Activision Publishing, Inc. is an American video game publisher based in Santa Monica. It serves as the publishing business for its parent company, Activision Blizzard, consists of several subsidiary studios; as of January 2017, Activision is one of the largest third-party video game publishers in the world and was the top publisher for 2016 in the United States. The company was founded as Activision, Inc. in October 1979 in Sunnyvale, California, by former Atari game developers, upset at how they were treated at Atari, to develop their own games for the popular Atari 2600 home video game console. Activision was recognized as the first independent third-party video game developer; the 1983 video game crash, in part created by too many new companies trying to follow in Activison's footsteps without the expertise of Activision's founders, hurt Activision's position in console games, forcing them to diversify into games for home computers, including the acquisition of Infocom. After a management shift, with CEO Jim Levy replaced by Bruce Davis, the company renamed itself as Mediagenic and branched out into business software applications.
Mediagenic fell into debt, the company was bought for around US$500,000 by Bobby Kotick and a small group of investors around 1991. Kotick instituted a full rework of the company to cover its debts, dismissing most of its staff, moving the company to Los Angeles, reincorporated under the Activision name. Building on existing assets, the Kotick-led Activision pursued more publishing opportunities, after recovering from the former debt, started acquiring numerous studies and intellectual properties over the 1990s and 2000s, among these being the Call of Duty and Guitar Hero series. Activision Holdings acquires studios. In 2008, Activision's parent merged with Vivendi Games, the parent company of Blizzard Entertainment, formed Activision Blizzard, with Kotick as its CEO. Within this structure, Activision serves to manage numerous third-party studios and publish all of the parent company's games outside of those created by Blizzard. By 1979, Nolan Bushnell had sold Atari, Inc. to Warner Communications and had left the company over several disagreements with the direction Warner wanted to take the company with the popular Atari 2600 game console.
Bushnell's replacement as CEO, Ray Kassar, showed little respect to developers, giving them no financial compensation for games that did well, would not allow developers' names be credited with games for fear they would be procured by other game companies. David Crane, one of Atari's programmers, recalled a memo sent by Kassar that listed the best-selling cartridges from the previous year to help guide game ideas. Crane had considered that for those games that he was responsible for had brought in over US$20 million for the company but he was still only receiving a US$20,000 salary. Crane, along with Larry Kaplan, Alan Miller and Bob Whitehead became vocal about the lack of recognition within the company and became known as the "Gang of Four"; the group met with Kassar in May 1979 to demand that the company treat developers as record labels treated musicians, with royalties and their names on game boxes. Kaplan, who called the others "the best designers for the in the world", recalled that Kassar called the four men "towel designers" and claimed that "anybody can do a cartridge".
The four made the decision to soon leave Atari and start their own business, but were not sure how to go about it. Some developers had left Atari, only to be hired back as contractors doubling their pay rate, but the four wanted something more ambitious. In 1979, the concept of third-party developers did not exist; as software for video game consoles were published by makers of the systems for which the games were designed. The four decided to create their own independent game development company, they were directed by their attorney to Jim Levy, at the time working for GRT Records to raise venture capital to go into the manufacture of cassette tape drives for early home computers. Levy listened to their plans, agreed with its direction, helped the four to secure about US$1 million in capital from Sutter Hill Ventures. By August and Miller had left Atari, with Whitehead and Kaplan joining them shortly after. Activision was formally founded on October 1, 1979, with Levy serving as CEO; the company was named "Computer Arts, Inc." while they considered a better title.
While the four had thought of the name VSync, Inc. there was fear that the public would not understand or known how to say it. The four's departure from Atari created a major dent in Atari's developer staff, Atari pursued legal action from 1980 to 1982 to try to shut down Activision, claiming the four had stolen trade secrets; the lawsuit was settled by 1982, with Activision agreeing to pay royalties to Atari but otherwise legitimizing the third-party development model. The four were aided by their knowledge of the Atari 2600 to be able to develop their cartridges as well as software tricks with the console in making their own games, trying to make them visually distinctive from Atari-produced games; each developed their own title, about one a year over the first few years of the company. To further distinguish themselves, Activision's boxes were brightly-colored, predominately used an in-game screenshot on the back cover so consumers would be aware of what they were getting. Instruction manuals for games devoted a least one page to credit the developer.
Additionally, for nearly all of Activision's games through 1983, the instruction manual included instructions for sending the
The Nintendo GameCube is a home video game console released by Nintendo in Japan and North America in 2001 and Europe and Australia in 2002. The sixth-generation console is the successor to the Nintendo 64, designed to compete with Sony's PlayStation 2 and Microsoft's Xbox; the GameCube is the first Nintendo console to use optical discs as its primary storage medium. The discs are in the miniDVD format and the system was not designed to play full-sized DVDs or audio CDs, unlike its competitors, focused on gaming instead; the console supports online gaming for a small number of games via a GameCube broadband or modem adapter and can connect to a Game Boy Advance with a link cable, which allows players to access exclusive in-game features using the handheld as a second screen and controller. The GameCube uses composite video cables to display games on the television; the models produced before May 2004 had the ability to use digital component AV cables and progressive scan and a second serial port.
The nameplate on the top of the console with the words "Nintendo GameCube" could be removed. This model was known as DOL-001. All those features were removed in GameCube consoles produced between 2004-2007; the newer model had firmware that disabled Action Replay cheats and cheat codes and the disc-reading laser was improved in many ways, though it did not last as long. The newer model came with a 48-watt AC adapter to power the console, while the original was 46 watts. Reception of the GameCube at the time was positive; the console was praised for its controller, extensive software library and high-quality games, but was criticized for its exterior design and lack of features. Nintendo sold 21.74 million GameCube units worldwide before the console was discontinued in 2007. Its successor, the seventh-generation Wii, was released in November 2006. In 1997, a graphics hardware design company called ArtX was launched, staffed by twenty engineers who had worked at SGI on the design of the Nintendo 64's graphics hardware.
The team was led by Dr. Wei Yen, SGI's head of Nintendo Operations, the department responsible for the Nintendo 64's fundamental architectural design. Partnering with Nintendo in 1998, ArtX began the complete design of the system logic and of the graphics processor of Nintendo's sixth-generation video game console bearing the early internal code name of "N2000". At Nintendo's press conference in May 1999, the console was first publicly announced as "Project Dolphin", the successor to the Nintendo 64. Subsequently, Nintendo began providing development kits to game developers such as Rare and Retro Studios. Nintendo formed a strategic partnership with IBM, who created the Dolphin's CPU, named "Gekko". ArtX was acquired by ATI in April 2000, whereupon the Flipper graphics processor design had been completed by ArtX and was not overtly influenced by ATI. In total, ArtX team cofounder Greg Buchner recalled that their portion of the console's hardware design timeline had arced from inception in 1998 to completion in 2000.
Of ATI's acquisition of ArtX, an ATI spokesperson said, "ATI now becomes a major supplier to the game console market via Nintendo. The Dolphin platform is reputed to be king of the hill in terms of graphics and video performance with 128-bit architecture."The console was announced as the GameCube at a press conference in Japan on August 24, 2000, abbreviated as "NGC" in Japan and "GCN" in North America. Nintendo unveiled its software lineup for the sixth-generation console at E3 2001, focusing on fifteen launch games, including Luigi's Mansion and Star Wars Rogue Squadron II: Rogue Leader. Several games scheduled to launch with the console were delayed, it is the first console in the company's history not to accompany a Super Mario platform game at launch. Long before the console's launch, Nintendo had developed and patented an early prototype of motion controls for the GameCube, with which developer Factor 5 had experimented for its launch games. An interview quoted Greg Thomas, Sega of America's VP of Development as saying, "What does worry me is Dolphin's sensory controllers because there's an example of someone thinking about something different."
These motion control concepts would not be deployed to consumers for several years, until the Wii Remote. Prior to the GameCube's release, Nintendo focused resources on the launch of the Game Boy Advance, a handheld game console and successor to the original Game Boy and Game Boy Color; as a result, several games destined for the Nintendo 64 console were postponed in favor of becoming early releases on the GameCube. The last first-party game in 2001 for the Nintendo 64 was released in May, a month before the Game Boy Advance's launch and six months before the GameCube's, emphasizing the company's shift in resources. Concurrently, Nintendo was developing software for the GameCube which would provision future connectivity between it and the Game Boy Advance. Certain games, such as The Legend of Zelda: Four Swords Adventures and Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles, can use the handheld as a secondary screen and controller when connected to the console via a link cable. Nintendo began its marketing campaign with the catchphrase "The Nintendo Difference" at its E3 2001 reveal.
The goal was to distinguish itself from the competition as an entertainment company. Advertisements push the slogan, "Born to Play", video game commercials feature a rotating cube animation that morphs into a GameCube logo and ends with a voice whisperin
Ubisoft Entertainment SA is a French video game company headquartered in Montreuil with several development studios across the world. It is known for publishing games for several acclaimed video game franchises, including Assassin's Creed, Far Cry, Just Dance, Prince of Persia, Raving Rabbids, Tom Clancy's; as of March 2018, Ubisoft is the fourth largest publicly-traded game company in the Americas and Europe after Activision Blizzard, Electronic Arts, Take-Two Interactive in terms of revenue and market capitalisation. The Guillemot family had established themselves as a farming support business for farmers in the Brittany province in northwest France and nearby regions, including into the United Kingdom; the five sons of the family – Christian, Claude, Gérard and Yves – helped with the sales, distribution and management of the company with their parents prior to university. All five gained business experience while at university, which they brought back to the family business to help improve it, at a time where farming businesses were starting to wane.
The brothers came up with the idea of diversification to sell other products of use to farmers. In the early 1980s, they saw that the costs of buying computers and software from a French supplier was more expensive than buying the same materials in the United Kingdom and shipping to France, came upon the idea of a mail-order business around computers and software, their mother said they could start their own business this way as long as they managed it themselves and split its shares between the five of them. Their first business was Guillemot Informatique, founded in 1984, they only sold through mail order, but soon were getting orders from French retailers, since they were able to undercut other suppliers by up to 50% of the cost of new titles. By 1986, this company was earning about 40 million French francs. In 1985, the brothers established Guillemot Corporation for similar distribution of computer hardware; as demand continued, the brothers recognised that video game software was becoming a lucrative property, decided that they needed to get into the development side of the industry having insight on the publication and distribution side.
Ubi Soft was founded by the brothers on 28 March 1986. The name "Ubi Soft" was selected to represent "ubiquitous" software. Ubi Soft operated out of offices in Paris, moving to Créteil by June 1986; the brothers used the chateau in France's Brittany region as the primary space for development, hoping the setting would lure developers, as well as to have a better way to manage expectations of their developers. The company hired Nathalie Saloud as manager, Sylvie Hugonnier as director of marketing and public relations, as well as several programmers, though Hugonnier had left the company by May 1986 to join Elite Software. Games published by Ubi Soft in 1986 include Zombi, Ciné Clap, Fer et Flamme, Masque, as well as Graphic City, a sprite editing programme; as their first-ever game, Zombi became a critical and commercial success, had sold five thousand copies by January 1987. Ubi Soft entered into distribution partnerships for the game to be released in Spain and West Germany. Ubi Soft started importing products from abroad for distribution in France, with 1987 releases including Elite Software's Commando and Ikari Warriors, the former of which had sold 15,000 copies by January 1987.
In 1988, Yves Guillemot was appointed as Ubi Soft's chief executive officer. Around 1988, the costs of maintaining the chateau were too expensive, the developers, about a half-dozen at the time, were given the option to relocate to Paris. One of Ubi Soft's first hires was Michel Ancel, only a teenager at the time, but had been noticed by the brothers for his animation skills, he and his family relocated to Brittany. However, with the chateau's closure, Ancel's family could not afford the cost of living in Paris, returned to Montpellier in southern France, while the Guillemot brothers told Ancel to keep them abreast of anything he might come up with there. Ancel came back with Frédéric Houde with a prototype of a game with highly-animated features which caught the brothers' interest. Michel Guillemot decided to make the project a key one for the company, establishing a studio in Montreuil to house over 100 developers in 1994, targeting the new line of fifth generation consoles like the Atari Jaguar and PlayStation.
Their game, was released in 1995 to critical success, is considered the game that put Ubi Soft in the worldwide spotlight. Alongside this, Yves managed Guillemot Informatique, making deals with Electronic Arts, Sierra On-Line and MicroProse to distribute their games in France. By the end of the decade, Guillemot Informatique began expanding to other markets, including the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany, they entered the video game distribution and wholesale markets, by 1993 they had become the largest distributor of video games in France. In 1996, Ubi Soft listed its initial public offering and raised over US$80 million in funds to help them to expand the company. Within two years, the company established worldwide studios in Annecy, Shanghai and Milan. One difficulty that the brothers found was the lack of an intellectual property that would have a foothold in the United States market; when widespread growth of the Internet arrived around 1999, the brothers decided to take advantage of this by founding game studios aimed at online
Captain America: Super Soldier
Captain America: Super Soldier is a 2011 third-person single-player video game published by Sega for Nintendo DS, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Nintendo 3DS. It is based on the film Captain America: The First Avenger; the story of the game takes place during the events of the film, telling Captain America's adventures against the Red Skull and HYDRA. HYDRA's castle appears in the game as Captain America has to fight many henchmen such as the infamous Iron Cross, the forces of HYDRA, Red Skull. Arnim Zola appears in the game as players will have to stop his evil experiments. Chris Evans, Neal McDonough, Hayley Atwell, Sebastian Stan, Kenneth Choi and JJ Feild reprise their roles from the film. PC and PlayStation Portable versions were planned, but cancelled; the version for iOS is titled Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty. Captain America: Super Soldier combines a athletic combat system with fluid platforming and a tuned suite of shield attacks, as Captain America explores a massive castle turned military installation.
His shield can be employed in numerous ways: take out multiple enemies at once, deflect incoming fire back at enemies, solve puzzles, scale walls. Players will be able to launch shield-first into the fray with the superior force of the world's first Super-Soldier at their fingertips to overcome a castle that's both an acrobatic playground for Captain America's physical prowess and a house of mystery with enemies and danger at every turn; the controllable character can be made stronger by Intel points. Intel points can be collected by retrieving items in the battlefield; the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 versions of Captain America: Super Soldier include a stereoscopic 3D mode for 3D HDTVs and for 2D HDTVs via Inficolor 3D glasses. It uses TriOviz for Game Technology, integrated with Unreal Engine 3, for stereoscopic 3D support. All Captain America: Super Soldier gameplay and cinematics have S3D support; the game begins in France in 1944, where two U. S. soldiers are getting attacked by HYDRA forces.
Captain America arrives to save them and manages to fend off the Hydra forces before contacting Howard Stark with regards to the new threat. While in communication with Peggy Carter, Captain America learns that the munitions recovered from the battle came from the mountains of Bavaria based on the rare metal used. Captain America is briefed on Project: Master Man and how Dr. Arnim Zola has unlocked the secrets of the human genome as one step towards immortality, he drops down in a village near the castle and disables anti-air forces so that the Invaders can enter the village. He proceeds towards the armory in order to destroy the weapons before they are sold to the Nazis. While Captain America makes his way through the enemy forces led by Baron Wolfgang Von Strucker, he is surprised by Strucker, who manages to knock him unconscious as they both fall from the exploding tower. Captain America is taken to Zola's lab by Iron Cross and sees Madam Hydra give orders for an analysis of Captain America's shield.
After a brief talk of how his blood was taken, Zola shows his new project involving more test subjects containing the Super Soldier Serum from the Captain's blood. He shortly breaks free and proceeds through the base to destroy the samples of Zola's experiments for an army of Super Soldiers. After rescuing Bucky Barnes, Bucky informs Rogers that some of their friends are being held captive near his present location; as he makes his way to rescue Dum Dum Dugan and Falsworth, Zola's experimental Super Soldiers escape. After freeing Dugan, he pursues Madam Hydra, he catches up to her and in the exchange. Captain America decides to pursue Red Skull instead, intended to use the Cosmic Cube to activate the Sleeper. Captain America uses a train to enter Zola's special lab. Red Skull arrives wanting the upgraded Super Soldier serum Zola synthesized from the Captain's blood. Captain America follows and destroys the sample, enraging Red Skull who orders Iron Cross to kill him. Captain America defeats Iron Cross and pursues Skull, only for the Sleeper to awake and crumble the lab.
Zola escapes and activates a robot body for a use. Captain America finds a map of his location, using it to locate Falsworth. Having located Falsworth, Zola's robot arrives and attempts to kill Captain America. After defeating the Zola Bot, he frees Falsworth. Falsworth reveals that something big is underground that not the planes can stop. Captain America makes his way to the courtyard to confront the Sleeper which shoots down one of the airplanes. With Dugan's help, he manages to destroy the Sleeper. Upon escaping the exploding castle, Captain America rendezvous with Bucky and Falsworth. In the post-credits Arnim Zola unplugs from his defeated Zola Bots. Red Skull orders him to get back to work, stating that they will be seeing Captain America again soon enough; the game received mixed reviews upon release, with review aggregation site Metacritic giving the Xbox 360 version an average score of 60/100, the PlayStation 3 a 61/100, the Wii a 57/100. IGN gave the game a 5/10, praising the "Solid and varied combat", but criticizing the lack of cinematic experience.
GameSpot gave 6.5/10, stating "Captain America bashes enemies with style, but a dull story and bland visuals keep Super Soldier from being a star-spangled success". Some reviews were positive with G4 giving the game a 4/5, offering praise for rising above then-recent comic book adaptations Thor: God of Thunder and Iron Man 2, the UK's Official PlayStation Magazine giving the game 7 out of 10, praising the combat and general tone of the game but criticizing elements of the presentation and reliance on'Quick Time Events'. Captain America
Xbox is a video gaming brand created and owned by Microsoft. It represents a series of video game consoles developed by Microsoft, with three consoles released in the sixth and eighth generations, respectively; the brand represents applications, streaming services, an online service by the name of Xbox Live, the development arm by the name of Xbox Game Studios. The brand was first introduced in the United States in November 2001, with the launch of the original Xbox console; the original device was the first video game console offered by an American company after the Atari Jaguar stopped sales in 1996. It reached over 24 million units sold as of May 2006. Microsoft's second console, the Xbox 360, was released in 2005 and has sold over 77.2 million consoles worldwide as of April 2013. The Xbox One has been released in 21 markets in total, with a Chinese release in September 2014; the head of Xbox is Phil Spencer, who succeeded former head Marc Whitten in late March 2014. The original Xbox was released on November 15, 2001, in North America, February 22, 2002, in Japan, March 14, 2002, in Australia and Europe.
It was Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market. As part of the sixth-generation of gaming, the Xbox competed with Sony's PlayStation 2, Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube; the Xbox was the first console offered by an American company after the Atari Jaguar stopped sales in 1996. The name Xbox was derived from a contraction of DirectX Box, a reference to Microsoft's graphics API, DirectX; the integrated Xbox Live service launched in November 2002 allowed players to play games online with or without a broadband connection. It first competed with Dreamcast's online service but primarily competed with PlayStation 2's online service. Although these two are free while Xbox Live required a subscription, as well as broadband-only connection, not adopted yet, Xbox Live was a success due to better servers, features such as a buddy list, milestone titles like Halo 2 released in November 2004, the best-selling Xbox video game and was by far the most popular online game for years; the Xbox 360 was released as the successor of the original Xbox in November 2005, competing with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles.
As of June 30, 2013, 78.2 million Xbox 360 consoles have been sold worldwide. The Xbox 360 was unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged that month at the Electronic Entertainment Expo; the console sold out upon release in all regions except in Japan. The Xbox 360 showed an expanded Xbox Live service, the ability to stream multimedia content from PCs, while updates added the ability to purchase and stream music, television programs, films through the Xbox Music and Xbox Video services, along with access to third-party content services through third-party media streaming applications. Microsoft released Kinect, a motion control system for the Xbox 360 which uses an advanced sensor system. At their E3 presentation on June 14, 2010, Microsoft announced a redesigned Xbox 360 that would ship on the same day; the redesigned console is slimmer than the previous Xbox 360 model and features integrated 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi, TOSLINK S/PDIF optical audio output, five USB 2.0 ports and special port designed for the Kinect peripheral.
Older models of the Xbox 360 have since been discontinued. The first new console to be released features a 250 GB hard drive, while a less expensive SKU features 4 GB internal storage; the Xbox One was released on November 22, 2013, in North America, as the successor of the Xbox 360. The Xbox One competes with Sony's PlayStation 4 and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch as part of the eighth generation of video game consoles. Announced on May 21, 2013, the Xbox One has an emphasis on internet-based features, including the ability to record and stream gameplay, the ability to integrate with a set-top box to watch cable or satellite TV through the console with an enhanced guide interface and Kinect-based voice control. Following its unveiling, the Xbox One proved controversial for its original digital rights management and privacy practices. After an overwhelmingly negative response from critics and consumers, Microsoft announced that these restrictions would be dropped. Microsoft was criticized for requiring the Xbox One to have its updated Kinect peripheral plugged in to function, which critics and privacy advocates believed could be used as a surveillance device.
As a gesture toward showing a commitment to user privacy, Microsoft decided to allow the console to function without Kinect. On June 13, 2016, Microsoft announced the Xbox One S, a slimmer version of the Xbox One, at E3 2016. Phil Spencer, head of Xbox, announced Project Scorpio at E3 2016 on June 13, 2016, an addition to the Xbox One family, saying it would release in Holiday 2017. At E3 2017, Microsoft revealed the final name of the console to be Xbox One X
The Xbox 360 is a home video game console developed by Microsoft. As the successor to the original Xbox, it is the second console in the Xbox series, it competed with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information announced that month at the 2005 Electronic Entertainment Expo; the Xbox 360 features an online service, Xbox Live, expanded from its previous iteration on the original Xbox and received regular updates during the console's lifetime. Available in free and subscription-based varieties, Xbox Live allows users to: play games online. In addition to online multimedia features, it allows users to stream media from local PCs. Several peripherals have been released, including wireless controllers, expanded hard drive storage, the Kinect motion sensing camera; the release of these additional services and peripherals helped the Xbox brand grow from gaming-only to encompassing all multimedia, turning it into a hub for living-room computing entertainment.
Launched worldwide across 2005–2006, the Xbox 360 was in short supply in many regions, including North America and Europe. The earliest versions of the console suffered from a high failure rate, indicated by the so-called "Red Ring of Death", necessitating an extension of the device's warranty period. Microsoft released two redesigned models of the console: the Xbox 360 S in 2010, the Xbox 360 E in 2013; as of June 2014, 84 million Xbox 360 consoles have been sold worldwide, making it the seventh-highest-selling video game console in history, the highest-selling console made by an American company. Although not the best-selling console of its generation, the Xbox 360 was deemed by TechRadar to be the most influential through its emphasis on digital media distribution and multiplayer gaming on Xbox Live; the Xbox 360's successor, the Xbox One, was released on November 22, 2013. On April 20, 2016, Microsoft announced that it would end the production of new Xbox 360 hardware, although the company will continue to support the platform.
Known during development as Xbox Next, Xbox 2, Xbox FS or NextBox, the Xbox 360 was conceived in early 2003. In February 2003, planning for the Xenon software platform began, was headed by Microsoft's Vice President J Allard; that month, Microsoft held an event for 400 developers in Bellevue, Washington to recruit support for the system. That month, Peter Moore, former president of Sega of America, joined Microsoft. On August 12, 2003, ATI signed on to produce the graphic processing unit for the new console, a deal, publicly announced two days later. Before the launch of the Xbox 360, several Alpha development kits were spotted using Apple's Power Mac G5 hardware; this was because the system's PowerPC 970 processor running the same PowerPC architecture that the Xbox 360 would run under IBM's Xenon processor. The cores of the Xenon processor were developed using a modified version of the PlayStation 3's Cell Processor PPE architecture. According to David Shippy and Mickie Phipps, the IBM employees were "hiding" their work from Sony and Toshiba, IBM's partners in developing the Cell Processor.
Jeff Minter created the music visualization program Neon, included with the Xbox 360. The Xbox 360 was released on November 2005, in the United States and Canada, it was launched in Mexico, Chile, Hong Kong, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Russia. In its first year on the market, the system launched in 36 countries, more countries than any other console has launched in a single year. In 2009, IGN named the Xbox 360 the sixth-greatest video game console of all time, out of a field of 25. Although not the best-selling console of the seventh-generation, the Xbox 360 was deemed by TechRadar to be the most influential, by emphasizing digital media distribution and online gaming through Xbox Live, by popularizing game achievement awards. PC Magazine considered the Xbox 360 the prototype for online gaming as it "proved that online gaming communities could thrive in the console space". Five years after the Xbox 360's original debut, the well-received Kinect motion capture camera was released, which set the record of being the fastest selling consumer electronic device in history, extended the life of the console.
Edge ranked Xbox 360 the second-best console of the 1993–2013 period, stating "It had its own social network, cross-game chat, new indie games every week, the best version of just about every multiformat game... Killzone is no Halo and nowadays Gran Turismo is no Forza, but it's not about the exclusives—there's nothing to trump Naughty Dog's PS3 output, after all. Rather, it's about the choices Microsoft made back in the original Xbox's lifetime; the PC-like architecture meant the early EA Sports games ran at 60fps compared to only 30 on PS3, Xbox Live meant every dedicated player had an existing friends list, Halo meant Microsoft had the killer next-generation exclusive. And when developers demo games on PC now they do it with a 360 pad—another industry benchmark, a critical one." The Xbox 360 began production only 69 days before launch, Microsoft was not able to supply enough systems to meet initial consumer demand in Europe or North America, selling out upon release in all regions except in Japan.
Forty thousand units were offered for sale on auction site eBay during the initial week of
Sega Games Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. The company known as Sega Enterprises Ltd. and Sega Corporation, is a subsidiary of Sega Holdings Co. Ltd., part of Sega Sammy Holdings. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega of Europe, are headquartered in Irvine and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co. Ltd. a Sega Holdings subsidiary, since 2015. The company was founded by Martin Bromley as Nihon Goraku Bussan on June 3, 1960, which became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. after acquiring Rosen Enterprises, an importer of coin-operated games. Sega developed its first coin-operated game with Periscope in the late 1960s. In 1969, Sega was sold to Western Industries. Following a downturn in the arcade business in the early 1980s, Sega began to develop video game consoles, starting with the SG-1000 and Master System, but struggled against competitors such as the Nintendo Entertainment System.
In 1984, Sega executives David Rosen and Hayao Nakayama led a management buyout of the company with backing from CSK Corporation. Sega released its next console, the Sega Genesis, in 1988. Although it was a distant third in Japan, the Genesis found major success after the release of Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991 and outsold its main competitor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, in the U. S; however in the decade, Sega suffered commercial failures such as the 32X, Sega Saturn, Dreamcast consoles. In 2001, Sega stopped manufacturing consoles to become a third-party developer and publisher, was acquired by Sammy Corporation in 2004. In the years since the acquisition, Sega has been more profitable, but has been criticized for prioritizing quantity of game releases over quality. Sega produces multi-million-selling game franchises including Sonic the Hedgehog, Total War, Yakuza, is the world's most prolific arcade game producer, it operates amusement arcades and produces other entertainment products, including Sega Toys.
Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings, a corporate conglomerate with over 60 individual subsidiaries. In 1940, American businessmen Martin Bromley, Irving Bromberg, James Humpert formed Standard Games in Honolulu, Hawaii, to provide coin-operated amusement machines to military bases, they saw that the increase in military personnel with the onset of World War II would create demand for entertainment at military bases. After the war, the founders sold Standard Games and established a new distributor, Service Games, named for the military focus. In 1951, the United States government outlawed slot machines in US territories, so in 1952 Bromley sent two employees, Richard Stewart and Ray LeMaire, to Tokyo to establish a new distributor; the company provided coin-operated slot machines to U. S. bases in Japan, by 1953 had changed its name to Service Games of Japan. The name Sega, an abbreviation of Service Games, was first used in 1954 on the Diamond Star Machine, a slot machine. On May 31, 1960, Service Games of Japan was dissolved.
On June 3, Bromley established two companies to take over its business activities: Nihon Goraku Bussan and Nihon Kikai Seizō. Kikai Seizō focused on manufacturing Sega machines, while Goraku Bussan served as a distributor and operator of coin-operated machines jukeboxes; the two companies merged in 1964. In 1954, David Rosen, an American officer in the United States Air Force stationed in Japan, launched a two-minute photo booth business in Tokyo; this company became Rosen Enterprises, in 1957 began importing coin-operated games to Japan. In 1965, Nihon Goraku Bussan acquired Rosen Enterprise to form Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Rosen was installed as the CEO and managing director. Shortly afterward, Sega stopped leasing to military bases and moved its focus from slot machines to become a publicly traded company of coin-operated amusement machines, its imports included Rock-Ola jukeboxes, pinball games by Williams, gun games by Midway Manufacturing. Because Sega imported second-hand machines that required maintenance, Sega began the transition from importer to manufacturer by constructing replacement guns and flippers for its imported games.
According to former Sega director Akira Nagai, this led to Sega developing their own games as well. The first electromechanical game Sega manufactured was the submarine simulator game Periscope, released worldwide in the late 1960s; the game sported light and sound effects considered innovative, was successful in Japan. It was placed in malls and department stores, it cost 25 cents per play in the United States. Sega was surprised by the success, for the next two years produced and exported between eight and ten games per year. Despite this, rampant piracy in the industry would lead to Sega stepping away from exporting its games. In order to advance the company, Rosen had a goal to take the company public, decided this would be easier to accomplish in the United States than in Japan. Rosen was advised that this would be easiest accomplished by Sega being acquired by a larger company. In 1969, Sega was sold to American conglomerate Gulf and Western Industries, although Rosen remained CEO following the sale.
Rosen continued to develop his relationship with Gulf and Western chairman Charles Bluhdorn, in 1974 Gulf and Western made Sega Enterprises, Ltd. a subsidiary of an American company renamed Sega Enterprises, Inc. Sega released Pong-Tron, its first video-based game, in 1973. Despite late competition from Taito's hit arcade game Space Invaders in 1978, Sega prospered from the arcade gam