France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Neolithic flint mines of Spiennes
The Neolithic flint mines of Spiennes are among the largest and earliest Neolithic flint mines which survive in north-western Europe, located close to the Walloon village of Spiennes, southeast of Mons, Belgium. The mines were active during the mid and late Neolithic between 4,300 and 2,200 BC. Declared to be "remarkable for the diversity of technological solutions used for extraction" the site and its surroundings were inducted into the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 2000. Discovered in 1843, the first excavations were undertaken by the mining eningeer Alphonse Briart and two others during railway construction in 1867, with results presented to the International Prehistoric Congress held in Brussels in 1872. Intermittent excavations have been carried out up to the present day; the Mines of Spiennes cover some 100 ha of downland four miles south-east of the city of Mons. The site is dotted with millions of scraps of worked flint and numerous mining pits, that Neolithic settlers have turned into vertical mine shafts to depths of over 10 m.
Underneath is an elaborate man-made network of caverns accessible via the many shafts. A seminal stage of human inventiveness and cultural application and progress, the transition between opencast and underground mining for flint nodules is impressively displayed and documented. Research has illustrated Neolithic techniques for the cutting of the flint and the extraction of large slabs of flint, that weighed up to hundreds of kilos; the nodules were extracted using flint picks. The stones were knapped into rough-out shapes of axes, polished to achieve the final state; the SILEX'S Interpretive Centre opened in spring 2015. The rough-outs were exchanged over a wide area, about 150 km, were polished at their destination. Polishing strengthens the final product, making the axe- or adze-head last longer; the smooth surface aids the cutting action by lowering friction with the wood. The axes were used for forest clearance during the Neolithic period, for shaping wood for structural applications, such as timber for huts and canoes.
The site has been compared with Grimes Graves and Cissbury in the United Kingdom, Krzemionki in Poland, which are sources of flint stone. However, different hard rocks were used for the polished stone axes. There are several locations in Britain where fine-grained igneous or metamorphic rock was collected from screes or opencast mines roughed out locally before trading on to other parts of the country. Examples include the Langdale axe industry and Tievebulliagh. BibliographyC. Guillaume, Ph. Lipinski & A. Masson: Les mines de silex néolithiques de la Meuse dans le contexte européen. Musées de la Meuse, Sampigny 1987. F. Gosselin: Un site d'exploitation du silex à Spiennes, au lieu-dit "Petit-Spiennes". Vie archéologique 22, 1986, 33-160. F. Hubert: Une minière néolithique à silex au Camp-à-Cayaux de Spiennes. Archaeologia Belgica, 210, 1978. F. Hubert: L'exploitation préhistorique du silex à Spiennes. Carnets du Patrimoine n°22. Ministère de la Région wallonne, Direction générale de l'Aménagement du Territoire, du Logement et du Patrimoine, Namur 1997.
R. Shepherd: Prehistoric Mining and Allied Industries.. Société de recherches préhistoriques en Hainaut: Minières néolithiques à Spiennes. 1997 ICOMOS evaluation Collet, H.. "Les mines néolithiques de Spiennes: état des connaissances et perspectives de recherche". Section 10: The Neolithic in the Near East and Europe. Oxford: Archaeopress. ISBN 1-84171-653-7. Retrieved 27 July 2011. Actes du XIVème congrès UISPP, Université de Liège, Belgique, 2 – 8 septembre 2001 H. Collet, A. Hauzeur & J. Lech, 2008; the prehistoric flint mining complex at Spiennes on the occasion of its discovery 140 years ago In P. Allard, F. Bostyn, F. Giligny & J. Lech, 2008. Flint mining in Prehistoric Europe: Interpreting the archaeological records. European Association of Archaeologists, 12th Annual Meeting, Poland, 19–24 September 2006: 41-77. H. Collet, 2014. Les minières néolithiques de silex de Spiennes. Patrimoine mondial de l’Humanité, Institut du Patrimoine wallon, 55 p. Image Gallery Visit of the Neolithic Flint mines, Interpretive Centre "SILEX'S" Spiennes Neolithic flint mines, archaeological team website Unesco list Media related to Spiennes at Wikimedia Commons
Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil is a former commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Les Eyzies. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil lies in the Périgord Noir area, it is served by the Gare des Eyzies railway station. This locale is home to the Musée national de Préhistoire and the area contains several important archaeological sites, including the Font-de-Gaume, Grotte du Grand-Roc and Lascaux cave prehistoric rock dwellings. Les Eyzies-de-Tayac was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979; the commune is located at the confluence of the Beune rivers. It is accessible by the SNCF network at the Gare des Eyzies, by the A89 motorway, exit 16 Périgueux-East and by the D710 road or by Montignac via Terrasson. In the north-west, the commune is watered by another small tributary of the Vézère, the Manaurie. In the Dordogne department, the highest temperature was recorded on 4 and 5 August 2003 at Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil, with 43°C.
In Occitan, the commune bears the name Las Aisiás de Taiac e Siruèlh. In March 1868, the geologist Louis Lartet, financed by Henry Christy, discovered the first five skeletons of Cro-Magnons, the earliest known examples of Homo sapiens sapiens, in the Cro-Magnon rock shelter at Les Eyzies-de-Tayac; these skeletons included a foetus, the skulls found were remarkably modern-looking and much rounder than the earlier Neanderthal. As at 31 December 2013, the municipality has 209 establishments, including 151 in the field of commerce, transport or services, twenty relating to the administrative sector, health or social action, eighteen in construction, thirteen in the industry, seven in agriculture, forestry or fishing. L'Homme primitif is a statue of Paul Dardé, inaugurated in 1931 and placed on a natural platform that dominates the village of Les Eyzies. Grotte du Grand Roc, cave with natural eccentric crystallisations comparable to corals; the municipality has many prehistoric archaeological sites including: The Grotte de Font-de-Gaume, the last cave with prehistoric polychrome paintings still open to visit in the region Les Combarelles - 600 pre-historic engravings of animals and symbols Grotte de la Mouthe - ornate cave of the Upper Paleolithic period La Grotte de Bernifal The deposit of La Micoque - discovery of numerous testimonies of the lithic industries of the Paleolithic Abri Chadourne, named after its owner L'abri Audi| L'abri de Cro-Magnon, the eponymous site of the Cro-Magnon man.
L'abri Pataud, a site studied under the responsibility of the National Museum of Natural History. The stratigraphic sequences comprises Upper Paleolithic levels, in particular, from bottom to top, Aurignacian and Protomagdalénien Laugerie-Basse and Laugerie-Haute - paleolithic sites L'abri du Poisson - carved in low relief at the ceiling of the vault, raised in red colour a salmon Le vallon de Gorges d'enfer Les grottes du Roc de Cazelle constitute a troglodytic site occupied from prehistoric times until 1960. Many of these sites have been classified as World Heritage sites by UNESCO as Sites préhistoriques et grottes ornées de la vallée de la Vézère; the discovery of these shelters within a restricted radius around Les Eyzies, their methodical exploration and the study of the deposits they concealed allowed prehistory to build up as a science and explains why the city claims the status of world capital of the prehistory, as the publicity leaflets recall. The National Museum of Prehistory, where many prehistoric discoveries are preserved, is located in the heart of the village.
Rich in carved flints, it is aimed at specialists. Château de Commarque, 12th century, 14th century, 15th century, classified. Château de Tayac and its dependencies, 12th century 14th century 15th century. Cro-Magnon ManThe Pioneers of Archaeology: Louis and Édouard Lartet Denis Peyrony Élie Peyrony Henri Breuil Louis Capitan Abri Pataud Font-de-Gaume Château de Commarque Communes of the Dordogne department Les Combarelles Micoquien Tourist office website National Museum of Prehistory
Caves of Arcy-sur-Cure
The caves of Arcy-sur-Cure are a series of caves located on the commune of Arcy-sur-Cure, France. Some of them contained archaeological artefacts, from the Mousterian to Gallo-Roman times; some hold remarkable parietal art, the second oldest presently known after those of the Chauvet cave. Another notable characteristic of these caves is the time-long series of pollen, related to determined and consistent archaeological levels. Between 1947 and 1963, they were searched by the French prehistorians Arlette and André Leroi-Gourhan. Listed monument historique in 1992, they are open to the public. Arcy-sur-Cure is 30 km south-east of Auxerre, in the Yonne departement; the caves are 1.3 km south on the left bank of the river Cure. At this place the river has meandered through the coral limestone substrate, creating a valley bordered by crests standing 125 m up from the present river bed; the caves are on the outer side of it where the flow is at its strongest. Most of them are south-orientated, with the most western ones turned towards the south-east.
At that place the erosional valley shows steep sides, in some parts akin to cliffs. Several caves are distributed at various levels. Following its inhabitants from the Lower Palaeolithic culture in the Pleistocene era, the caves have sheltered Neanderthals from the Middle Palaeolithic. Modern humans followed, with Aurignacians, Proto-Solutreans and Magdalenians. All in all the caves were inhabited up to the Middle Ages, they are owned by Mr. Gabriel de la Varende, who allows and has supported archaeologic research from the beginning. Open at both ends, collapsing ground closed one of the caves when the underground water flow diminished; this cave now ends with basins at ground level formed by limestone deposits left by the water. There are several lakes. Fifteen cavities at various altitudes and of various locations and contents, are grouped in that bend of the river: Great cave Lagopède shelter Horse cave, about 60 m long. Hyena cave Trilobite cave, highest among all the caves of the site, it opens between the Hyena cave and Bear cave.
Its name comes from a trilobite fossil found in it by Dr. Ficatier from Auxerre. Bear cave Reindeer cave Schoepflin gallery Bison cave Wolf cave Lion cave Fairies cave Two Flows cave Small shelter, Large shelter Goulettes cave Prehistoric parietal paintings were discovered by Pierre Guilloré in April 1990 in the Great cave, protected by a thin layer of lime/calcite sediments hiding them from view, but engravings of animals are recorded at the latest in 1946. Some of the paintings were destroyed by regular cleanings of the cave's walls with high-pressurized water sprays between 1976 and 1990. At the time no-one thought that under the black smoke layer – at least some of it having come from torches carried during past centuries' visits –, prehistoric paintings could exist under a thin layer of lime sediments hiding them from view. Made on walls in cave rooms located 300 to 500 m away from the entrance, the paintings are 28,000 years old for the oldest, according to radiocarbon dating measures on charcoal remains discovered in these cave rooms in the corresponding strata.
Thus they are the second oldest after the Chauvet Cave, well before those of Lascaux. The paintings were executed with charcoal. One finds there at the same time some hands of men and children, some representations of animals; the hands are'negative hands': they are represented by outlines and not by their surface. One knows today that at least one hand was drawn with some ochre with the help of a pipette. To represent animals, the first European Homo sapiens chose parts of the walls of which the relief, under the torches' flickering lighting, would come out as shapes that reminded of the animals' anatomy, such as eyes or the antlers of large deer, they used the paint sparingly, drawing only the elements that the relief did not show. Only the animals' outlines were represented, the inside being left blank. Here the animals' feet are open, a feature, characteristic to these caves, they are portrayed with one leg at the front and one leg at the rear. Among the most interesting paintings, one finds a mammoth drawn and a prehistoric stag whose antlers could be 4 meters tall depicted while using reliefs in the wall.
Other animals appear among the paintings, such as bear and woolly rhinoceros. The lowest parts of the caves are filled with water. One finds there stalagmites, columns and the Virgin's room. One of the lakes shows a remarkable phenomenon of limestone deposit that covers the surface of the water, falls to the bottom periodically comes back up to the surface; this phenomenon does not seem directly due to bacteria. Some parts of this phenomenon are akin to calcite rafts; the stalactites grow at the noticeable rate of about 1 cm every 100 years. Engraved figures on some wall
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
The Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France is a cave that contains some of the best-preserved figurative cave paintings in the world, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life. It is located near the commune of Vallon-Pont-d'Arc on a limestone cliff above the former bed of the Ardèche River, in the Gorges de l'Ardèche. Discovered on December 18, 1994, it is considered one of the most significant prehistoric art sites and the UN’s cultural agency UNESCO granted it World Heritage status on June 22, 2014; the cave was first explored by a group of three speleologists: Eliette Brunel-Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, Jean-Marie Chauvet for whom it was named six months after an aperture now known as "Le Trou de Baba" was discovered by Michel Rosa. At a date the group returned to the cave. Another member of this group, Michel Chabaud, along with two others, travelled further into the cave and discovered the Gallery of the Lions, the End Chamber. Chauvet has his own detailed account of the discovery.
In addition to the paintings and other human evidence, they discovered fossilized remains and markings from a variety of animals, some of which are now extinct. Further study by French archaeologist Jean Clottes has revealed much about the site; the dates have been a matter of dispute but a study published in 2012 supports placing the art in the Aurignacian period 32,000–30,000 years BP. A study published in 2016 using additional 88 radiocarbon dates showed two periods of habitation, one 37,000 to 33,500 years ago and the second from 31,000 to 28,000 years ago with most of the black drawings dating to the earlier period; the cave is situated above the previous course of the Ardèche River. The gorges of the Ardèche region are the site of numerous caves, many of them having some geological or archaeological importance. Based on radiocarbon dating, the cave appears to have been used by humans during two distinct periods: the Aurignacian and the Gravettian. Most of the artwork dates to the earlier, era.
The Gravettian occupation, which occurred 27,000 to 25,000 years ago, left little but a child's footprints, the charred remains of ancient hearths, carbon smoke stains from torches that lit the caves. The footprints may be the oldest human footprints. After the child's visit to the cave, evidence suggests that due to a landslide which covered its historical entrance, the cave remained untouched until it was discovered in 1994; the soft, clay-like floor of the cave retains the paw prints of cave bears along with large, rounded depressions that are believed to be the "nests" where the bears slept. Fossilized bones include the skulls of cave bears and the horned skull of an ibex. A set of foot prints of a young child and a wolf or dog walking side by side was found in this cave; this information suggests. Hundreds of animal paintings have been catalogued, depicting at least 13 different species, including some or never found in other ice age paintings. Rather than depicting only the familiar herbivores that predominate in Paleolithic cave art, i.e. horses, mammoths, etc. the walls of the Chauvet Cave feature many predatory animals, e.g. cave lions, panthers and cave hyenas.
There are paintings of rhinoceroses. Typical of most cave art, there are no paintings of complete human figures, although there is one partial "Venus" figure composed of what appears to be a vulva attached to an incomplete pair of legs. Above the Venus, in contact with it, is a bison head, which has led some to describe the composite drawing as a Minotaur. There are a few panels of red ochre hand prints and hand stencils made by blowing pigment over hands pressed against the cave surface. Abstract markings—lines and dots—are found throughout the cave. There are two unidentifiable images that have a vaguely butterfly or avian shape to them; this combination of subjects has led some students of prehistoric art and cultures to believe that there was a ritual, shamanic, or magical aspect to these paintings. One drawing overlaid with a sketch of a deer, is reminiscent of a volcano spewing lava, similar to the regional volcanoes that were active at the time. If confirmed, this would represent the earliest known drawing of a volcanic eruption.
The artists who produced these paintings used techniques found in other cave art. Many of the paintings appear to have been made only after the walls were scraped clear of debris and concretions, leaving a smoother and noticeably lighter area upon which the artists worked. A three-dimensional quality and the suggestion of movement are achieved by incising or etching around the outlines of certain figures; the art is exceptional for its time for including "scenes", e.g. animals interacting with each other. The cave contains some of the oldest known cave paintings, based on radiocarbon dating of "black from drawings, from torch marks and from the floors", according to Jean Clottes. Clottes concludes that the "dates fall into two groups, one centered around 27,000–26,000 BP and the other around 32,000–30,000 BP." As of 1999, the dates of 31 samples from the cave had been reported. The earliest, sample Gifa 99776 from "zone 10", dates to 32,900 ± 490 BP; some archaeologists have questioned these dates.
Christian Züchner, relying on stylistic comparisons with similar paintings at other well-dated sites, expressed the opinion that the red paintings are from the Gravettian period and the black paintings are from the Early Magd