National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England and Northern Ireland. It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom; the trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for for everyone". The trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907; the trust tended to focus on English country houses, which still make up the largest part of its holdings, but it protects historic landscapes such as in the Lake District, historic urban properties, nature reserves. In Scotland, there is an independent National Trust for Scotland; the Trust has special powers to prevent land being sold off or mortgaged, although this can be over-ridden by Parliament. The National Trust has been the beneficiary of bequests, it owns over 350 heritage properties, which includes many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, social history sites.
Most of these are open to the public for a charge. Others are leased, on terms; the Trust is one of the largest landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 247,000 hectares of land, including many characteristic sites of natural beauty, most of which are open to the public free of charge. The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties, it has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, in recent years, the trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon. In 2015, the trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure; the review led to the downsizing of the limitation of tenure to two terms. The National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee.
It was incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, 1971. It is a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006, its formal purpose is: The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Rawnsley, prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society. In the early days, the trust was concerned with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; the trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, its first archaeological monument was White Barrow. The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of money. From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is due to him, it will never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm." At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang.
The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties; the diarist James Lees-Milne is credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact an employee of the trust, was carrying through policies decided by its governing body. Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Canons Ashby and Kingston Lacy; the last is a notable asset as it comprises an art collection, Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land. One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses.
In response, the council asked Sir Henry Benson to chair an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions. In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it did little to slow the growth in its membership numbers. In 2005, the trust moved to a new head office in Wiltshire; the building was constructed on an abandoned railway yard, is intended as a model of brownfield renewal. It is named Heelis, taken from the married name of children's author Beatrix Potter, a huge supporter of, donor to, the trust, which now owns the land she owned in Cumbria; the trust is an independent charity rather than a government institution. Historic England and
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
The Solent is the strait that separates the Isle of Wight from the mainland of England. It is about 20 miles long and varies in width between 2 1⁄2 and 5 mi, although the Hurst Spit which projects 1 1⁄2 mi into the Solent narrows the sea crossing between Hurst Castle and Colwell Bay to just over 1 mi; the Solent is a major shipping lane for passenger and military vessels. It is an important recreational area for water sports yachting, hosting the Cowes Week sailing event annually, it is sheltered by the Isle of Wight and has a complex tidal pattern, which has benefited Southampton's success as a port, providing a "double high tide" that extends the tidal window during which deep-draught ships can be handled. Portsmouth lies on its shores. Spithead, an area off Gilkicker Point near Gosport, is known as the place where the Royal Navy is traditionally reviewed by the monarch of the day; the area is of great ecological and landscape importance because of the coastal and estuarine habitats along its edge.
Much of its coastline is designated as a Special Area of Conservation. It is bordered by and forms a part of the character of a number of nationally important protected landscapes including the New Forest National Park, the Isle of Wight AONB; the word first appears in Saxon records as Solentan, but pre-dates the Saxon languages and is first recorded as Soluente in 731. This original spelling suggests a possible derivation from the Brittonic element -uente, which has endured throughout the history of Hampshire, as in the Roman city of Venta Belgarum, the post-Roman kingdom of Y Went, the modern name of Winchester. A pre-Celtic and Semitic root meaning "free-standing rock" has been suggested as a possible description of the cliffs marking western approach of the strait; this Semitic origin may be a relic of the Phoenician traders who sailed to Britain from the Mediterranean as part of the ancient tin trade. Another suggestion is. A river valley, the Solent has widened and deepened over many thousands of years.
The River Frome was the source of the River Solent, with four other rivers — the Rivers Avon, Hamble and Test — being tributaries of it. Seismic sounding has shown that, when the sea level was lower, the River Solent incised its bed to a depth of at least 46 metres below current Ordnance Datum. Link to map showing former course of Solent River The Purbeck Ball Clay contains kaolinite and mica, showing that in the Lutetian stage of the Eocene water from a granite area Dartmoor, flowed into the River Solent. Seabed survey shows that when the sea level was lower in the Ice Age the River Solent continued the line of the eastern Solent to a point due east of the east end of the Isle of Wight and due south of a point about 3 kilometres west of Selsey Bill, south-south-west for about 30 kilometres, south for about 14 kilometres, joined the main river flowing down the dry bed of the English Channel. During the Ice Age, meanders of the Solent's tributaries became incised: for example, an incised meander of the River Test is buried under reclaimed land under the Westquay shopping centre, near Southampton docks.
Since the retreat of the most recent glaciation the South East of England, like the Netherlands, has been slowly sinking through historic time due to forebulge sinking. A new theory – that the Solent was a lagoon – was reported in the Southern Daily Echo by Garry Momber from the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology; the Isle of Wight was contiguous with the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset — the Needles on Wight and Old Harry Rocks on Purbeck are the last remnant of this connection. Ten thousand years ago a band of resistant Chalk rock, part of the Southern England Chalk Formation, ran from the Isle of Purbeck area of south Dorset to the eastern end of Isle of Wight, parallel to the South Downs. Inland behind the Chalk were less resistant sands and gravels. Through these weak soils and rocks ran many rivers, from the Dorset Frome in the west and including the Stour, Beaulieu River, Test and Hamble, which created a large estuary flowing west to east and into the English Channel at the eastern end of the present Solent.
This great estuary is now referred to as the Solent River. When glaciers covering more northern latitudes melted at the end of the last ice age, two things happened to create the Solent. Firstly, a great amount of flood water ran into the Solent River and its tributaries, carving the estuary deeper. Secondly, post-glacial rebound after the removal of the weight of ice over Scotland caused the island of Great Britain to tilt about an east-west axis, because isostatic rebound in Scotland and Scandinavia is pulling mantle rock out from under the Netherlands and south England: this is forebulge sinking. Over thousands of years, the land sank in the south to submerge many valleys creating today's characteristic rias, such as Southampton Water and Poole Harbour, as well as submerging the Solent; the estuary of the Solent River was flooded, the Isle of Wight became separated from the mainland as the chalk ridge between The Needles on the island and Old Harry Rocks on the mainland was eroded. This is thought to have happened about 7,500 years ago.
The process of coastal change is still continuing, with the soft cliffs on some parts of the Solent, such as Fort Victoria eroding, whilst other parts, such as
Colwell Bay is a bay in the west of the Isle of Wight. It is located between the towns of Yarmouth; the bay's northernmost point is Cliff's End the closest point of the Island to the British mainland, with Hurst Castle lying at the end of a long peninsula just 1500 metres to the northwest. The southernmost point is Warden Point. Colwell Bay has a popular beach, with two miles of sand and shingle, facilities including cafes and equipment hire outlets. An area of 13.56 hectares has been notified as a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest, notification taking place in 1959. The site is significant for maritime vegetated soft cliff habitat, it is the location of three chines: Brambles Chine and Linstone Chine. Colwell Bay is near the western end of the A3055 road. Public transport to the area is provided by the Needles Tour. Colwell Bay, official IoW tourism website IOW Council information
Newtown River is a large natural inland harbour located on the Isle of Wight's northwestern coast, named after the nearby village of Newtown. It is sometimes referred to as Newtown Creek. Newtown Harbour is the name given by Natural England to the River and surrounding land, this area is the only national nature reserve on the island, it is managed by the National Trust. Newtown River consists of a number of estuaries of small rivers, has the form of several finger-like indentations in the coastline; the narrow entrance to Newtown River is 3/4 of a mile east of Hamstead Point, in the centre of Newtown Bay. The entrance needs navigating with care as there is a bar across the entrance, strong cross tides and a fair flow of water in and out of the entrance channel at mid-tide. Although a lot of mud is exposed in the harbour at low water there are a number of moorings in the deeper parts of the creeks and lakes and the anchorage can become crowded at weekends during the main sailing season. Scouts from nearby Corf Camp make use of the Estuary for expeditions from the jetty on the shore.
The harbour is loved for its unspoilt tranquility. The River and adjoining land are regarded as one of the best examples of an undisturbed natural harbour on the south coast of England with its varied habitats ranging from woodland, ancient meadows and marshland, it supports a number of rare species, but its primary importance is as a wintering ground for seabirds. The River is part of the Isle of Wight’s Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, is part of the Hamstead Heritage Coast; the area is part of a 619.3 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest. It was notified in 1951; the villages of Newtown and Shalfleet lie close to its shore. Information on Newtown River from a poor sailor Natural England entry Isle of Wight Council entry IOW AONB map English Nature SSSI citation sheet
Thorness Bay is an 86.2 hectare Site of special scientific interest, located on the north-west coast of the Isle of Wight, England, in the western arm of the Solent. The site was notified in 1966 for both its geological features; the bay stretches about 3 km from Salt Mead Ledge in the west to Gurnard Head to the east. The sea bed is a mixture of sand. A small unnamed brook enters the sea in the middle of the bay after passing through a marsh. Little Thorness Farm, a beef farm near the bay has 18 acres of protected marshland under stewardship and is a SSSI because it is home to wildlife not found in other areas. Thorness Bay has a holiday park run by Parkdean Resorts, it has a direct footpath leading straight to the beach. Natural England citation sheet
Porchfield is a village on the Isle of Wight between Cowes and Yarmouth. It is located 4 1⁄4 miles southwest of Cowes in the northwest of the island, it is in the town of Newport. Porchfield has a village hall - see external link below - and the nearest church is the Church of the Holy Spirit, in Newtown. There are two bed and breakfasts in Porchfield, "Youngwoods Farm" and "The Ridings". Colemans Animal Farm in Porchfield was a dairy farm from 1558 until the 1990s, when it was transformed into a family attraction. There is a pub called "The Sportsman's Rest". Wightbus bus route 35 serves the village on its way between Newtown. Porchfield and Newtown Village Hall Porchfield Netguide to Porchfield on the Isle of Wight Colemans Animal Farm website