Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. It is a collecting and research institute and is considered to be Australia's premier resource for information about the cultures and societies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples; the Institute is a leader in ethical research and the handling of culturally sensitive material and holds in its collections many unique and irreplaceable items of cultural and spiritual significance. The collection at AIATSIS has been built through over 50 years of research and engagement with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and is now a source of language and culture revitalisation, native title research and family and community history. AIATSIS is located on Acton Peninsula in Australian Capital Territory. In the late 1950s, there was an increasing focus on the global need for anthropological research into'disappearing cultures'; this trend was emerging in Australia in the work of researchers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, leading to a proposal by W.
C. Wentworth MP for the conception of an Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies in 1959; the proposal was made as a submission to Cabinet, argued for a more comprehensive approach by the Australian Government to the recording of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and cultures. In 1960, a Cabinet sub-committee assessed the proposal and formed a working party at the Australian National University to consider the viability of the proposal. One of their first actions was to appoint W. E. H. Stanner to organise a conference on the state of Aboriginal Studies in Australia, to be held in 1961 at the ANU. Academics and anthropologists in the field of Aboriginal Studies attended the conference, contributed research papers published in a conference report in 1963. No Aboriginal people were present at the conference; the Prime Minister, Robert Menzies appointed an Interim Council in 1961. The role of the Interim Council was to plan for a national Aboriginal research organisation and establish how this organisation would interact with existing research and scientific bodies.
The Interim Council was tasked with developing a programme that would identify and address urgent research needs. The Interim Council consisted of 16 members and was chaired by Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the ANU, Professor AD Trendall recognised as the first Chair of the institute now known as AIATSIS. In August 1962, a draft constitution for the institute was submitted to the Menzies government, rejected; the Interim Council completed a revised constitution in July 1963. Amendments to the document included the change from the title ‘director’ to ‘principal’ of the institute; this version of the constitution would go on to form the basis for the creation of the new Australian Institute for Aboriginal Studies the following year. The Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies was established as a Statutory authority under an Act of Parliament in June 1964; the mission of the Institute at that time has been described as "to record language, art, material culture, ceremonial life and social structure before those traditions perished in the face of European ways."This notion is reflected in the Institute’s official functions, as recorded in the Reading of the Bill in Parliament.
These were: to sponsor and to foster research of a scientific nature on the Australian Aborigines. to treat as a matter of urgency those studies for which the source materials are disappearing. To establish and conduct a documentation centre on the Aborigines, a library of books and other relevant material, both for the use of scholars and for public education. To encourage co-operation with and between scholars in universities and other institutions engaged in studies of the Aborigines, with appropriate private bodies. To publish and to support the publication of the results of research. To co-operate with appropriate bodies concerning the financing of research, the preservation of sites, the collection of records. To promote as and when necessary the training of research workers. To establish and maintain relations with relevant international bodies. AIAS had a twenty-two member Council, composed of academics, had a foundation membership of one hundred; the founding Principal of the newly formed institute was Frederick McCarthy, a professional anthropologist and graduate of Sydney University who had spent nearly 30 years working in the field.
The creation of the AIAS provided an opportunity for greater cross-discipline interaction in fields relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander studies in Australia. The Institute’s founding principal, Fred McCarthy, was an advocate of film as an important part of research methodology as early as his tenure as curator of anthropology at the Australian Museum in Sydney in the 1940s; this was evident in the contributions he made during his involvement in establishing the AIAS and as its principal, in continuing to support the development of the AIAS Film Unit and championing ethnographic film in global forums. In the early years of the AIAS, the Film Unit outsourced early filmmaking work to other companies, or worked in collaboration with the Commonwealth Film Unit, but over the next 30 years, the Film Unit would go on to produce “one of the largest assembly of ethnographic films created in the world”. In keeping with the AIAS official function “to publish and to support the publication of the results of research”, a publishing arm of the Institute was established in 1964.
Publishing under the name Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, the publishing arm released a range o
Daly River, Northern Territory
Daly River is the name of a river and a town in the Northern Territory of Australia. At the 2006 census, Daly River had a population of 468; the town is part of the Victoria Daly Region local government area. Settlement on the river is centred on the Aboriginal community of Nauiyu the site of a Catholic mission, as well as the town of Daly River itself, at the river crossing a few kilometres to the south; the area is popular for recreational fishing, being regarded as one of the best places to catch Barramundi in Australia. The Daly River is part of the Daly Catchment that flows from northern Northern Territory to central Northern Territory; the traditional owners of the area are the Mulluk-Mulluk people who live both in Nauiyu and at Wooliana downstream from the community. European discovery of Daly River was in 1865 by Boyle Travers Finniss, the first Premier of South Australia and Government Resident in the Northern Territory. Finniss named the river after Sir Dominick Daly, the Governor of South Australia, since the Northern Territory was at that time part of South Australia.
The region lay untouched by Europeans until 1882. Daly River town was the scene of some bloody exchanges between the local Aborigines and the miners. In 1884 three miners were killed; the miners in the town wreaked vengeance on the local Aborigines out of proportion to the perceived crime. A year probably aware of the tensions in the area, the Society of Jesus order of the Roman Catholic Church established a mission in the town, introducing Christianity and farming techniques to the local Aboriginal population; the original mission endured until 1899, when following a significant flood the missionaries were withdrawn. In 1954, contact between traditional Malak Malak elders and the bishop of Darwin led to the mission being reestablished. In 1955, the church purchased 4,000 acres of land and the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart helped to establish a school and a clinic for the community; the mission was renamed Nauiyu and with the exception of the church, convent and associated residences transferred to community ownership.
Due to the influence of the mission in the town, 75% percent of the population identify as Roman Catholics. Through the twentieth century there were a number of attempts to settle the town without real success. In 1911 the Commonwealth Government tried to convince people to move to the town. By the 1920s there were plans for crops of peanuts and tobacco. Cashews and sugar cane were planted unsuccessfully. In 1967 the Tipperary Land Corporation cleared large tracts of land around the settlement and started growing sorghum but the operation was closed down in 1973. Like other rivers of the top end, the Daly is prone to seasonal flooding and this has had a significant impact on the small community throughout its history. Major flood events devastated the town in 1957, causing widespread property damage. On 28 January 1998, a major natural disaster saw every building in the town inundated and the entire population airlifted to Batchelor during the emergency evacuation; the floodwaters, fed by heavy rainfall in the wake of Tropical Cyclone Les continued to rise until 3 February, reaching a peak of 16.8 m, the highest level recorded to date.
Daly River is considered a remote community, is accessed via the Daly River Road, sealed as far as the river crossing in 2007, providing all weather access to Darwin. A sealed airstrip at Nauiyu provides for charter and medical evacuation flights, however there are no scheduled air services to the airport, or aircraft based in the town. Other public facilities at Daly River include a public library, swimming pool and health clinic. There is St Francis Xavier located in Nauiyu; the Victoria Daly Regional Council maintains a regional office in the community, contributing more than 40 jobs to the local economy. Public Administration is by far the largest employment industry, accounting for over half of the workforce; the town and surrounding district are served by a modern police station, built in 1994. Two members of the Northern Territory Police are based here; the area serviced by the station is 33,000 km2, the responsibilities of the Daly River members include Emergency Management and boat access to the communities when the roads are cut by seasonal flooding.
Today the town is little more than a pub with a few motel units, a police station, a free caravan park. It is located on the banks of the river a couple of kilometres from the Daly River Crossing, now by sealed road from the main tourist route, the Stuart Highway; the settlement is a centre for visitors to explore the Daly River Nature Park and fishermen after barramundi. The park is home to saltwater crocodiles, spiders, wild pigs, feral Water Buffalo, giant bamboos and Kapok trees; the Daly River is famed for its large barramundi and is one of the more popular waterways for recreational fishing. It hosts two major fishing competitions annually, the "Barra Classic" and the "Barra Nationals"; the best barramundi fishing is just after the wet season when the flooded river is falling fast and clear water is pouring in off the floodplains. The floodwater carries baitfish; the Daly River is home to more freshwater turtle species than anywhere else in Australia. On the road 5 kilometres east of Daly River is a turnoff to Woolianna, a camping and caravan park on the banks of the river, one of several such parks.
Just before entering the town there is a turnoff to the Nauiyu Aboriginal Community, home to the Roman Catholic Mission and Merrepen Arts Centre where Aboriginal artifacts are sold