Texas State Highway 87
State Highway 87 or SH 87 runs for 249.4 miles between Galveston, Texas to U. S. Highway 59 and U. S. Highway 84 in Texas. Highway 87 has a notable stretch between Sea Rim State Park and High Island, Texas, washed out over the decades and has been closed continuously since 1990. Portions of this stretch were less than 100 feet away from high tide in the 1990s; the storm surge from Hurricane Jerry which made landfall on October 15, 1989, left the highway in a state of disrepair. While talk about rebuilding the destroyed segment of State Highway 87 happens from time to time, there is no serious effort underway to do so. A section of highway, now known as the Warden Michael C. Pauling Memorial Highway stretches from the Intracoastal Waterway Bridge to Sabine Pass on Texas 87. SH 87 was designated on August 21, 1923 from Orange to Milam; the route was the proposed SH 8A before being renumbered. On September 16, 1926, SH 87 was extended to Port Arthur, though this was not taken over for maintenance until January 1, 1927.
An extension via High Island to Galveston was planned to be taken over. SH 87 Spur was designated on November 1928, from Deweyville to Louisiana. On March 19, 1930, the north end was shortened to Hemphill. On August 1, 1930, SH 87 extended back to Milam. On May 5, 1931, it extended again. On November 22, 1933, SH 87 extended to Carter's Store. On March 17, 1936, SH 87 replaced the section of SH 124 from High Island to Galveston. On December 22, 1936, SH 87 was extended to its current terminus in Timpson. On May 23, 1939, SH 87 Spur was designated to Wiergate. On September 26, 1939, The spurs were changed to Spur 24 and Spur 69. On August 20, 1952, SH 87 was no longer concurrent with US 96 from Center to Carter's Store. In 1970, road machinery used in its construction accidentally dug up several cannonballs and crumbling kegs of black powder about 10 miles west of Sabine Pass. Further excavation produced more kegs of black powder and several hundred cannonballs; the ammunition had been buried there by Confederate soldiers in what were the ditches of Fort Manhassett in 1865.
Fort Manhassett was a series of earthworks constructed by the Confederacy in 1863 to defend the western approaches to Sabine Pass. On January 28, 1987, SH 87 extended west 4.1 miles to Spur 342, replacing a section of US 75, decommissioned south of Dallas. On November 19, 1926, a spur, SH 87A was designated from Bronson to Hemphill. On March 19, 1930, this route was erroneously omitted from the state highway log. On November 30, 1932, this road was added back to the state highway log, but was renumbered as SH 184. Two ferry routes and up to five ferries operate on Galveston Bay, taking passengers from Port Bolivar to Galveston Island; because of increasing traffic during summer months, TxDOT was studying the possibility of building a bridge to connect Galveston Island or Pelican Island to the Bolivar Peninsula. Media related to Texas State Highway 87 at Wikimedia Commons
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Beaumont is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Texas, in the United States, within the Beaumont–Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area. Located in Southeast Texas on the Neches River about 85 miles east of Houston, Beaumont had a population of 117,267 at the time of the 2010 census, making it the thirtieth-most populous city in the state of Texas. Beaumont was founded as a town in 1835; the early European–American settlement had an economy based on the development of lumber and port industries. In 1892, Joseph Eloi Broussard opened the first commercially successful rice mill in the state, stimulating development of rice farming in the area. Rice became an important commodity crop in Texas, is now cultivated in 23 counties. A big change occurred in 1901 with the Spindletop gusher, which demonstrated the potential of the huge oil field. With Spindletop, several energy companies developed in Beaumont, some continue; the area developed as one of the major petro-chemical refining areas in the country.
Along with Port Arthur and Orange, Beaumont forms the Golden Triangle, a major industrial area on the Texas Gulf Coast. Beaumont is home of Lamar University, a national Carnegie Doctoral Research university with 14,966 students, including undergraduates and post graduates. Over the years, several corporations have been based in this city, including Gulf States Utilities which had its headquarters in Beaumont until its takeover by Entergy Corporation in 1993. GSU's Edison Plaza headquarters remains the tallest building in Beaumont. In 1824 Bobby and Nancy Tevis developed a farm. Soon after that, a small community grew up around the farm, named Tevis Bluff or Neches River Settlement. In 1835 the land of Tevis, together with the nearby community of Santa Anna, was purchased by Henry Millard, Joseph Pulsifer, Thomas Byers Huling, they began planning a town to be laid out on this land. Their partnership, J. P. Pulsifer and Company, controlled the first 50 acres upon; this town was named Beaumont, after Mary Dewburleigh Barlace Warren Beaumont, the wife of Henry Millard.
They added more property for a total of 200 acres. Beaumont became a town on 16 December 1838. Beaumont's first mayor was Alexander Calder. From the town's founding in 1835, business activities included real estate and retail sales. Other businesses were formed in railroad construction and operation, new building construction, lumber sales, communications; the Port of Beaumont became a successful regional shipping center. Beaumont was farmers in its early years. With an active riverport by the 1880s, it became rice-milling town; the city exported rice as a commodity crop. Beaumont's lumber boom, which reached its peak in the late 19th century, was stimulated by the rebuilding and expansion of the railroads in the state and region after the Civil War; the Beaumont Rice Mill, founded in 1892 by Joseph Eloi Broussard, was the first commercially successful rice mill in Texas. In addition, Broussard cofounded the Beaumont Irrigation Company in 1898 to operate an irrigation system to support rice culture.
The company along with four others established around the same time helped stimulate the expansion of rice cultivation from 1500 acres in 1892 to 400,000 acres in 23 counties by his death in 1956. The other companies were The Port Arthur Rice and Irrigation Company, The McFaddin-Wiess-Kyle Canal Company, the Treadaway or Neches Canal Company, the Taylors-Hillebrand complex; the holdings of those companies formed the basis for the Lower Neches Valley Authority established by the state legislature in 1933. The rise of Beaumont's mill economy drew many new residents to many of them immigrants; the first Jewish man in the city was from Louisiana, others migrated from the South, were joined by immigrants. They worked in a variety of jobs in the growing city and ranching area. In 1895 Jews formed their first congregation. By the early 20th century, the city was served by the Southern Pacific. Oil was discovered at nearby Spindletop on 10 January 1901. Spindletop became one of the largest in American history.
With the discovery of oil at Spindletop, Beaumont's population more than tripled in two months from 9,000 in January 1901 to 30,000 in March 1901. Oil is, has always been, a major export of the city, a major contributor to the national GDP. William Casper Tyrrell, nicknamed "Captain W. C.", was a leading businessman and oil tycoon in the city in the early 20th century, developing businesses during the Texas Oil Boom. An entrepreneur from Pennsylvania and Iowa, he arrived after the gusher at Spindletop, invested in development of a commercial port in the city, an irrigation system to support the local rice industry, as well as residential and retail development of suburban property, he was a philanthropist. He purchased and donated First Baptist Church, whose congregation had moved to a new facility, to use as the city's first public library, now known as the Tyrrell Historical Library; when the city became a major center for defense shipbuilding during World War II, tens of thousands of rural Texans migrated there for the new high-paying jobs.
The Roosevelt administration ordered the defense industry to be integrated, many Southern whites were working with blacks for th
Sabine County, Texas
Sabine County is a county located on the central eastern border of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,834, its county seat is Hemphill. The county was organized on December 14, 1837, named for the Sabine River, which forms its eastern border. Sabine County is represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Chris Paddie, a radio broadcaster and former mayor of Marshall in Harrison County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 577 square miles, of which 491 square miles is land and 85 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 96 State Highway 21 State Highway 87 State Highway 103 State Highway 184 Sabine National Forest Shelby County Sabine Parish, Louisiana Newton County Jasper County San Augustine County Like other eastern Texas counties, Sabine was developed as cotton plantations, which depended on the labor of numerous enslaved African Americans. After the Civil War and emancipation, many freedmen remained in the rural area, working as tenant farmers and sharecroppers.
There was considerable violence by whites against blacks after Reconstruction. After 1877 and through the early 20th century, Sabine County had 10 lynchings of blacks by whites in acts of racial terrorism; this was the fourth-highest total in the state, where lynchings took place in nearly all counties through this period. From 1930 to 1970, the population declined as many African Americans left this rural county and other parts of the South in the Great Migration to escape Jim Crow oppression and seek better jobs in Northern industrial cities and on the West Coast, where the defense industry built up beginning during World War II; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,469 people, 4,485 households, 3,157 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 7,659 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.85% White, 9.92% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.82% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races.
1.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,485 households out of which 23.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 5.60% from 18 to 24, 21.10% from 25 to 44, 27.20% from 45 to 64, 24.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,198, the median income for a family was $32,554. Males had a median income of $28,695 versus $21,141 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,821.
About 11.80% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.90% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Sabine County: Brookeland Independent School District Hemphill Independent School District Shelbyville Independent School District West Sabine Independent School District Hemphill Pineland Milam Bronson Brookeland Fairmount Geneva Isla Pendelton Harbor Subdivision Rosevine Sexton Yellowpine National Register of Historic Places listings in Sabine County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Sabine County Sabine County website Sabine County Chamber of Commerce Sabine County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Vernon Parish, Louisiana
Vernon Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 52,334; the parish seat is Leesville. Bordered on the west by the Sabine River, the parish was founded in 1871 during the Reconstruction era, it was long a center of the timber industry, which harvested pine in the hills and bottomland hardwoods. Construction of a railway to the area in 1897 stimulated marketing of lumber and businesses in the area. Since World War II, Fort Polk has been most important to the parish economy; the population of the Leesville area increased fivefold after the fort was opened. Vernon Parish is part of the Fort Polk South, LA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the DeRidder-Fort Polk South, LA Combined Statistical Area; the area comprising Vernon was a part of a tract of land whose control was disputed in the late 18th century between the United States and Spain. They called this land the "Neutral Strip" and refrained from posting police or military personnel there.
As a result, the area became a haven for outlaws. Prior to the United States acquisition of this territory through the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803, the primary settlers who came to the area were ethnic French and Spanish. During this period, Dr. Timothy Burr, a Massachusetts native who had migrated to Louisiana from Mt. Vernon, established the community of Burr Ferry at his landing on the Sabine River; this community became known as the "Gateway to Louisiana" from the west. For decades this area was part of the Natchitoches and Sabine parishes, which were established soon after the US acquired this territory in the early nineteenth century; the timber industry was most important to the local economy, with both pines of the hills and bottomland hardwoods being harvested. Some landowners had their land cleared by slaves to establish plantations for cotton cultivation. During the American Civil War, an artillery site was constructed nearby. Now called the "Confederate Breast Works", it was manned by the Confederacy to guard against Union movements along the Nolan Trace.
On March 30, 1871, the Louisiana General Assembly passed an act to create Vernon Parish, by taking territory from the three parishes noted above, as population had increased in the area. There are four versions of. Leesville was designated as the parish seat of Vernon from the start, it was incorporated February 15, 1900. The city was founded by Dr. Edmund E. Smart, who donated land from his plantation for the development of the parish seat, it was named by his father, in honor of General Robert E. Lee; the Big House from the Smart plantation still stands. It is located at what today is the corner of First streets. Folklore accounts of the naming of the parish are: 1) that it was named after a race horse owned by Joe Moore, one of the members of the committee chosen to name the parish, who claimed that by naming the parish after his fast horse the committee would insure the growth of the parish: 2) that it was named after a popular teacher, an officer in the Royal Navy, only mentioned as "Mr. Vernon".
The decision was made to avoid disputes among the parish founders, each of whom wanted to name it after himself. 3) The final account tells that the committee had been arguing over the name while drinking in a store. Trying to preserve his precious whiskey and profits, the host suggested the committee stop a local man passing by on a mule-drawn cart and name the parish whatever the man said was the mule's name; the man responded, "I calls him Vernon,'cause he's the fastes' mule in de country." In the late 1890s the timber industry, the dominant industry in the parish from its creation, began to boom with the construction of the Kansas City Southern Railway in 1897. It increased access to markets; the railway continues to operate in the early 21st century. In the period after World War I, Vernon Parish became the site of two socialist-based communities; the Llano del Rio Cooperative Colony developed as New Llano, established in 1917. The second was the Christian Commonwealth Colony; these colonies attempted to attract economists and sociologists to conduct an experiment in communal membership and the sharing of labor duties.
Llano del Rio was the larger community, with more than 10,000 people, was the longest-surviving. Both colonies failed in the 1930s during the economic stress of the Great Depression. In 1941, the United States Army opened Camp Polk, shortly after the outbreak of war in Europe, with the German invasion of Poland and other actions. Camp Polk surpassed the timber industry as the dominant force in the parish's economy. After the camp opened, the population of the parish seat of Leesville climbed from 3,500 to 18,000. Named after Leonidas Polk, the first Episcopal Bishop in Louisiana and known as the "Fighting Bishop of the Confederacy", it served as one of the major Army training camps during World War II. In the 21st century, Fort Polk is the 5th-largest military installation in the nation; the facility covers 200,000 acres. It has stimulated the development of associated businesses in related populations. With the regular reassignment of soldiers, accompanied by dependents, to and from the fort, Vernon Parish has a more varied culture than might be expected from its location.
Its residents come from all over the country. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 1,341 square miles, of which 1,328 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water, it is the largest parish in L
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol