The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC; the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 to 1046 BC. The Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history supported by archaeological evidence. Excavation at the Ruins of Yin, identified as the last Shang capital, uncovered eleven major royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains from both animal and human sacrifices. Tens of thousands of bronze, stone and ceramic artifacts have been found.
The Anyang site has yielded the earliest known body of Chinese writing divinations inscribed on oracle bones – turtle shells, ox scapulae, or other bones. More than 20,000 were discovered in the initial scientific excavations during the 1920s and 1930s, over four times as many have been found since; the inscriptions provide critical insight into many topics from the politics and religious practices to the art and medicine of this early stage of Chinese civilization. Many events concerning the Shang dynasty are mentioned in various Chinese classics, including the Book of Documents, the Mencius and the Zuo Zhuan. Working from all the available documents, the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian assembled a sequential account of the Shang dynasty as part of his Records of the Grand Historian, his history describes some events in detail. A related, but different, account is given by the Bamboo Annals; the Annals were interred in 296 BC, but the text has a complex history and the authenticity of the surviving versions is controversial.
The name Yīn is used by Sima Qian for the dynasty, in the "current text" version of the Bamboo Annals for both the dynasty and its final capital. It has been a popular name for the Shang throughout history. Since the Records of Emperors and Kings by Huangfu Mi, it has been used to describe the half of the Shang dynasty. In Japan and Korea, the Shang are still referred to exclusively as the Yin dynasty; however it seems to have been a Zhou name for the earlier dynasty. The word does not appear in the oracle bones, which refer to the state as Shāng, the capital as Dàyì Shāng, it does not appear in securely-dated Western Zhou bronze inscriptions. Sima Qian's Annals of the Yin begins by describing the predynastic founder of the Shang lineage, Xie — appearing as Qi — as having been miraculously conceived when Jiandi, a wife of Emperor Ku, swallowed an egg dropped by a black bird. Xie is said to have helped Yu the Great to control the Great Flood and for his service to have been granted a place called Shang as a fief.
Sima Qian relates that the dynasty itself was founded 13 generations when Xie's descendant Tang overthrew the impious and cruel final Xia ruler in the Battle of Mingtiao. The Records recount events from the reigns of Tang, Tai Jia, Tai Wu, Pan Geng, Wu Ding, Wu Yi and the depraved final king Di Xin, but the rest of the Shang rulers are mentioned by name. According to the Records, the Shang moved their capital five times, with the final move to Yin in the reign of Pan Geng inaugurating the golden age of the dynasty. Di Xin, the last Shang king, is said to have committed suicide after his army was defeated by Wu of Zhou. Legends say that his army and his equipped slaves betrayed him by joining the Zhou rebels in the decisive Battle of Muye. According to the Yi Zhou Shu and Mencius the battle was bloody; the classic, Ming-era novel Fengshen Yanyi retells the story of the war between Shang and Zhou as a conflict where rival factions of gods supported different sides in the war. After the Shang were defeated, King Wu allowed Di Xin's son Wu Geng to rule the Shang as a vassal kingdom.
However, Zhou Wu sent an army to ensure that Wu Geng would not rebel. After Zhou Wu's death, the Shang joined the Rebellion of the Three Guards against the Duke of Zhou, but the rebellion collapsed after three years, leaving Zhou in control of Shang territory. After Shang's collapse, Zhou's rulers forcibly relocated "Yin diehards" and scattered them throughout Zhou territory; some surviving members of the Shang royal family collectively changed their surname from the ancestral name Zi to the name of their fallen dynasty, Yin. The family retained an aristocratic standing and provided needed administrative services to the succeeding Zhou dynasty; the Records of the Grand Historian states that King Cheng of Zhou, with the support of his regent and uncle, the Duke of Zhou, enfeoffed Weiziqi, a brother of Di Xin, as the Duke of Song, with its capital at Shangqiu. This practice was known as 二王三恪; the Dukes of Song would maintain rites honoring the Shang kings until Qi conquered Song in 286 BC. Confucius was a descendant of the Shang Kings through the Dukes of Song.
The Eastern Han dynasty bestowed the title of Duke of Song and "Duke Who Continues and Honours the Yin" upon Kong An because he was part of the Shang dynasty's legacy. This branch of the Confucius family is a separa
Ogata Kōrin was a Japanese painter and designer of the Rinpa school. Ogata is best known for his byōbu folding screens, such as Irises and Red and White Plum Blossoms, his paintings on ceramics and lacquerware produced by his brother Kenzan. A prolific designer, he worked with a variety of decorative and practical objects, such as round fans, makie writing boxes or inrō medicine cases, he is credited with reviving and consolidating the Rinpa school of Japanese painting, fifty years after its foundation by Hon'ami Kōetsu and Tawaraya Sōtatsu. In fact the term "Rinpa", coined in the Meiji period, means "school of rin". In particular he had a lasting influence on Sakai Hōitsu, who replicated many of his paintings and popularized his work, organizing the first exhibition of Kōrin's paintings at the hundredth anniversary of his death. Ogata was born in Kyoto into a wealthy merchant family, dedicated to the design and sale of fine textiles; the family business, named Karigane-ya, catered the aristocratic women of the city.
His father, Ogata Sōken, a noted calligrapher in the style of Kōetsu and patron of Noh theater, introduced his sons to the arts. Ogata was the second son of Sōken, his younger brother Kenzan was a celebrated potter and painter in his own right, with whom he collaborated frequently. Ogata studied under Yamamoto Soken of the Kanō school, Kano Tsunenobu and Sumiyoshi Gukei, but his biggest influences were his predecessors Hon'ami Kōetsu and Tawaraya Sōtatsu. Sōken died in 1687, the elder brother took over the family business, leaving Ogata and Kenzan free to enjoy a considerable inheritance. After this, Ogata led a active social life, but his spendings run him into financial difficulties the following years due to loans made to feudal lords; this forced him to pawn some of his treasured possessions. A letter sent by him to a pawnbroker in 1694 regarding "one writing box with deer by Kōetsu" and "one Shigaraki ware water jar with lacquer lid" survives. Ogata established himself as an artist only late in life.
In 1701 he was awarded the honorific title of hokkyō, the third highest rank awarded to Buddhist artists, in 1704 he moved to Edo, where lucrative commissions were more available. His early masterpieces, such as his Irises are dated to this period. During this time he had the opportunity to study the ink paintings of medieval monk painters Sesshū Tōyō and Sesson Shukei; these are seen as important influences in his work from that period, the Rough Waves painting for example. In 1709 he moved back to Kyoto, he built a house with an atelier in Shinmachi street in 1712 and lived there the last five years of his life. His masterpieces from that last period, such as the Red and White Plum Blossoms screens, are though to have been painted there. Ogata died famous but impoverished on 2 June 1716, at the age of 59, his grave is located at the Myōken-ji temple in Kyoto. His chief pupils were Tatebayashi Kagei, Watanabe Shiko and Fukae Roshu, but the present knowledge and appreciation of his work are due to the early efforts of his brother Kenzan and Sakai Hōitsu, who brought about a revival of Ogata's style.
Irises is a pair of six-panel byōbu folding screens made circa 1701–05, using ink and color on gold-foiled paper. The screens are among the first works of Ogata as a hokkyō, it depicts abstracted blue Japanese irises in bloom, their green foliage, creating a rhythmically repeating but varying pattern across the panels. The similarities of some blooms indicate; the work shows influence of Tawaraya, it is representative of the Rinpa school. It is inspired by an episode in the Heian period text The Tales of Ise. Irises Each screen measures 150.9 by 338.8 centimetres. They were made for the Nijō family, were presented to the Nishi Honganji Buddhist temple in Kyoto, where they were held for over 200 years, they were sold by the temple in 1913, are now held by the Nezu Museum, where they are exhibited occasionally. They are listed as a National Treasure of Japan. Kōrin made a similar work about five to twelve years another pair of six-panel screens, known as Irises at Yatsuhashi, it is a more explicit reference to the "Yatsuhashi" episodes from The Tales of Ise, including the depiction of an angular bridge that sweeps diagonally across both screens.
The screens were made using ink and color on gold-foiled paper and measure 163.7 by 352.4 centimetres each. They have been held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City since 1953, were last displayed in 2013. Both Irises screens were displayed together for the first time in a century in 2012 at the "Korin: National Treasure Irises of the Nezu Museum and Eight-Bridge of the Metropolitan Museum of Art" exhibition at the Nezu Museum. Wind God and Thunder God is a pair of two-folded screens made using ink and color on gold-foiled paper, it is a replica of an original work by Tawaraya which depicts Raijin, the god of lightning and storms in the Shinto religion and in Japanese mythology, Fūjin, the god of wind. Sakai Hōitsu, another prominent member of the Rinpa school, painted his own version of the work. All three versions of the work were displayed together for the first time in seventy-five years in 2015, at the Kyoto National Museum exhibition Rinpa: The Aesthetics of the Capital. Wind God and Thunder God The screens measure 421.6 by 464.8 centimetres each.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Minato is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is called Minato City in English, it was formed in 1947 as a merger of Akasaka and Shiba wards following Tokyo City's transformation into Tokyo Metropolis. The modern Minato ward exhibits the contrasting Shitamachi and Yamanote geographical and cultural division; the Shinbashi neighborhood in the ward's northeastern corner is attached to the core of Shitamachi, the original commercial center of Edo-Tokyo. On the other hand, the Azabu and Akasaka areas are representative Yamanote districts; as of 1 July 2015, it has an official population of 243,094, a population density of 10,850 persons per km2. The total area is 20.37 km2. Minato hosts a large number of embassies, it is home to various domestic companies, including Honda, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, NEC, Sony and Toshiba, as well as the Japanese headquarters of a number of multi-national firms, including Google and Goldman Sachs. Minato is located southwest of the Imperial Palace and has boundaries with the special wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, Kōtō, Shinagawa and Shinjuku.
The ward was founded on 15 March 1947 with the merger of Akasaka and Shiba Wards. The name minato means "harbour". Minato is governed by Mayor Masaaki Takei, an Independent supported by all major parties except the Japanese Communist Party; the city legislative assembly is dominated by the Liberal Democratic Party. Minato mayoral election, 2008 Jikei University School of Medicine Nishi Shinbashi campus Kanazawa Institute of Technology Graduate school. Mita Junior High School opened in 2001 after the merger of Minato Junior High School and Shibahama Junior High School; the local public high schools are operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education. Akasaka High School Mita High School Roppongi High School Shiba Commercial High School There are a variety of private schools, including: Keio Girls Senior High School Keiō Chutobu Junior High School Shiba Junior and Senior High School Azabu Junior and Senior High School Friends School, a Quaker school established in 1887. Meiji Gakuin Senior High School in Shirokane Russian Embassy School in Tokyo in Azabudai The city operates the Minato Library, the Mita Library, the Azabu Library, the Akasaka Library, the Takanawa Library, the Konan Library.
The metropolis operates the Tokyo Metropolitan Library Central Library in Minato. The library opened in 1973. Companies with headquarters in Minato include Air Nippon, All Nippon Airways, ANA & JP Express, All Nippon Airways Trading, Asmik Ace Entertainment, Cosmo Oil Company, Daicel,Dentsu, Fuji Xerox, Haseko, Hazama Ando, Japan Tobacco, Kaneka Corporation, Konami, KYB Corporation, Kyodo News, Mitsubishi Motors, Mitsui Chemicals, Mitsui O. S. K. Lines, Mitsui Oil Exploration Company, NEC, Nippon Sheet Glass, NYK Line, Obayashi Corporation, Oki Electric Industry, Pizza-La, The Pokémon Company, Toraya Confectionery, Sato Pharmaceutical, Sega Sammy Holdings, Sigma Seven, Sony, SUMCO, Toraya Confectionery, Toyo Suisan, TV Tokyo, WOWOW, Yazaki. In addition ANA subsidiary Air Japan has some offices in Minato; the Japanese division of CB&I, the Japanese division of Aramark and Aim Services, Google Japan, Yahoo! Japan, the main Japanese offices of Hanjin and Korean Air are located there. Air France operates an office and ticketing counter in the New Aoyama Building in Minato.
The Japanese division of Deutsche Post, DHL. Air France's Minato office handles Aircalin-related inquiries. Air China has operations in the Air China Building in Minato. Asiana Airlines operates a sales office on the sixth floor of the ATT New Tower Building. Hawaiian Airlines has its Japan offices in the Eagle Hamamatsuchō Building in Minato. Iran Air has its Tokyo office in Akasaka. Japanese companies that had headquarters in Minato include Air Next, Asatsu, Jaleco Holding, Toa Domestic Airlines,On 22 December 2008 operations of Seiko Epson's Tokyo sales office began at Seiko Epson's Hino Office in Hino, Tokyo. Operations were at the World Trade Centre in Minato. Several countries operate their embassies in Minato. Kiribati Mauritius North Macedonia Tuvalu Akasaka: A large residential and commercial area in northern Minato which includes the Akasaka Palace and surrounding gardens, TBS radio and television studios, Ark Hills complex, National Art Center, the embassy of the United States. Aoyama: Home to Aoyama Cemetery, one of Tokyo's largest graveyards, the Chichibunomiya Rugby Stadium.
Atago Shrine, the highest point in all 23 wards of Tokyo. Azabu: One of Tokyo's more upscale residential areas, home to many embassies. Fushimi Sanpō Inari Jinja: A Shinto shrine in Shiba 3-chōme. Hamamatsuchō: Hamamatsucho Station is the terminal for the Tokyo Monorail to Haneda Airport. Mita: Home to Keio University and a large number of small Buddhist temples; the National Art Center, Tokyo is a museum that opened in 2007. Odaiba: One of Tokyo's most popular entertainment areas, featuring the Fuji TV studios, Palette Town sho
Chinese ritual bronzes
Sets of ritual bronzes are the most impressive surviving objects from the Chinese Bronze Age. From around 1650 BCE, these elaborately decorated vessels were deposited as grave goods in the tombs of royalty and the nobility, were evidently produced in large numbers, with documented excavations finding over 200 pieces in a single royal tomb, they were produced for an individual to use in ritual offerings of food and drink to his ancestors in family temples or ceremonial halls over tombs, or rather ritual banquets in which both living and dead members of a family participated. On the death of the owner they would be placed in his tomb, so that he could continue to pay his respects in the afterlife; the ritual bronzes were not used for normal eating and drinking. Many of the shapes survive in pottery, pottery versions continued to be made in an antiquarian spirit until modern times. Apart from table vessels and some other objects were made in special ritual forms. Another class of ritual objects are those including weapons, made in jade, the most valued of all, and, long used for ritual tools and weapons, since about 4,500 BCE.
At least the production of bronze was controlled by the ruler, who gave unformed metal to his nobility as a sign of favour. They contain between 2 % and 3 % lead. Bronzes are some of the most important pieces of ancient Chinese art, warranting an entire separate catalogue in the Imperial art collections; the Chinese Bronze Age began in the Xia Dynasty, bronze ritual containers form the bulk of collections of Chinese antiquities, reaching its zenith during the Shang Dynasty and the early part of the Zhou Dynasty. The majority of surviving Chinese ancient bronze artefacts are ritual forms rather than their equivalents made for practical use, either as tools or weapons. Weapons like daggers and axes had a sacrificial meaning, symbolizing the heavenly power of the ruler; the strong religious associations of bronze objects brought up a great number of vessel types and shapes which became regarded as classic and totemic and were copied in other media such as Chinese porcelain, throughout subsequent periods of Chinese art.
The ritual books of old China minutely describe, allowed to use what kinds of sacrificial vessels and how much. The king of Zhou used 9 dings and 8 gui vessels, a duke was allowed to use 7 dings and 6 guis, a baron could use 5 dings and 3 guis, a nobleman was allowed to use 3 dings and 2 guis. Turning to actual archaeological finds, the tomb of Fu Hao, an unusually powerful Shang queen, contained her set of ritual vessels, numbering over two hundred, which are far larger than the twenty-four vessels in the tomb of a contemporary nobleman, her higher status would have been clear not only to her contemporaries, but it was believed, to her ancestors and other spirits. Many of the pieces were cast with inscriptions using the posthumous form of her name, indicating there were made for burial in the tomb; the origin of the ores or metals use for Shang and other early chinese bronze is a current topic of research. As with other early civilisations the Shang period development was centered on river valleys, driven in part by the introduction of intensive agriculture - in China such areas lacked ore deposits and required the import of metallurgical material.
Typical Shang period bronzes contain over 2% lead, unlike contemporary coppers of the Eurasian Steppe. Analysis of the ore/metals origins has been trace isotope analysis. In the case of Shang period bronzes, various sites, from early to late Shang period, numerous samples of the bronze alloy are characterized by high radiogenic Lead isotope content, unlike most known native Chinese lead ores. Potential speculative sources of the ore include Qinling, middle to lower Yangtze area, south-west china. Pre-Shang bronzes do not contain the radiogenic lead isotopes; the appreciation and collection of Chinese bronzes as pieces of art and not as ritual items began in the Song dynasty and reached its zenith in the Qing dynasty during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, whose massive collection is recorded in the catalogues known as the Xiqing gujian and the Xiqing jijian. Within those two catalogues, the bronzeware is categorized according to use: Sacrificial vessels, Wine vessels, Food vessels, Water vessels, Musical instruments, Measuring containers, Ancient money, Miscellaneous.
The most prized are the sacrificial and wine vessels, which form the majority of most collections. These vessels are elaborately decorated with taotie designs. Dǐng Sacrificial vessel a cauldron for cooking and storing meat; the Shang prototype has a round bowl, set on three legs. Examples became larger and larger and were considered a measure of power, it is considered the single most important class of Chinese
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay. It may take forms including artistic pottery, including tableware, tiles and other sculpture. Ceramic art is one of the arts the visual arts. Of these, it is one of the plastic arts. While some ceramics are considered fine art, as pottery or sculpture, some are considered to be decorative, industrial or applied art objects. Ceramics may be considered artefacts in archaeology. Ceramic art can be made by a group of people. In a pottery or ceramic factory, a group of people design and decorate the art ware. Products from a pottery are sometimes referred to as "art pottery". In a one-person pottery studio, ceramists or potters produce studio pottery; the word "ceramics" comes from the Greek keramikos, meaning "pottery", which in turn comes from keramos meaning "potter's clay". Most traditional ceramic products were made from clay and subjected to heat, tableware and decorative ceramics are still made this way. In modern ceramic engineering usage, ceramics is the art and science of making objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials by the action of heat.
It excludes mosaic made from glass tesserae. There is a long history of ceramic art in all developed cultures, ceramic objects are all the artistic evidence left from vanished cultures, like that of the Nok in Africa over 2,000 years ago. Cultures noted for ceramics include the Chinese, Greek, Mayan and Korean cultures, as well as the modern Western cultures. Elements of ceramic art, upon which different degrees of emphasis have been placed at different times, are the shape of the object, its decoration by painting and other methods, the glazing found on most ceramics. Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware, stoneware and bone china. Earthenware is pottery, thus permeable to water. Many types of pottery have been made from it from the earliest times, until the 18th century it was the most common type of pottery outside the far East. Earthenware is made from clay and feldspar. Terracotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Its uses include vessels and waste water pipes and surface embellishment in building construction. Terracotta has been a common medium for ceramic art. Stoneware is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic made from stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay. Stoneware is fired at high temperatures. Vitrified or not, it is nonporous. One recognised definition is from the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities, a European industry standard states "Stoneware, though dense and hard enough to resist scratching by a steel point, differs from porcelain because it is more opaque, only vitrified, it may be semi-vitreous. It is coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the clay used for its manufacture, is glazed." Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C. The toughness and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures.
Properties associated with porcelain include low elasticity. Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, impermeable, white or artificially coloured and resonant". However, the term porcelain lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in a unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common". Bone china is a type of soft-paste porcelain, composed of bone ash, feldspathic material, kaolin, it has been defined as ware with a translucent body containing a minimum of 30% of phosphate derived from animal bone and calculated calcium phosphate. Developed by English potter Josiah Spode, bone china is known for its high levels of whiteness and translucency, high mechanical strength and chip resistance, its high strength allows it to be produced in thinner cross-sections than other types of porcelain. Like stoneware it is translucent due to differing mineral properties. From its initial development and up to the part of the twentieth century, bone china was exclusively an English product, with production being localised in Stoke-on-Trent.
Most major English firms made or still make it, including Mintons, Spode, Royal Crown Derby, Royal Doulton and Worcester. In the UK, references to "china" or "porcelain" can refer to bone china, "English porcelain" has been used as a term for it, both in the UK and around the world. Fine china is not bone china, is a term used to refer to ware which does not contain bone ash. China painting, or porcelain painting is the decoration of glazed porcelain objects such as plates, vases or statues; the body of the object may be hard-paste porcelain, developed in China in the 7th or 8th century, or soft-paste porcelain, developed in 18th-century Europe. The broader term ceramic