The Cook Islands is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand. It comprises 15 islands; the Cook Islands' Exclusive Economic Zone covers 1,800,000 square kilometres of ocean. New Zealand is responsible for the Cook Islands' defence and foreign affairs, but they are exercised in consultation with the Cook Islands. In recent times, the Cook Islands have adopted an independent foreign policy. Although Cook Islanders are citizens of New Zealand, they have the status of Cook Islands nationals, not given to other New Zealand citizens; the Cook Islands has been an active member of the Pacific Community since 1980. The Cook Islands' main population centres are on the island of Rarotonga, where there is an international airport. There is a larger population of Cook Islanders in New Zealand itself. With about 100,000 visitors travelling to the islands in the 2010–11 financial year, tourism is the country's main industry, the leading element of the economy, ahead of offshore banking and marine and fruit exports.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands were first settled in the 6th century by Polynesian people who migrated from Tahiti, an island 1,154 kilometres to the northeast. Spanish ships visited the islands in the 16th century; the first written record came in 1595 when the island of Pukapuka was sighted by Spanish sailor Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, who gave it the name San Bernardo. Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, a Portuguese captain working for the Spanish crown, made the first recorded European landing in the islands when he set foot on Rakahanga in 1606, calling the island Gente Hermosa. British navigator Captain James Cook arrived in 1773 and again in 1777 giving the island of Manuae the name Hervey Island; the Hervey Islands came to be applied to the entire southern group. The name "Cook Islands", in honour of Cook, first appeared on a Russian naval chart published in the 1820s.
In 1813 John Williams, a missionary on the Endeavour made the first recorded sighting of Rarotonga. The first recorded landing on Rarotonga by Europeans was in 1814 by the Cumberland; the islands saw no more Europeans until English missionaries arrived in 1821. Christianity took hold in the culture and many islanders are Christians today; the islands were a popular stop in the 19th century for whaling ships from the United States and Australia. They visited, from at least 1826, to obtain water and firewood, their favourite islands were Rarotonga, Aitutaki and Penrhyn. The Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888 because of community fears that France might occupy the islands as it had Tahiti. On 6 September 1900, the islanders's leaders presented a petition asking that the islands be annexed as British territory. On 8 and 9 October 1900, seven instruments of cession of Rarotonga and other islands were signed by their chiefs and people. A British Proclamation was issued, stating that the cessions were accepted and the islands declared parts of Her Britannic Majesty's dominions.
However, it did not include Aitutaki. Though the inhabitants regarded themselves as British subjects, the Crown's title was unclear until the island was formally annexed by a Proclamation dated 9 October 1900. In 1901 the islands were included within the boundaries of the Colony of New Zealand by Order in Council under the Colonial Boundaries Act, 1895 of the United Kingdom; the boundary change became effective on 11 June 1901, the Cook Islands have had a formal relationship with New Zealand since that time. When the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949, Cook Islanders who were British subjects automatically gained New Zealand citizenship; the islands remained a New Zealand dependent territory until the New Zealand Government decided to grant them self-governing status. Albert Henry of the Cook Islands Party was elected as the first Premier. Henry led the nation until 1978, when he resigned, he was succeeded by Tom Davis of the Democratic Party.
In March 2019 it was reported that the Cook Islands had plans to change its name and remove the reference to Captain James Cook in favour of "a title that reflects its'Polynesian nature'". The Cook Islands are in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, between French Polynesia and American Samoa. There are 15 major islands spread over 2,200,000 km2 of ocean, divided into two distinct groups: the Southern Cook Islands and the Northern Cook Islands of coral atolls; the islands were formed by volcanic activity. The climate is moderate to tropical; the Cook Islands consist of two reefs. The table is ordered from north to south. Population figures from the 2016 census; the Cook Islands is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system in an associated state relationship with New Zealand. Executive power is exercised with the Chief Minister as head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of the Cook Islands. There is a pluriform multi-party system; the Judiciary is inde
In physics and related fields, a wave is a disturbance of a field in which a physical attribute oscillates at each point or propagates from each point to neighboring points, or seems to move through space. The waves most studied in physics are mechanical and electromagnetic. A mechanical wave is a local deformation in some physical medium that propagates from particle to particle by creating local stresses that cause strain in neighboring particles too. For example, sound waves in air are variations of the local pressure that propagate by collisions between gas molecules. Other examples of mechanical waves are seismic waves, gravity waves and shock waves. An electromagnetic wave consists of a combination of variable electric and magnetic fields, that propagates through space according to Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves can travel through vacuum. Other types of waves include gravitational waves, which are disturbances in a gravitational field that propagate according to general relativity.
Mechanical and electromagnetic waves may seem to travel through space. In mathematics and electronics waves are studied as signals. On the other hand, some waves do not appear to move at all, like hydraulic jumps. Some, like the probability waves of quantum mechanics, may be static in both space. A plane seems to travel in a definite direction, has constant value over any plane perpendicular to that direction. Mathematically, the simplest waves are the sinusoidal ones. Complicated waves can be described as the sum of many sinusoidal plane waves. A plane wave can be transverse, if its effect at each point is described by a vector, perpendicular to the direction of propagation or energy transfer. While mechanical waves can be both transverse and longitudinal, electromagnetic waves are transverse in free space. Consider a traveling transverse wave on a string. Consider the string to have a single spatial dimension. Consider this wave as traveling in the x direction in space. For example, let the positive x direction be to the right, the negative x direction be to the left.
With constant amplitude u with constant velocity v, where v is independent of wavelength independent of amplitude. With constant waveform, or shapeThis wave can be described by the two-dimensional functions u = F u = G or, more by d'Alembert's formula: u = F + G. representing two component waveforms F and G traveling through the medium in opposite directions. A generalized representation of this wave can be obtained as the partial differential equation 1 v 2 ∂ 2 u ∂ t 2 = ∂ 2 u ∂ x 2. General solutions are based upon Duhamel's principle; the form or shape of F in d'Alembert's formula involves the argument x − vt. Constant values of this argument correspond to constant values of F, these constant values occur if x increases at the same rate that vt increases; that is, the wave shaped like the function F will move in the positive x-direction at velocity v. In the case of a periodic function F with period λ, that is, F = F, the periodicity of F in space means that a snapshot of the wave at a given time t finds the wave varying periodically in space with period λ.
In a similar fashion, this periodicity of F implies a periodicity in time as well: F = F provided vT = λ, so an observation of the wave at a fixed location x finds the wave undulating periodically in time with period T = λ/v. The amplitude of a wave may be constant, or may be modulated so as to vary with time and/or position; the outline of the variation in amplitude is called the envelope of the w
A fairy is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural. Myths and stories about fairies do not have a single origin, but are rather a collection of folk beliefs from disparate sources. Various folk theories about the origins of fairies include casting them as either demoted angels or demons in a Christian tradition, as minor deities in pre-Christian Pagan belief systems, as spirits of the dead, as prehistoric precursors to humans, or as elementals; the label of fairy has at times applied only to specific magical creatures with human appearance, small stature, magical powers, a penchant for trickery. At other times it has been used to describe any magical creature, such as gnomes. Fairy has at times been used as an adjective, with a meaning equivalent to "enchanted" or "magical". A recurring motif of legends about fairies is the need to ward off fairies using protective charms. Common examples of such charms include church bells, wearing clothing inside out, four-leaf clover, food.
Fairies were sometimes thought to haunt specific locations, to lead travelers astray using will-o'-the-wisps. Before the advent of modern medicine, fairies were blamed for sickness tuberculosis and birth deformities. In addition to their folkloric origins, fairies were a common feature of Renaissance literature and Romantic art, were popular in the United Kingdom during the Victorian and Edwardian eras; the Celtic Revival saw fairies established as a canonical part of Celtic cultural heritage. The English fairy derives from Old French form faierie, a derivation from faie with the abstract noun suffix -erie. In Old French romance, a faie or fee was a woman skilled in magic, who knew the power and virtue of words, of stones, of herbs."Fairy" was used to represent: an illusion or enchantment. Faie became Modern English fay, while faierie became fairy, but this spelling exclusively refers to one individual. In the sense of "land where fairies dwell", archaic spellings faery and faerie are still in use.
Latinate fay is not related the fey, meaning "fated to die", but some dictionaries do list "fey" as a kind of fairy. Various folklore traditions refer to fairies euphemistically as wee folk, good folk, people of peace, fair folk, etc; the term fairy is sometimes used to describe any magical creature, including goblins and gnomes, while at other times, the term describes only a specific type of ethereal creature or sprite. The concept of "fairy" in the narrower sense is unique to English folklore made diminutive in accordance with prevailing tastes of the Victorian era, as in "fairy tales" for children. Historical origins include various traditions of Celtics, Germanic peoples, of Middle French medieval romances. Fairie was used adjectivally, meaning "enchanted", but became a generic term for various "enchanted" creatures during the Late Middle English period. Literature of the Elizabethan era conflated elves with the fairies of Romance culture, rendering these terms somewhat interchangeable.
The Victorian era and Edwardian era saw a heightened increase of interest in fairies. The Celtic Revival cast fairies as part of Ireland's cultural heritage. Carole Silvers and others suggested this fascination of English antiquarians arose from a reaction to greater industrialization and loss of older folk ways. Fairies are described as human in appearance and having magical powers. Diminutive fairies of various kinds have been reported through centuries, ranging from quite tiny to the size of a human child; these small sizes could be magically assumed, rather than constant. Some smaller fairies could expand their figures to imitate humans. On Orkney, fairies were described as short in stature, dressed in dark grey, sometimes seen in armour. In some folklore, fairies have green eyes; some depictions of fairies show them with others as barefoot. Wings, while common in Victorian and artworks, are rare in folklore. Modern illustrations include dragonfly or butterfly wings. Early modern fairies does not derive from a single origin.
In folklore of Ireland, the mythic aes sídhe, or'little folk', have come to a modern meaning somewhat inclusive of fairies. The Scandinavian elves served as an influence. Folklorists and mythologists have variously depicted fairies as: the unworthy dead, the children of Eve, a kind of demon, a species independent of humans, an older race of humans, fallen angels; the folkloristic or mythological elements combine Celtic and Greco-Roman elements. Folklorists have suggested that'fairies' arose from various earlier beliefs, which lost currency with the advent of Christianity; these disparate explanations are not incompatible, as'fairies' may be traced to multiple sources. King James, in his dissertation Daemonologie, stated the term "faries" referred to illusory spirits that prophesied to, consorted with, transported the individuals they served. A Christian tenet held that fairies were a class of "demot
A demon is a supernatural and malevolent being prevalent in religion, literature, fiction and folklore. The original Greek word daimon does not carry negative connotations; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. In Ancient Near Eastern religions and in the Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered a harmful spiritual entity which may cause demonic possession, calling for an exorcism. In Western occultism and Renaissance magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman magic, Jewish Aggadah and Christian demonology, a demon is believed to be a spiritual entity that may be conjured and controlled; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. Daimōn most came from the Greek verb daiesthai.
The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. To distinguish the classical Greek concept from its Christian interpretation, the former is anglicized as either daemon or daimon rather than demon; the original Greek word daimon does not carry the negative connotation understood by implementation of the Koine δαιμόνιον, ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root. The Greek terms do not have any connotations of malevolence. In fact, εὐδαιμονία eudaimonia, means happiness. By the early Roman Empire, cult statues were seen, by pagans and their Christian neighbors alike, as inhabited by the numinous presence of the gods: "Like pagans, Christians still sensed and saw the gods and their power, as something, they had to assume, lay behind it, by an easy traditional shift of opinion they turned these pagan daimones into malevolent'demons', the troupe of Satan..... Far into the Byzantine period Christians eyed their cities' old pagan statuary as a seat of the demons' presence.
It was no longer beautiful, it was infested." The term had first acquired its negative connotations in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which drew on the mythology of ancient Semitic religions. This was inherited by the Koine text of the New Testament; the Western medieval and neo-medieval conception of a demon derives seamlessly from the ambient popular culture of Late Antiquity. The Hellenistic "daemon" came to include many Semitic and Near Eastern gods as evaluated by Christianity; the supposed existence of demons remains an important concept in many modern religions and occultist traditions. Demons are still feared due to their alleged power to possess living creatures. In the contemporary Western occultist tradition, a demon is a useful metaphor for certain inner psychological processes, though some may regard it as an objectively real phenomenon; some scholars believe that large portions of the demonology of Judaism, a key influence on Christianity and Islam, originated from a form of Zoroastrianism, were transferred to Judaism during the Persian era.
Both deities and demons can act as intermediaries to deliver messages to humans. Thus they share some resemblance to the Greek daimonion; the exact definition of "demon" in Egyptology posed a major problem for modern scholarship, since the borders between a deity and a demon are sometimes blurred and the ancient Egyptian language lacks a term for the modern English "demon". However, magical writings indicate that ancient Egyptians acknowledged the existence of malevolent demons by highlighting the demon names with red ink. Demons in this culture appeared to be subordinative and related to a specific deity, yet they may have acted independent from the divine will; the existence of demons can be related beyond the created world. But this negative connotation cannot be denied in light of the magical texts; the role of demons in relation to the human world remains ambivalent and depends on context. Ancient Egyptian demons can be divided into two classes: "guardians" and "wanderers." "Guardians" are tied to a specific place.
Demons protecting the underworld may prevent human souls from entering paradise. Only by knowing right charms is the deceased able to enter the Halls of Osiris. Here, the aggressive nature of the guardian demons is motivated by the need to protect their abodes and not by their evil essence. Accordingly, demons guarded the gates to the netherworld. During the Ptolemaic and Roman period, the guardians shifted towards the role of Genius loci and they were the focus of local and private cults; the "wanderers" are associated with possession, mental illness and plagues. Many of them serve as executioners for the major deities, such as Ra or Osiris, when ordered to punish humans on earth or in the netherworld. Wanderers can be agents of chaos, arising from the world beyond creation to bring about misfortune and suffering without any divine instructions, led only by evil motivations; the influences of the wanderers can be warded off and kept at the borders on the human world by the use of magic, but they can never be destroyed.
A sub-category of "wanderers" are nightmare demons, which were believed to ca
Avaiki is one of the many names by which the peoples of Polynesia refer to their ancestral and spiritual homelands. By no means certain, but possible, is an origin in the large islands of Samoa, namely Savaii. Variants include, in order of migration, the old name for Raiatea in French Polynesia. There are endless local variants. In the Cook Islands, for example, on the capital island of Rarotonga, northern facing volcanic rocks, tumbling onto the shore millennia ago and still set in place, are well known as the ancient departure point for souls bound for Avaiki - the afterworld or heaven. In fact each island, vaka or ngati has its own interpretation of it. For instance it would be somewhere in the manu'a islands group for the Ngati Karika. For the Ngati Tangi'ia, it would be at Tahiti. Others locate Avaiki at Raiatea... In the mythology of Mangaia, Avaiki is the "underworld" or "netherworld", it is described like a hollow of a vast coconut shell. Varima-te-takere, the mother of Vatea, lives in the lowest depths of the interior of this coconut shell.
The famous maori anthropologist Te Rangi Hīroa, gives a less mystical interpretation of this mangaian Avaiki. According to him, "when Tangi'ia came to Rarotonga from Tahiti, he brought with him some rankless "manahune" As they had no chance of rising in social status, some of them under the leadership of Rangi migrated to Mangaia to start a new life, their antagonism toward Rarotonga made them conceal the land of origin and invent an origin from a spiritual homeland in the netherworld of Avaiki" see Rennell Island While Solomon Islands is considered Melanesia, the province of Rennell and Bellona is Polynesian. The province consists of Bellona Island and the uninhabited Indispensable Reefs; the locals call Rennell Island “MUNGAVA” and they call Bellona Island “MUNGIKI”. They combine the last three letters of each Island and come up with a word called AVAIKI. If someone local does something silly you might hear someone say ‘That’s the Avaiki way’. A further example of this nomenclature can be evidenced with the identification of the name of the Province, Renbel which combines Rennell and Bellona.
MV Renbel is the name of the ferry that supplies the province from Honiara. There is a Rugby and Netball team on Rennell Island called Avaiki
A hero or heroine is a real person or a main fictional character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength. On the other hand are post-classical and modern heroes, who perform great deeds or selfless acts for the common good instead of the classical goal of wealth and fame; the antonym of a hero is a villain. The concept of the hero can be found in classical literature, it is the main or revered character in heroic epic poetry celebrated through ancient legends of a people striving for military conquest and living by a continually flawed personal honor code. The definition of a hero has changed throughout time. Merriam Webster dictionary defines a hero as "a person, admired for great or brave acts or fine qualities." Examples of heroes range from mythological figures, such as Gilgamesh and Iphigenia, to historical figures, such as Joan of Arc, Giuseppe Garibaldi or Sophie Scholl, modern heroes like Alvin York, Audie Murphy and Chuck Yeager, fictional superheroes, including Superman and Wonder Woman.
The word hero comes from the Greek ἥρως, "hero" one such as Heracles with divine ancestry or given divine honors. Before the decipherment of Linear B the original form of the word was assumed to be *ἥρωϝ-, hērōw-, but the Mycenaean compound ti-ri-se-ro-e demonstrates the absence of -w-. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Proto-Indo-European root is *ser meaning "to protect". According to Eric Partridge in Origins, the Greek word Hērōs "is akin to" the Latin seruāre, meaning to safeguard. Partridge concludes, "The basic sense of both Hera and hero would therefore be'protector'." R. S. P. Beekes rejects an Indo-European derivation and asserts that the word has a Pre-Greek origin. A classical hero is considered to be a "warrior who lives and dies in the pursuit of honor" and asserts their greatness by "the brilliancy and efficiency with which they kill"; each classical hero's life focuses on fighting, which occurs during an epic quest. Classical heroes are semi-divine and extraordinarily gifted, like Achilles, evolving into heroic characters through their perilous circumstances.
While these heroes are resourceful and skilled, they are foolhardy, court disaster, risk their followers' lives for trivial matters, behave arrogantly in a childlike manner. During classical times, people regarded heroes with the highest esteem and utmost importance, explaining their prominence within epic literature; the appearance of these mortal figures marks a revolution of audiences and writers turning away from immortal gods to mortal mankind, whose heroic moments of glory survive in the memory of their descendants, extending their legacy. Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War, known through Homer's The Iliad. Hector acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters," offers Hyginus. Hector was known not only for his courage but for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, without darker motives. However, his familial values conflict with his heroic aspirations in The Iliad, as he cannot be both the protector of Troy and a father to his child.
Hector is betrayed by the gods when Athena appears disguised as his ally Deiphobus and convinces him to take on Achilles, leading to his death at the hands of a superior warrior. Achilles was a Greek Hero, considered the most formidable military fighter in the entire Trojan War and the central character of The Iliad, he was the child of Peleus, making him a demi-god. He wielded superhuman strength on the battlefield and was blessed with a close relationship to the Gods. Achilles famously refuses to fight after his dishonoring at the hands of Agamemnon, only returns to the war due to unadulterated rage after Hector kills his close friend Patroclus. Achilles was known for uncontrollable rage that defined many of his bloodthirsty actions, such as defiling Hector's corpse by dragging it around the city of Troy. Achilles plays a tragic role in The Iliad brought about by constant de-humanization throughout the epic, having his menis overpower his philos. Heroes in myth had close but conflicted relationships with the gods.
Thus Heracles's name means "the glory of Hera" though he was tormented all his life by Hera, the Queen of the Gods. The most striking example is the Athenian king Erechtheus, whom Poseidon killed for choosing Athena over him as the city's patron god; when the Athenians worshiped Erechtheus on the Acropolis, they invoked him as Poseidon Erechtheus. Fate, or destiny, plays a massive role in the stories of classical heroes; the classical hero's heroic significance stems from battlefield conquests, an inherently dangerous action. The gods in Greek Mythology, when interacting with the heroes foreshadow the hero's eventual death on the battlefield. Countless heroes and gods go to great lengths to alter their pre-destined fate, but with no success, as no immortal can change their prescribed outcomes by the three Fates; the most prominent example of this is found in Oedipus Rex. After learning that his son, will end up killing him, the King of Thebes, takes huge steps to assure his son's death by removing him from the kingdom.
But, Oedipus slays his father without an afterthought when he unknowingly encounters him in a dispute on the road many years