Thalamus Publishing went into receivership in August 2009. Frey and Kean formed Reckless Books in Ludlow, specializing in young adult action-adventure and gay adult reading. Several of Frey’s painted front covers for Fleetway and IPC War Picture Libraries were reproduced from the original art in two of David Roach’s books, Aaargh! It’s War in 2007, The Art of War in 2008. Frey is the illustrator of over 16 books under the name Oliver Frey and over 12 under the pseudonym Zack.
Classic video gaming magazine Retro Gamer has featured Frey's artwork on its cover. In July and August 2014 his gay erotic work was included in an exhibition at the British Library, where he was interviewed by novelist and reporter Rupert Smith. Frey sells signed prints and paintings, takes private commissions. Frey lives with his long-time partner Roger Kean in the United Kingdom. Dan Dare: "Return of the Mekon" "Belendotor" Roger Kean: The Fantasy Art of Oliver Frey, ISBN 9781902886060 Oliver Frey, Artist The Terminal Man ISBN 9781479333691 Roger Kean, Author.
Ludlow is a market town in Shropshire, England, 28 miles south of Shrewsbury and 23 miles north of Hereford via the main A49 road, which bypasses the town. With a population of 11,000, Ludlow is the largest town in South Shropshire; the town is significant in the history of the Welsh Marches and neighbouring Wales. The town is near the confluence of the rivers Teme; the oldest part is the medieval walled town, founded in the late 11th century after the Norman conquest of England. It is centred on a small hill. Situated on this hill are Ludlow Castle and the parish church, St Laurence's, the largest in the county. From there the streets slope downward to the River Teme, northward toward the River Corve; the town is in a sheltered spot beneath Mortimer Forest and the Clee Hills, which are visible from the town. Ludlow has nearly 500 listed buildings, including examples of medieval and Tudor-style half-timbered buildings; the town was described by Sir John Betjeman as "probably the loveliest town in England".
The placename "Lodelowe" was in use for this site before 1138 and comes from the Old English "hlud-hlǣw". At the time this section of the River Teme contained rapids, so the hlud of Ludlow came from "the loud waters", while hlǣw meant "hill" or tumulus, thus the name Ludlow describes a place on a hill by the loud waters. Some time around the 12th century weirs were added along the river; the hill is that which the town stands on, a pre-historic burial mound which existed at the summit of the hill could explain the tumulus variation of the hlǣw element. Ludford, a neighbouring and older settlement, situated on the southern bank of the Teme, shares the hlud element. Ludlow has a name in Llwydlo. Though the town became known as Ludlow, Fouke le Fitz Waryn states that it was called Dinham "for a long time"; the western part of the town south of the castle retains this name, many historians assume this settlement is Anglian or Saxon in origin, with its etymology meaning a settlement by the fort. The castle was called Dinham Castle, before it took on the name of Ludlow.
A possible alternative is that Dinham takes its name from Josce de Dinan, a major landowner in the area in the 12th century, though this is regarded as erroneous on the balance of evidence with the similarity being a coincidence. The town is situated close to Wales, lies near the midpoint of the 257 km long England-Wales border; this strategic location invested it with national importance in medieval times, thereafter with the town being the seat of the Council of Wales and the Marches during its existence. At the time of the Domesday Book survey, the area was part of the large Stanton parish and manor, a possession of Walter de Lacy. Neither Ludlow nor Dinham are mentioned in the Book, compiled in 1086, although the Book recorded manors and not settlements per se; the Book does record a great number of households and taxable value for Stanton suggesting that any early settlement by the nascent castle was being counted. Neighbouring places Ludford, the Sheet and Steventon do feature in the Book, as they were manors, proving that they were well-established places by the Norman conquest.
The manor of Stanton came within the hundred of Culvestan, but during the reign of Henry I this Saxon hundred was merged into the new Munslow hundred. Walter's son Roger de Lacy began the construction of Ludlow Castle on the crest of the hill about 1075, forming what is now the inner bailey. Between about 1090 and 1120, the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene was built inside the walls, by 1130 the Great Tower was added to form the gatehouse. About 1170 the larger outer bailey was added to the castle; the settlement of Dinham grew up alongside the development of the early castle in the late 11th century, with the northern part of this early settlement disturbed by the building of the outer bailey. Dinham had its own place of worship, the Chapel of St Thomas the Martyr, dedicated to Thomas Becket sometime in 1177-1189 when the present chapel replaced an older church building. During the 12th century the planned town of Ludlow was formed, in stages, the town providing a useful source of income for successive Marcher Lords, based on rents and tolls.
They developed the town on a regular grid pattern, although this was adapted somewhat to match the local topography, from the late 11th century through the 12th century. The first laid street was along the ridge of the hilltop, what is now Castle Square, High Street and King Street; this formed a wide market place running from the castle gates east across to St Laurence's and the Bull Ring, itself located on the ancient north-south road, now called Corve Street to the north and Old Street to the south. The wide Mill and Broad Streets were added as part of a southern grid plan of streets and burgage plots filling the area bounded by Dinham, the new High Street market, Old Street and the Teme to the south. Old Street ran down to a ford which took the ancient route south across to Ludford. A bridge was constructed at the foot of Broad Street, upstream of the ford, which replaced the ford. St Laurence's church, whose origins are late 1
The Amstrad CPC is a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad between 1984 and 1990. It was designed to compete in the mid-1980s home computer market dominated by the Commodore 64 and the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, where it established itself in the United Kingdom, France and the German-speaking parts of Europe; the series spawned a total of six distinct models: The CPC464, CPC664, CPC6128 were successful competitors in the European home computer market. The plus models, 464plus and 6128plus, efforts to prolong the system's lifecycle with hardware updates, were less successful, as was the attempt to repackage the plus hardware into a game console as the GX4000; the CPC models' hardware is based on the Zilog Z80A CPU, complemented with either 64 or 128 KB of RAM. Their computer-in-a-keyboard design prominently features an integrated storage device, either a compact cassette deck or 3 inch floppy disk drive; the main units were only sold bundled with either a colour, green-screen or monochrome monitor that doubles as the main unit's power supply.
Additionally, a wide range of first and third party hardware extensions such as external disk drives and memory extensions, was available. The CPC series was pitched against other home computers used to play video games and enjoyed a strong supply of game software; the comparatively low price for a complete computer system with dedicated monitor, its high resolution monochrome text and graphic capabilities and the possibility to run CP/M software rendered the system attractive for business users, reflected by a wide selection of application software. During its lifetime, the CPC series sold three million units; the philosophy behind the CPC series was twofold, firstly the concept was of an “all-in-one”, where the computer and its data storage device were combined in a single unit, sold with its own dedicated display monitor. Most home computers at that time such as Sinclair’s ZX series, the Commodore 64 and the BBC Micro relied on the use of the domestic television set and a separately connected tape recorder or disk drive.
In itself, the all-in-one concept was not new, having been seen before on business-oriented machines and the Commodore PET, but in the home computer space, it predated the Apple Macintosh by a year. Secondly, Amstrad founder Alan Sugar wanted the machine to resemble a “real computer, similar to what someone would see being used to check them in at the airport for their holidays”, for the machine to not look like “a pregnant calculator” – in reference to the Sinclair ZX81 and ZX Spectrum with their low cost, membrane-type keyboards; the CPC 464 sold more than two million units. The CPC 464 featured an internal cassette tape deck, it was introduced in June 1984 in the UK. Initial suggested retail prices for the CPC464 were GBP£249.00/DM899.00 with a green screen and GBP£359.00/DM1398.00 with a colour monitor. Following the introduction of the CPC6128 in late 1985, suggested retail prices for the CPC464 were cut by GBP£50.00/DM100.00. In 1990, the 464plus replaced the CPC 464 in the model line-up, production of the CPC 464 was discontinued.
The CPC664 features 64 KB RAM and an internal 3-inch floppy disk drive. It was introduced in May 1985 in the UK. Initial suggested retail prices for the CPC664 were GBP£339.00/DM1198.00 with a green screen and GBP£449.00/DM1998.00 with a colour monitor. After the successful release of the CPC464, consumers were asking for two improvements: more memory and an internal disk drive. For Amstrad, the latter was easier to realize. At the deliberately low-key introduction of the CPC664 in May 1985, the machine was positioned not only as the lowest-cost disk system but the lowest-cost CP/M 2.2 machine. In the Amstrad CPC product range the CPC664 complemented the CPC464, neither discontinued nor reduced in price. Compared to the CPC464, the CPC664's main unit has been redesigned, not only to accommodate the floppy disk drive but with a redesigned keyboard area. Touted as "ergonomic" by Amstrad's promotional material, the keyboard is noticeably tilted to the front with MSX-style cursor keys above the numeric keypad.
Compared to the CPC464's multicoloured keyboard, the CPC664's keys are kept in a much quieter grey and pale blue colour scheme. The back of the CPC664 main unit features the same connectors as the CPC464, with the exception of an additional 12V power lead. Unlike the CPC464's cassette tape drive that could be powered off the main unit's 5V voltage, the CPC664's floppy disk drive requires an additional 12V voltage; this voltage had to be separately supplied by an updated version of the bundled green screen/colour monitor. The CPC664 was only produced for six months. In late 1985, when the CPC6128 was introduced in Europe, Amstrad decided not to keep three models in the line-up, production of the CPC664 was discontinued; the CPC6128 features an internal 3-inch floppy disk drive. Aside from various hardware and firmware improvements, one of the CPC6128's most prominent features is the compatibility with the CP/M+ operating system that rendered it attractive for business uses; the CPC6128 was released in August 1985 and only sold in the US.
Imported and distributed by Indescomp, Inc. of Chicago, it was the first Amstrad product to be sold in the United States, a market that at the time was traditionally hostile towards European computer manufacturers. By the end of 1985, it replaced the CPC664 in the CPC model line-up. Initial suggested retail prices for the CPC6128 were US$699.00/£299.00/DM1598.00 wit
Games Workshop Group PLC is a British miniature wargaming manufacturing company based in Nottingham, England. Games Workshop is best known as developer and publisher of the tabletop wargames Warhammer Age of Sigmar, Warhammer 40,000, The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game and The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game, it is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Founded in 1975 at 15 Bolingbroke Road, London by John Peake, Ian Livingstone, Steve Jackson, Games Workshop was a manufacturer of wooden boards for games including backgammon, Nine Men's Morris, Go, it became an importer of the U. S. role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons, a publisher of wargames and role-playing games in its own right, expanding from a bedroom mail-order company in the process. In order to promote their business and postal games, create a games club, provide an alternative source for games news, the newsletter Owl and Weasel was founded in February 1975; this was superseded in June 1977 by White Dwarf. From the outset, there was a clear, stated interest in print regarding "progressive games", including computer gaming, which led to the departure of traditionalist John Peake in early 1976 and the loss of the company's main source of income.
However, having obtained official distribution rights to Dungeons & Dragons and other TSR products in the U. K. and maintaining a high profile by running games conventions, the business grew rapidly. It opened its first retail shop in April 1978. In early 1979 Games Workshop provided the funding to found Citadel Miniatures in Newark-on-Trent. Citadel would produce the metal miniatures used in its role-playing games and tabletop wargames; the "Citadel" name became synonymous with Games Workshop Miniatures, continues to be a trademarked brand name used in association with them long after the Citadel company was absorbed into Games Workshop. For a time Gary Gygax promoted the idea of TSR, Inc. merging with Games Workshop, until Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone backed out. The company's publishing arm released U. K. reprints of American RPGs such as Call of Cthulhu, Runequest and Middle-earth Role Playing, which were expensive to import. In 1984 Games Workshop ceased distributing its products in the U.
S. A. through hobby games opened its Games Workshop office. Games Workshop, Games Workshop in general, grew in the late 1980s, with over 250 employees on the payroll by 1990. Following a management buyout by Bryan Ansell in December 1991, Games Workshop refocused on their miniature wargames Warhammer Fantasy Battle and Warhammer 40,000, their most lucrative lines; the retail chain refocused on a younger, more family-oriented market. The change of direction was a great success and the company enjoyed growing profits, but the more commercial direction of the company made it lose some of its old fan base. A breakaway group of two company employees published Fantasy Warlord in competition with Games Workshop, but the new company met with little success and closed in 1993. Games Workshop expanded in Europe, the US, Australia, opening new branches and organising events in each new commercial territory; the company was floated on the London Stock Exchange in October 1994. In October 1997 all U. K.-based operations were relocated to the current headquarters in Nottingham.
By the end of the decade the company was having problems with falling profits, blame was placed on the growth in popularity of collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering and Pokémon T. C. G.. Games Workshop attempted to create a dual approach to appeal to older customers while still attracting a younger audience. Most of their special characters and vehicles were cast in white metal or pewter, but by the 2000s most of them were replaced by plastics. With this shift, Games Workshop has been able to offer greater variety in the armies offered with introductory box sets; this change brought about the creation of "initiatives" such as the "Fanatic" range, supporting more marginal lines with a lower-cost trading model. Games Workshop contributed to designing and making games and puzzles for the popular television series The Crystal Maze; the release of Games Workshop's third "core" miniature wargame, The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game, in 2000 extended the company's product range. The company diversified by acquiring Sabretooth Games, creating the Black Library, working with THQ.
In late 2009 Games Workshop issued a succession of cease and desist orders against various Internet sites it accused of violating its intellectual property generating anger and disappointment from its fan community. On 16 May 2011, Maelstrom Games announced that Games Workshop had revised the terms and conditions of their trade agreement with independent stockists in the U. K; the new terms and conditions restricted the sale of all Games Workshop products to within the European Economic Area. On 16 June 2013, WarGameStore, a U. K.-based retailer of Games Workshop products since 2003, announced further changes to Games Workshop's trade agreement with U. K.-based independent stockists. Alongside the UK publishing rights to several American role-playing games in the 1980s Games Workshop a