Google Assistant is an artificial intelligence-powered virtual assistant developed by Google, available on mobile and smart home devices. Unlike the company's previous virtual assistant, Google Now, Google Assistant can engage in two-way conversations. Assistant debuted in May 2016 as part of Google's messaging app Allo, its voice-activated speaker Google Home. After a period of exclusivity on the Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones, it began to be deployed on other Android devices in February 2017, including third-party smartphones and Android Wear, was released as a standalone app on the iOS operating system in May 2017. Alongside the announcement of a software development kit in April 2017, the Assistant has been, is being, further extended to support a large variety of devices, including cars and third party smart home appliances; the functionality of the Assistant can be enhanced by third-party developers. In 2017, Google Assistant was installed on more than 400 million devices. Users interact with Google Assistant through natural voice, though keyboard input is supported.
In the same nature and manner as Google Now, the Assistant is able to search the Internet, schedule events and alarms, adjust hardware settings on the user's device, show information from the user's Google account. Google has announced that the Assistant will be able to identify objects and gather visual information through the device's camera, support purchasing products and sending money, as well as identifying songs. At CES 2018, the first Assistant-powered smart displays were announced, with the first one being released in July 2018. Google Assistant was unveiled during Google's developer conference on May 18, 2016, as part of the unveiling of the Google Home smart speaker and new messaging app Allo; that month, Google assigned Google Doodle leader Ryan Germick and hired former Pixar animator Emma Coats to develop "a little more of a personality." For system-level integration outside of the Allo app and Google Home, Google Assistant was exclusive to the Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones. In February 2017, Google announced that it had begun to enable access to the Assistant on Android smartphones running Android Marshmallow or Nougat, beginning in select English-speaking markets.
Android tablets did not receive the Assistant as part of this rollout. The Assistant is integrated in Android Wear 2.0, will be included in future versions of Android TV and Android Auto. In October 2017, the Google Pixelbook became the first laptop to include Google Assistant. Google Assistant came to the Google Pixel Buds. In December 2017, Google announced that the Assistant would be released for phones running Android Lollipop through an update to Google Play Services, as well as tablets running 6.0 Marshmallow and 7.0 Nougat. On May 15, 2017, Android Police reported that Google Assistant would be coming to the iOS operating system as a separate app; the information was confirmed two days at Google's developer conference. In January 2018 at the Consumer Electronics Show, the first Assistant-powered "smart displays" were released. Smart displays were shown at the event from Lenovo, Sony, JBL and LG; these devices have support for Google Duo video calls, YouTube videos, Google Maps directions, a Google Calendar agenda, viewing of smart camera footage, in addition to services which work with Google Home devices.
These devices are based on Google-developed software. Google unveiled its own smart display, Google Home Hub, in October 2018, which utilizes a different system platform. In December 2016, Google launched "Actions on Google", a developer platform for Google Assistant. Actions on Google allows 3rd party developers to build apps for Google Assistant. In March 2017, Google added new tools for developing on Actions on Google to support the creation of games for Google Assistant. Limited to the Google Home smart speaker, Actions on Google was made available to Android and iOS devices in May 2017, at which time Google introduced an app directory for overview of compatible products and services. To incentivize developers to build Actions, Google announced a competition, in which first place won tickets to Google's 2018 developer conference, $10,000, a walk-through of Google's campus, while second place and third place received $7,500 and $5,000 and a Google Home. In April 2017, a software development kit was released, allowing third-party developers to build their own hardware that can run Google Assistant.
It has been integrated into Raspberry Pi, cars from Audi and Volvo, smart home appliances, including fridges and ovens, from companies including iRobot, LG, General Electric, D-Link. Google updated the SDK in December 2017 to add several features that only the Google Home smart speakers and Google Assistant smartphone apps had supported; the features include: letting third-party device makers incorporate their own "Actions on Google" commands for their respective products incorporating text-based interactions and more languages allowing users to set a precise geographic location for the device to enable improved location-specific queries. On May 2, 2018, Google announced a new program on their blog that focuses on investing in the future of Google Assistant through early-stage startups, their focus was to build an environment where developers could build richer experiences for their users. This includes startups that broaden Assistant's features, are building new hardware devices, or differentiating in different industries.
Google Nexus is a line of consumer electronic devices that run the Android operating system. Google manages the design, development and support of these devices, but some development and all manufacturing are carried out by partnering with original equipment manufacturers; the line has included tablets and streaming media players, though neither type of device is available. The most recent tablet was the Nexus 9, the most recent streaming media player the Nexus Player. Devices in the Nexus line were considered Google's flagship Android products, they contain little to no manufacturer or wireless carrier modifications to Android, although devices sold through carriers may be SIM locked and may bear some extra branding. Nexus 6 devices sold through AT&T, for example, are SIM locked and feature a custom boot splash screen and a logo on the back of the device, despite having otherwise identical hardware to the unlocked variant; the Verizon Galaxy Nexus featured a Verizon logo on the back and received software updates at a slower pace than the unlocked variant, though it featured different hardware to accommodate Verizon's CDMA network.
All Nexus devices feature an unlockable bootloader to allow further development and end-user modification. Nexus devices are among the first Android devices to receive updates to the operating system. With the expansion of the Google Pixel product line in late 2016, Google stated that they "don’t want to close a door but there is no plan right now to do more Nexus devices." In 2017 Google partnered with HMD Global in making new Nokia phones, which have been considered by some as a revival of Nexus. The Nexus One was released in January 2010 as the first Nexus phone, it was released with Android 2.1 Eclair, was updated in May 2010 to be the first phone with Android 2.2 Froyo. It was further updated to Android 2.3 Gingerbread. It was announced that Google would cease support for the Nexus One, whose graphics processing unit is poor at rendering the new 2D acceleration engine of the UI in Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich. The Nexus S and newer models have hardware designed to handle the new rendering.
It was the only Nexus device to have card storage expandability. Display: 3.7" display with 800×480 pixel resolution CPU: 1 GHz Qualcomm Scorpion Storage: 512 MB RAM: 512 MB GPU: Adreno 200 Camera: 5 MP rear camera The Nexus S, manufactured by Samsung, was released in December 2010 to coincide with the release of Android 2.3 Gingerbread. In December 2011 it was updated to Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich, with most variations being updatable to Android 4.1 Jelly Bean in July 2012. The device's support no longer receives updates from Google. Display: 4.0" display with 800×480 pixel resolution Chipset: Hummingbird CPU: 1 GHz single-core ARM Cortex-A8 Storage: 16 GB RAM: 512 MB GPU: PowerVR SGX540 Battery: 1500 mAH The Galaxy Nexus, manufactured by Samsung, was released in November 2011 to coincide with the release of Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich. The device support no longer receives updates from Google; this device is known in Brazil as Galaxy X due to a trademark on the "Nexus" brand. It is the last Nexus device to have a removable battery.
Display: 4.65" HD Super AMOLED display with 1280×720 pixel resolution CPU: 1.2 GHz dual-core ARM Cortex A9 Storage: 16 or 32 GB RAM: 1 GB The Nexus 4 smartphone known as the LG Nexus 4 or LG Mako, was released in November 2012 and manufactured by LG. It was the first Android device. Nexus 4 is the first Nexus device to have wireless charging capabilities, it was updated to Android 4.3 in June 2013 and to Android 4.4 in November 2013. It can run Android 5.1 as of April 2015. The Nexus 4 has the following characteristics: Display: 4.7" Corning Gorilla Glass 2, True HD IPS Plus capacitive touchscreen, 768×1280 pixel resolution, 16M colors CPU: Quad-core 1.5 GHz Krait Chipset: Qualcomm Snapdragon APQ8064 Storage: 8 or 16 GB RAM: 2 GB GPU: Adreno 320 Battery: Non-removable Li-Po 2100 mAh battery, wireless charging Camera: 8 MP rear camera with 3264×2448 pixels, LED flash. It was the first device to run Android 4.4 KitKat. The Nexus 5 will not receive an official Android 7.0 Nougat update, meaning that Android 6.0.1 Marshmallow is the last supported Android version for the device.
The Nexus 5 has the following characteristics: Display: 4.95" Corning Gorilla Glass 3, IPS LCD touchscreen, 1080×1920 pixel resolution Processor: 2.26 GHz Krait 400 quad-core processor on a Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 SoC Storage: 16 or 32 GB RAM: 2 GB GPU: Adreno 330 Battery: 2,300 mAh lithium polymer, wireless charging Cameras: 8 MP rear camera with optical image stabilization. It was first announced on October 2014 along with the Nexus 9 and the Nexus Player. Display: 5.96" Quad HD AMOLED PenTile display with 1440×2560 pixel resolution Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 805 - Quad-core 2.7 GHz Modem: Qualcomm MDM9625M Storage: 32 or 64 GB RAM: 3 GB GPU: Adreno 420 Battery: 3220 mAh with Turbo Charging technology, non-removable, wired charging Cameras: 13 MP rear camera with f/2.0 lens featurin
Intel Atom is the brand name for a line of ultra-low-voltage IA-32 and x86-64 microprocessors by Intel Corporation. Atom is used in netbooks, embedded applications ranging from health care to advanced robotics, mobile Internet devices; the line was designed in 45 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology and subsequent models, codenamed Cedar, used a 32 nm process. The first generation of Atom processors are based on the Bonnell microarchitecture. On December 21, 2009, Intel announced the Pine Trail platform, including new Atom processor code-named Pineview, with total kit power consumption down 20%. On December 28, 2011, Intel updated the Atom line with the Cedar processors. In December 2012, Intel launched the 64-bit Centerton family of Atom CPUs, designed for use in servers. Centerton adds features unavailable in Atom processors, such as Intel VT virtualization technology and support for ECC memory. On September 4, 2013 Intel launched a 22 nm successor to Centerton, codenamed Avoton.
In 2012, Intel announced a new system on chip platform designed for smartphones and tablets which would use the Atom line of CPUs. It was a continuation of the partnership announced by Intel and Google on September 13, 2011 to provide support for the Android operating system on Intel x86 processors; this range competed with existing SoCs developed for the smartphone and tablet market from companies like Texas Instruments, Nvidia and Samsung. On April 29, 2016, Intel announced the decision to cancel the Broxton SoC for Smartphones and Tablets. Broxton was to use the newest Atom microarchitecture in combination with an Intel modem. Apollo Lake, announced early the same month for low-cost entry PCs, will continue using Atom cores. Intel Atom is a direct successor of the Intel A100 and A110 low-power microprocessors, which were built on a 90 nm process, had 512 kB L2 cache and ran at 600 MHz/800 MHz with 3 W TDP. Prior to the Silverthorne announcement, outside sources had speculated that Atom would compete with AMD's Geode system-on-a-chip processors, used by the One Laptop per Child project, other cost and power sensitive applications for x86 processors.
However, Intel revealed on October 15, 2007 that it was developing another new mobile processor, codenamed Diamondville, for OLPC-type devices."Atom" was the name under which Silverthorne would be sold, while the supporting chipset code-named Menlow was called Centrino Atom. At Spring Intel Developer Forum 2008 in Shanghai, Intel announced that Silverthorne and Diamondville are based on the same microarchitecture. Silverthorne would be called the Atom Z5xx series and Diamondville would be called the Atom N2xx series; the more expensive lower-power Silverthorne parts was to be used in Intel mobile Internet devices whereas Diamondville was to be used in low-cost desktop and notebooks. Several Mini-ITX motherboard samples have been revealed. Intel and Lenovo jointly announced an Atom powered MID called the IdeaPad U8. In April 2008, a MID development kit was announced by Sophia Systems and the first board called CoreExpress-ECO was revealed by a German company LiPPERT Embedded Computers, GmbH. Intel offers Atom based motherboards.
In December 2012, Intel released Atom for the S1200 series. The primary difference between these processors and all prior versions, is that ECC memory support has been added, enabling the use of the Atom in mission-critical server environments that demand redundancy and memory failure protection. Atom processors became available to system manufacturers in 2008; because they are soldered onto a mainboard, like northbridges and southbridges, Atom processors are not available to home users or system builders as separate processors, although they may be obtained preinstalled on some ITX motherboards. The Diamondville and Pineview Atom is used in the HP Mini Series, Asus N10, Lenovo IdeaPad S10, Acer Aspire One & Packard Bell's "dot", recent ASUS Eee PC systems, Sony VAIO M-series, AMtek Elego, Dell Inspiron Mini Series, Gigabyte M912, LG X Series, Samsung NC10, Sylvania g Netbook Meso, Toshiba NB series, MSI Wind PC netbooks, RedFox Wizbook 1020i, Sony Vaio X Series, Zenith Z-Book, a range of Aleutia desktops, Magic W3, Archos and the ICP-DAS LP-8381-Atom.
The Pineview line is used in multiple AAC devices for the disabled individual, unable to speak and the AAC device assists the user in everyday communication with dedicated speech software. Intel has applied the Atom branding to product lines targeting several different market segments, including: MID/UMPC/Smartphone, Netbook/Nettop, Embedded, Microserver/Server and Consumer electronics. Intel consumer electronic SoCs are marketed under the Atom brand. Prior to application of the Atom brand, there were number of Intel CE SoCs including: Olo River and Canmore. Intel Atom CE branded SoCs include: Sodaville and Berryville. All Atom processors implement the x86 instruction set; the Atom N2xx and Z5xx series Atom models cannot run x86-64 code. The Centerton server processors will support the Intel 64 instruction set. Intel states the Atom supports 64-bit operation only "with a processor, chipset, BIOS" that all support Intel 64; those Atom systems not supporting all of these cannot enable Intel 64. As a result, the ability of an Atom-based system to run 64-bit versions of operating systems such as Ubuntu or Debian GNU/L
MultiMediaCard abbreviated as MMC, is a memory card standard used for solid-state storage. Unveiled in 1997 by SanDisk and Siemens AG, MMC is based on a surface-contact low pin-count serial interface using a single memory stack substrate assembly, is therefore much smaller than earlier systems based on high pin-count parallel interfaces using traditional surface-mount assembly such as CompactFlash. Both products were introduced using SanDisk NOR-based flash technology. MMC is about the size of a postage stamp: 24 mm × 32 mm × 1.4 mm. MMC used a 1-bit serial interface, but newer versions of the specification allow transfers of 4 or 8 bits at a time. MMC can be used in many devices. An MMC operates as a storage medium for a portable device, in a form that can be removed for access by a PC. For example, a digital camera would use an MMC for storing image files. Via an MMC reader, a user could transfer pictures taken with the digital camera to his or her computer. Modern computers, both laptops and desktops have SD slots, which can additionally read MMCs if the operating system drivers can.
MMCs are available in sizes up to and including 512 GB. They are used in every context in which memory cards are used, like cellular phones, digital audio players, digital cameras and PDAs. Since the introduction of SD cards, few companies build MMC slots into their devices, but the thinner, pin-compatible MMCs can be used in any device that can use SD cards if the software/firmware on the device is capable. While few companies build MMC slots into devices as of 2018, the embedded MMC is still used in consumer electronics as a primary means of integrated storage in portable devices, it provides a low-cost flash-memory system with a built-in controller that can reside inside an Android or Windows phone or in a low-cost PC and can appear to its host as a bootable device, in lieu of a more expensive form of solid-state storage, such as a traditional solid-state drive. This technology is a standard available to any company wanting to develop products based on it. There is no royalty charged for devices which host an MMC.
A membership with the MMC Association must be purchased in order to manufacture the cards themselves. As of July 2009, the specifications version 4.4 can be requested from the MMCA, after registering with MMCA, can be downloaded free of charge. Older versions of the standard, as well as some optional enhancements to the standard such as MiCard and SecureMMC, must be purchased separately. A detailed version is available on-line that contains essential information for writing an MMC driver; as of 23 September 2008, the MMCA group has turned over all specifications to the JEDEC organization including embedded MMC and miCARD assets. JEDEC is an organization devoted to standards for the solid-state industry; as of February 2015, the latest specifications version 5.1 can be requested from JEDEC, after registering with JEDEC, can be downloaded free-of-charge. Older versions of the standard, as well as some optional enhancements to the standard such as MiCard and SecureMMC, must be purchased separately.
In 2004, the Reduced-Size MultiMediaCard was introduced as a smaller form factor of the MMC, about half the size: 24 mm × 18 mm × 1.4 mm. The RS-MMC uses a simple mechanical adapter to elongate the card. RS-MMCs are available in sizes up to and including 2 GB; the modern continuation of an RS-MMC is known as MiniDrive. A MiniDrive is a microSD card adapter in the RS-MMC form factor; this allows a user to take advantage of the wider range of modern MMCs available to exceed the historic 2 GB limitations of older chip technology. Implementations of RS-MMCs include Nokia and Siemens, who used RS-MMC in their Series 60 Symbian smartphones, the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet, generations 65 and 75. However, since 2006 all of Nokia's new devices with card slots have used miniSD or microSD cards, with the company dropping support for the MMC standard in its products. Siemens exited the mobile phone business in 2006. Siemens continue to use MMC for some PLC storage leveraging MD-MMC advances; the Dual-Voltage MultimediaCard is one of the first acceptable changes in MMC was the introduction of dual-voltage cards that can operate at 1.8 V in addition to 3.3 V.
Running at lower voltages reduces the card's energy consumption, important in mobile devices. However, simple dual-voltage parts went out of production in favour of MMCplus and MMCmobile which offer capabilities in addition to dual-voltage capability; the version 4.x of the MMC standard, introduced in 2005, brought in two significant changes to compete against SD cards: ability to run at higher speeds than the original MMC or SD and a four- or eight-bit-wide data bus. Version 4.x full-size cards and reduced-size cards can be marketed as MMCplus and MMCmobile respectively. Version 4.x cards are backward compatible with existing readers but require updated hardware/software to use their new capabilities. MMCmicro is a micro-size version of MMC. With dimension
Netflix, Inc. is an American media-services provider headquartered in Los Gatos, founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. The company's primary business is its subscription-based streaming OTT service which offers online streaming of a library of films and television programs, including those produced in-house; as of January 2019, Netflix had over 139 million paid subscriptions worldwide, including 60.55 million in the United States, over 148 million subscriptions total including free trials. It is available worldwide except in mainland China as well as Syria, North Korea and Crimea; the company has offices in the Netherlands, India and South Korea. Netflix is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Netflix's initial business model included DVD sales and rental by mail, but Hastings abandoned the sales about a year after the company's founding to focus on the DVD rental business. Netflix expanded its business in 2007 with the introduction of streaming media while retaining the DVD and Blu-ray rental service.
The company expanded internationally in 2010 with streaming available in Canada, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Netflix entered the content-production industry in 2012. Since 2012, Netflix has taken more of an active role as producer and distributor for both film and television series, to that end, it offers a variety of "Netflix Original" content through its online library. By January 2016, Netflix services operated in more than 190 countries. Netflix released an estimated 126 original series and films in 2016, more than any other network or cable channel, their efforts to produce new content, secure the rights for additional content, diversity through 190 countries have resulted in the company racking up billions in debt: $21.9 billion as of September 2017, up from $16.8 billion from the previous year. $6.5 billion of this is long-term debt. In October 2018, Netflix announced it would raise another $2 billion in debt to help fund new content. Netflix was founded on August 29, 1997, in Scotts Valley, California, by Marc Randolph and Reed Hastings.
Randolph worked as a marketing director for Pure Atria. Randolph was a co-founder of MicroWarehouse, a computer mail order company, was employed by Borland International as vice president of marketing. Hastings, a computer scientist and mathematician, sold Pure Atria to Rational Software Corporation in 1997 for $700 million in what was the biggest acquisition in Silicon Valley history, they came up with the idea for Netflix while commuting between their homes in Santa Cruz and Pure Atria's headquarters in Sunnyvale while waiting for government regulators to approve the merger, although Hasting has given several different explanations for how the idea was created. Hastings invested $2.5 million in startup cash for Netflix. Randolph admired the fledgling e-commerce company Amazon and wanted to find a large category of portable items to sell over the Internet using a similar model, they rejected VHS tapes as too expensive to stock and too delicate to ship. When they heard about DVDs, which were first introduced in the United States on March 31, 1997, they tested the concept of selling or renting DVDs by mail, by mailing a compact disc to Hastings' house in Santa Cruz.
When the disc arrived intact, they decided to take on the $16 billion home video sales and rental industry. Hastings is quoted saying that he decided to start Netflix after being fined $40 at a Blockbuster store for being late to return a copy of Apollo 13, but this is an apocryphal story that he and Randolph designed to explain the company's business model and motivation. Netflix was launched on April 14, 1998, as the world's first online DVD rental store, with only 30 employees and 925 titles available, the entire catalogue of DVDs in print at the time, through the pay-per-rent model with rates and due dates that were similar to its bricks-and-mortar rival, Blockbuster. Netflix introduced the monthly subscription concept in September 1997, dropped the multiple-rental model in early 2000. Since that time, the company has built its reputation on the business model of flat-fee unlimited rentals without due dates, late fees and handling fees, or per-title rental fees. In 2000, when Netflix had just about 300,000 subscribers and relied on the U.
S. Postal Service for the delivery of their DVDs, they were losing money and offered to be acquired by Blockbuster for $50 million, they proposed that Netflix, which would be renamed as Blockbuster.com, would handle the online business, while Blockbuster would take care of the DVDs, making them less dependent on the U. S. Postal Service; the offer was declined. While they experienced fast growth in early 2001, both the dot-com bubble burst and the September 11 attacks would occur that year, affecting the company badly and forcing them to lay off a third of their employees. However, sales of Apple products took off as they became more affordable, selling for about $2,000 around Thanksgiving time, becoming one of that year's most popular Christmas gifts. By early 2002, Netflix saw a huge increase in business from rental to laptop DVD users. Netflix initiated an initial public offering on May 29, 2002, selling 5.5 million shares of common stock at the price of US$15.00 per share. On June 14, 2002, the company sold an additional 825,000 shares of common stock at the same price.
After incurring substantial losses during its first few years, Netflix posted its first profit during fiscal year 2003, earning US$6.5 million profit on revenues of
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Wear OS known as Wear OS by Google and called Android Wear, is a version of Google's Android operating system designed for smartwatches and other wearables. By pairing with mobile phones running Android version 4.3 or newer, or iOS version 8.2 or newer with limited support from Google's pairing application, Wear OS integrates Google Assistant technology and mobile notifications into a smartwatch form factor. Wear OS supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, 3G and LTE connectivity, as well as a range of features and applications. Watch face styles include round and rectangular. Released devices include Motorola Moto 360, the LG G Watch, the Samsung Gear Live. Hardware manufacturing partners include Asus, Fossil, HTC, Intel, LG, MediaTek, Imagination Technologies, New Balance, Samsung, Skagen, Polar and TAG Heuer, Mobvoi. In the first six months of availability, Canalys estimates that over 720,000 Android Wear smartwatches were shipped; as of 15 March 2018, Wear OS had between 50 million application installations.
Wear OS was estimated to account for 10% of the smart watch market in 2015. The platform was announced on March 2014, along with the release of a developer preview. At the same time, companies such as Motorola, Samsung, LG, HTC and Asus were announced as partners. On June 25, 2014, at Google I/O, the Samsung Gear Live and LG G Watch were launched, along with further details about Android Wear; the LG G Watch is the first Android Wear smartwatch to be shipped. Motorola's Moto 360 was released on September 5, 2014. On December 10, 2014, an update started to roll out, adding new features including a watch face API and changed the software to be based on Android 5.0 "Lollipop". The LG G Watch and Gear Live started shipping in July 2014, while the Moto 360 began shipping in September 2014; the next batch of Android Wear devices, which arrived at the end of 2014, included the Asus ZenWatch, the Sony SmartWatch 3, the LG G Watch R. As of March 2015, the latest Wear OS devices are the LG Watch Urbane, the Huawei Watch.
On August 31, 2015, Google launched pairing application for iOS version 8.2 or newer, allowing limited support for receiving iOS notifications on smartwatches running Wear OS. As of September 2015, only the LG Watch Urbane and Huawei Watch are supported, but Google announced support for more smartwatch models. Options include a screen always on feature and a "tilt to wake screen" setting, to light the screen automatically. Users can find directions by voice from the phone, choose transport mode, including bike, start a journey. While traveling, the watch shows directions, vibrates to indicate turns by feel. Via Google Fit and similar applications, Wear OS supports run tracking. On devices sporting the needed sensor, heart activity can be sampled automatically through the day or on demand. Step-counting, calorie expenditure etc. are monitored. These features work within the Fit ecosystem, allowing integration with companion devices and applications; the watch reinforces achievements with cards noting goal attainment, when a goal is near, summaries of heart, body activity.
Users can use their Wear OS watch to control their phone. Music can be requested; the screen shows a card for play-control, skip, media images, allowing music to be controlled from the wrist with the user free to move. Starting with version 2.16 users can swipe right to bring up an Assistant page with useful information similar to the Android Assistant on phones, or swipe left to display Google Fit information. This replaces the old functionality of swiping right to change the watch face; the vibration engine alerts users about important notifications originating from a user-selectable set of applications. Wear OS provides multiple options for replying, including Google Voice Typing for dictating responses to messages, spoken or drawn emoticons. Intelligent notifications from Google Now are supported including traffic, hotel check-in, meeting alerts, location- and time-based reminders and sport, flight status, boarding passes, restaurant bookings, etc. Users can receive messages sent to them via Google Hangouts, respond with a voice message.
Users can set the alarm by using'Okay Google' on Wear OS. New SMS can be initiated from the watch. Wear OS 5.1.1 supports drawing to reply, which uses AI to interpret the user's sketch as an emoji character. Search by voice is supported. Google Now searches such as "How tall is Nicole Kidman" result in Knowledge Graph cards appearing on screen, with options to open the search result on another device. If the phone's camera app is activated, the screen is relayed to the watch, the user can control the shutter, view photos on the watch. Third-party applications support using the phone camera as a streaming device, or more varied camera control. Events appear as cards on screen. "OK Google, show my agenda" will display the user's agenda. Watch faces support marking out appointments (for instance with contrasting color to show periods with an appointment, and/or illuminating a lighted "count-down" line for upcoming appointments. Note taking is supported via Google Keep and other note-apps, as is marking-off check lists etc.
Via voice commands such as "OK Google, remind me to call Roy at work", or "Remind me to baste the chicken in 25 minutes" the user can create location and time-based reminders, set alarms, timers etc. which appear on the watch at the appropriate time or place. Many applications have been released, with developers such as Evernote etc. creating new functionality on the watch: for instance, handing off notes to the watch screen when the user turns off