South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country, with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australias states and territories. Other population centres in the state are relatively small, the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in Adelaide, most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The states colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh, as with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, the guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was employed by the New Zealand Company.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties, although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its wine and numerous cultural festivals. The states economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries, the state has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity, in addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels, thijssen named his discovery Pieter Nuyts Land, after the highest ranking individual on board. The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders, the land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales.
Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and it took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, the act stated that 802,511 square kilometres would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay in November 1836, the Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible, what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups, a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint, the New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of narratives, among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ amongst Christian groups and this concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the book of all time. It has estimated sales of 100 million copies, and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West. The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin. Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra holy book, while biblia in Greek and it gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. Latin biblia sacra holy books translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, the word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of paper or scroll and came to be used as the ordinary word for book. It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, Egyptian papyrus, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece, the Greek ta biblia was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books.
Christian use of the term can be traced to c.223 CE, bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus and he states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that, Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, the period of transmission is short, less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Marks Gospel.
This means that there was time for oral traditions to assume fixed form
The Narungga are a group of Indigenous Australians whose traditional lands are located on Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. The boundary of their traditional lands runs roughly between the towns of Port Broughton and Port Wakefield and they were a nomadic people who practiced fire-stick farming to flush out wildlife and control vegetation. Their diet included seafood, their expertise at fishing was much admired by early European settlers, soon after the establishment of Adelaide in 1836, settlers began moving into Yorke Peninsula. The British concepts of property ownership were incompatible with the Narrungas nomadic lifestyle, in 1868, the Point Pearce Aboriginal Mission was established by the Moravian missionary Julius Khun. After ten years, the mission was largely self-sufficient, many of the buildings remain today
The Pitjantjatjara are an Aboriginal people of the Central Australian desert. They are closely related to the Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra and their languages are, to a large extent and they refer to themselves as Anangu. The land is an inseparable and important part of their identity, the name Pitjantjatjara derives from the word pitjantja, a form of the verb go which, combined with the comitative suffix -tjara means something like pitjantja-having. This distinguishes it from its near neighbour Yankunytjatjara which has yankunytja for the same meaning and this naming strategy is the source of the names of Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra but in that case the names contrast the two languages based on their words for this. The two languages Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara may be grouped together under the name Nyangatjatjara which contrasts them with Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra, the name Pitjantjatjara is usually pronounced with elision of one of the repeated syllables -tja-, pitjantjara.
In more careful speech all syllables will be pronounced, from 1950 onwards, many Anangu were forced to leave their homelands due to British nuclear tests at Maralinga. Some Anangu were subsequently contaminated by the fallout from the atomic tests. Their experience of issues of rights and native title in South Australia has been unique. The Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act,1984 granted freehold title of an area of 80,764 square kilometres to Maralinga Tjarutja, the subsequently named Mamungari Conservation Park) with 21,357.8 km² was transferred to the Maralinga Tjarutja in 2004. Ayers Rock and The Olgas are separated from the Pitjantjatjara Lands by the border between the Northern Territory and South Australia and have become a major tourist attraction and a National Park. The Central Land Council laid claim to the Ayers-Rock-Mount Olga National Park and some adjoining vacant Crown land in 1979, but this claim was challenged by the Northern Territory government. After years of lobbying by the Land Council, on 11 November 1983.
This was implemented in 1985, after further negotiations extended the period from 50 to 99 years. The Arrernte land is land in central Australia. It is controlled by Arrernte Council which in turn is controlled by Central Land Council from Alice Springs, wiltja, a shelter made by the Pitjantjatjara people and other indigenous Australian groups Duguid, Charles. New Revised edition of Pitjantjatjara texts, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. The People in Between, The Pitjantjatjara People of Ernabella, minyma Tjuta Tjunguringkula Kunpuringanyi, Women Growing Strong Together. Ngaanyatjarra, Yankunytjatjara Womens Council 1980-1990, Growing Up the Country, The Pitjantjatjara struggle for their land
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The name Kukabrak refers to the tribes of the Lower Lakes, however the name Ngarrindjeri was popularised in the 19th century by missionary George Taplin. They are the traditional Aboriginal people of the lower Murray River, western Fleurieu Peninsula, much of the early literature on this south-eastern region refers to the Aborigines collectively as the Ngarrindjeri confederacy or nation, but in the Berndts view this is misleading. For instance, Donald Pate states, Taplin estimates that there were eighteen territorial clans or Lakalinyeri that constituted the Ngarrindjeri ‘confederacy’ or ‘nation’, each territorial clan was administered by a group of ten to twelve men or elders, referred to as the Tendi. The Tendi from each clan collectively elected the Rupulli or the head of the entire Ngarrindjeri confederacy, the Ngarrindjeri were landowners who had a centralised and hierarchical government to administer the laws of the confederacy and its eighteen independent territories. Ngarrindjeri was originally the name of the group, Europeans subsequently used it as a collective name for the lakinyeri following colonisation.
Variations in spelling are common due to their use as family names and include Narinyerrie, Narrin’yerree. In Ngarrindjeri grammar the –nyeri -ndjeri suffix means belonging to a place or area. Whalers and sealers had been visiting the South Australian coast since 1802 and by 1819 there was a permanent camp on Karta, Kangaroo Island. Many of these men were escaped convicts, whalers who had brought Tasmanian Aboriginal women with them but they raided the mainland for women. Originally the most heavily populated area in Australia, an epidemic had travelled down the River Murray before colonisation. Funeral rites and cultural practices were disrupted, family groups merged, songs from the time tell of the smallpox that came out of the Southern Cross in the east with a loud noise like a bright flash. In 1830 the first exploratory expedition reached the Ngarrindjeri lands and Charles Sturt noted that the people were familiar with firearms. Pomberuk, on the banks of the River Murray in Murray Bridge was the most significant Ngarrindjeri site, all 18 lakinyeri would meet there for corroborees.
Around 22 km further down the river was Tagalang, a trading camp where lakinyeri would gather to trade ochre, weapons. In the 1900s, Tailem Bend was assigned as a government ration depot supplying the Ngarrindjeri, the Ngarrindjeri were the first South Australian Aborigines to work with Europeans in large-scale economic operations, working as farmers and labourers. Shortly after the Berndts left to return to Sydney, Karloan was given an eviction order effective immediately, adamant that only death would separate him from his land, Karloan travelled to Adelaide to seek help but returned to his former home in Pomberuk on February 2,1943. They have presented a development and management plan to preserve and develop the site as a memorial, the Royal Commission found that claims of secret womens business on the island had been fabricated. Upon the evidence before this Court I am not satisfied that the restricted womens knowledge was fabricated or that it was not part of genuine Aboriginal tradition
Nukunu once widely spoke Nukunu language. The Ngaiawang of the Murray River used the term Nokunno as the name of a mythical being who went about by night killing people, the Kaurna tribe term has a meaning of an imaginary being, like a man, who prowls at night and kills, an assassin. The Nukunu were the southeastern-most tribe to practise subincision, in addition to circumcision, barngarla men used the pronunciation Nukuna for the name. The few Nukunu survivors of the British invasion of South Australia were settled at Baroota inland from Port Germein where they are known as Barutadura,1988, Solid Town, The history of Port Augusta, R. J. 1847, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand, vols 1 &2, Smith Elder & Co, London. Barwick, D.1984, ‘Mapping the Past, an Atlas of Victorian Clans 1835 – 1904’, Aboriginal History, Department of Pacific and Southeast Asian History, Australian National University, vol. Basedow, H.1929, The Australian Aboriginal, F. W. Preece & Sons, beddome, H. L.1886, ‘Marachowie’, in E. M.
Curr ed. The Australian Race, its Origin, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia,1993, A World That Was, The Yaraldi of the Murray Lakes, South Australia, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Black, J. M.1917, Vocabularies of Three South Australian Native Languages – Wirrung, capell, A.1963, Linguistic Survey of Australia, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Sydney. 1955, Aboriginal Bird Names – South Australia, The South Australian Ornithologist, Curr, E. M. ed.1886, The Australian Race, its Origin, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia, and the Routes by Which It Spread Itself, vol. Davidson, D. S.1938, A Preliminary Register of Australian Tribes and Hordes, The American Philosophical Society, davis, S.1993, Australias Extant and Imputed Traditional Aboriginal Territories, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Ed.1976, Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages, Linguistic Series no,22, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies & Humanities Press, Canberra. Donahue, M.1991, ‘AIATSIS Library Language Names and Community/Established Language Names’, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies,1889, ‘The Aborigines of South and Central Australia’ Royal Society of South Australian Field Naturalists Section Proceedings, pp. 1–11.
Elkin, A. P.1931, ‘The Social Organisation of South Australian Tribes’, elkin, A. P.1938, ‘Kinship in South Australia’, vol. Ellis, C. J. & Hercus, L.1966, ‘Recordings made during 1963-65 field work’,1845, Journals of Expeditions Into Central Australia and Overland…, vol. 1, T. & W. Boone, Libraries Board of South Australia, gray, J.1930, ‘Notes On Native Tribe Formerly Resident at Orroroo, South Australia’, The South Australian Naturalist, vol. 1879, ‘The Mount Remarkable Tribe’, in G. Taplin ed. 64–66,1998, Aboriginal Australia, Centre for Historical Aboriginal and International Research, Queensland. Hercus, L.1965, ‘Report on Work on Aboriginal Languages’, April–June 1965, Hercus, L.1971, ‘Summary Of Recent Work Carried Out…And Plans For Further Work’, AIATSIS PMS2223
The Kaurna people are a group of Indigenous Australians whose traditional lands include the area around the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. Pronunciation of the word Kaurna varies slightly by the background and origin of the speaker, Kaurna culture and language were almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836. However, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture, the name Kaurna was not widely used for the language group until popularised by Norman B. It most likely derives from the Ramindjeri or Ngarrindjeri word kornar meaning men or people, uncle Lewis OBrien, a Kaurna Elder during the 1990s, suggested that a more appropriate name for his people might be Meyunna, from the local word for people, meyu. However, Kaurna has been almost universally adopted by Kaurna and non-indigenous people alike to refer to the tribe of the Adelaide plains. Kaurna territory extended from Cape Jervis at the bottom of the Fleurieu Peninsula to Port Wakefield on the shore of Gulf St Vincent.
Tindale claimed clans were found living in the vicinity of Snowtown, Hoyleton, Hamley Bridge, Gawler, the stringy bark forests over the back of the Mount Lofty Ranges have been claimed as a traditional boundary between Kaurna and Peramangk people. Tunkalilla Beach,20 kilometres east of Cape Jervis, is the boundary with the Ramindjeri. This is the most widely cited alignment of Kaurna territorial boundaries and this overlaps a significant portion of the territory claimed by both the Kaurna and the neighboring Ngarrindjeri to the east. However, linguistic evidence suggests that the aborigines encountered by Colonel Light at Rapid Bay in 1836 were Kaurna speakers. Ronald and Catherine Berndts ethnographic study, which was conducted in the 1930s, berndt posits that the clans may have expanded along trade routes as the Kaurna were dispossessed by colonists. A main Kaurna presence was in Tarndanyangga near the River Torrens and the creeks that flowed into it, often as many as 500 to 600 would be camped in various places.
Some behind the Botanic Gardens on the banks of the river, some toward the Ranges, the Kaurna people were a hunter-gatherer society. Among their customs was the practice of farming in the Adelaide Hills. These fires were part of a scrub clearing process to encourage grass growth for Emu and this tradition led to conflict with the colonists as the fires tended to cause considerable damage to farmland. Due to this regular burning by the time the first Europeans arrived, items of Kaurna material culture, such as traditional objects, spears and nets etc. are extremely rare. Many hundreds of objects were sent to the Paris exhibition and these were never returned to Australia, the Kaurna collection held by the South Australian Museum contains only 48 items. As the first colonists had arrived in summer when the Kaurna traditionally moved from the plains to the foothills, an outbreak of typhoid, due to pollution by Europeans of the River Torrens, lead to many deaths and a rapid population decline, though accurate figures were not recorded