Ping Shek Estate
Ping Shek Estate is a public housing estate in Kwun Tong District, Hong Kong. In the west of it is Choi Hung Estate, In the north of it is Ngau Chi Wan Municipal Building, in the south of it is Richland Gardens. A section of Lung Cheung Road between Choi Hung Estate and Ping Shek Estate is the boundary of Wong Tai Sin District and Kwun Tong District and belongs to Kwun Tong District; the area covers the Ping Shek constituency for the Kwun Tong District Council. There are seven residential blocks in the estates. All are named after stones of various colours in Cantonese language: A Sam Shan Kwok Wong Temple is located next to the estate, along Kwun Tong Road. Ping Shek Estate is near MTR Choi Hung Station, there is a bus terminus in the estate
New Kowloon is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong, bounded in the south by Boundary Street, in the north by the ranges of the Lion Rock, Beacon Hill, Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak. It covers the present-day Kwun Tong District and Wong Tai Sin District, part of the Sham Shui Po District and Kowloon City District; the territory south of Boundary Street was ceded by Qing dynasty China to Great Britain in 1860 under the Convention of Peking. The territory north of Boundary Street remained part of China until it was leased as part of the New Territories to Britain in 1898 for 99 years under the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory; the area of New Kowloon was defined by law in 1937 to increase land available for urban development. In practice both the areas to the south and to the north of Boundary Street, from the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east to Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Lai Chi Kok Bay in the west, are collectively known as "Kowloon". For example, a postal address in Kwun Tong will identify "Kowloon" as its regional destination though it is technically in New Kowloon.
In modern-day conversations, the term "New Kowloon" is now heard in Hong Kong. New Kowloon is no longer regarded as part of the New Territories, but as a part of the Kowloon urban area beyond Boundary Street; the legal definitions of Kowloon, New Kowloon and New Territories remain unchanged - New Kowloon has remained part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon. On July 1, 1997, the territories on both sides of Boundary Street were transferred to China, along with the rest of Hong Kong; the designation "New Kowloon" still has some legal implications, however. Because New Kowloon technically remains part of the New Territories in law owned land in New Kowloon is held by way of a land lease from the Hong Kong government, is thereby subject to rent payments. History of Hong Kong Kowloon New Territories Media related to New Kowloon at Wikimedia Commons Definition of New Kowloon in the Laws of Hong Kong as defined in 1937, Cap 1 SCHED 5, Hong Kong Laws
Ngau Chi Wan Village
Ngau Chi Wan Village is a village in Ngau Chi Wan, in Wong Tai Sin District, Hong Kong. In the past the village was inhabited by war and political refugees from mainland China. Ngau Chi Wan Village is served by the Choi Hung Station of the MTR. Cha Kwo Ling Nga Tsin Wai Tsuen
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is called a gulf, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with narrow entrance. A fjord is a steep bay shaped by glacial activity. A bay can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River. Bays may be nested within each other; some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing, they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea called the Law of the Sea, defines a bay as a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast.
An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation. There are various ways; the largest bays have developed through plate tectonics. As the super-continent Pangaea broke up along curved and indented fault lines, the continents moved apart and left large bays. Bays form through coastal erosion by rivers and glaciers. A bay formed by a glacier is a fjord. Rias are characterised by more gradual slopes. Deposits of softer rocks erode more forming bays, while harder rocks erode less leaving headlands. Bay platform Great capes Headlands and bays
The Mass Transit Railway is a major public transport network serving Hong Kong. Operated by the MTR Corporation Limited, it consists of heavy rail, light rail, feeder bus service centred on an 11-line rapid transit network serving the urbanised areas of Hong Kong Island and the New Territories; the system includes 218.2 km of rail with 159 stations, including 91 heavy rail stations and 68 light rail stops. The MTR is one of the most profitable metro systems in the world. Under the government's rail-led transport policy, the MTR system is a common mode of public transport in Hong Kong, with over five million trips made in an average weekday, it achieves a 99.9 per cent on-time rate on its train journeys. As of 2014, the MTR has a 48.1 per cent market share of the franchised public transport market, making it the most popular transport option in Hong Kong. The integration of the Octopus smart card fare-payment technology into the MTR system in September 1997 has further enhanced the ease of commuting on the MTR.
Construction of the MTR was prompted by a study, released in 1967, commissioned by the Hong Kong Government in order to find solutions to the increasing road congestion problem caused by the territory's fast-growing economy. Construction started soon after the release of the study, the first line opened in 1979; the MTR was popular with residents of Hong Kong. There are continual debates regarding where to expand the MTR network; as a successful railway operation, the MTR has served as a model for other newly built systems in the world urban rail transit in China. During the 1960s, the government of Hong Kong saw a need to accommodate increasing road traffic as Hong Kong's economy continued to grow strongly. In 1966, British transportation consultants Freeman, Wilbur Smith & Associates were appointed to study the transportation system of Hong Kong; the study was based on the projection of the population of Hong Kong for 1986, estimated at 6,868,000. On 1 September 1967, the consultants submitted the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study to the government, which recommended the construction of a 40-mile rapid transit rail system in Hong Kong.
The study suggested that four rail lines be developed in six stages, with a completion date set between December 1973 and December 1984. Detailed positions of lines and stations were presented in the study; these four lines were the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, Shatin line. The study was submitted to the Legislative Council on 14 February 1968; the consultants received new data from the 1966 by-census on 6 March 1968. A short supplementary report was submitted on 22 March 1968 and amended in June 1968; the by-census indicated that the projected 1986 population was reduced by more than one million from the previous estimate to 5,647,000. The dramatic reduction affected town planning; the population distribution was different from the original study. The projected 1986 populations of Castle Peak New Town, Sha Tin New Town, and, to a lesser extent, Tsuen Wan New Town, were revised downward, the plan of a new town in Tseung Kwan O was shelved. In this updated scenario, the consultants reduced the scale of the recommended system.
The supplementary report stated that the suggested four tracks between Admiralty station and Mong Kok station should be reduced to two, only parts of the Island line, Tsuen Wan line, Kwun Tong line should be constructed for the initial system. The other lines would be placed in the list of extensions; this report led to the final study in 1970. In 1970, a system with four lines was laid out and planned as part of the British consultants' new report, Hong Kong Mass Transit: Further Studies; the four lines were to be the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, East Kowloon line. However, the lines that were constructed were somewhat different compared to the lines that were proposed by the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study. In 1972, the Hong Kong government authorised construction of the Initial System, a 20-kilometre system that translates to today's Kwun Tong line between Kwun Tong and Prince Edward, Tsuen Wan line between Prince Edward and Admiralty, Island line between Sheung Wan and Admiralty.
The Mass Transit Steering Committee, chaired by the Financial Secretary Philip Haddon-Cave, began negotiations with four major construction consortia in 1973. The government's intention was to tender the entire project, based on the British design, as a single tender at a fixed price. A consortium from Japan, led by Mitsubishi, submitted the only proposal within the government's $5 billion price ceiling, they signed an agreement to construct the system in early 1974, but in December of the same year, pulled out of the agreement for reasons stemming from fears of the oil crisis. Several weeks in early 1975, the Mass Transit Steering Group was replaced by the Mass Transport Provisional Authority, which held more executive powers, it announced that the Initial System would be reduced to 15.6 kilometres and renamed the "Modified Initial System". Plans for a single contract were abandoned in favour of 25 engineering contracts and 10 electrical and mechanical contracts. On 7 May 1975 the Legislative Council passed legislation setting up the government-owned Mass Transit Railway Corporation to replace the Mass Transport Provisional Authority.
Construction of the Modified Initial System (now part of
Sai Kung District
Sai Kung District is the fifth largest district in Hong Kong in terms of area. It comprises the southern half of Sai Kung Peninsula and Clear Water Bay Peninsula in the New Territories plus a strip to the east of Kowloon, it is made up of the Sai Kung Town, Sai Kung rural areas, Tseung Kwan O New Town and over 70 islands of different sizes. The administrative centre is Sai Kung Town but the district's population is concentrated in Tseung Kwan O; the district has the second youngest residents. Known as the "back garden of Hong Kong", Sai Kung has been able to retain its natural scenery, where the Hong Kong Global Geopark is located. Behind the modern buildings, a lot of traditional customs and cultures are still retained in the rural villages. Sai Kung District covers 136 square kilometres and as of 2006, it had a population of 406,442 in 2006, most of it in Tseung Kwan O; as a former fishing village, Sai Kung Town is a spot for seafood lovers and tourists alike. The designation of the country park areas during the 1970s was a huge boost to the local tourist industry.
Sai Kung town underwent significant expansion during the 1970s when the High Island Reservoir and associated water scheme required some villagers and fishermen to be rehoused in Sai Kung. This provided a core of government-funded new development, both housing and commercial, in the town centre; this was followed by the Tui Min Hoi development under the government's market town programme. Visitors can stroll around the regional market centre of Sai Kung Town or explore the back lanes, visit the Tin Hau Temple, feast on seafood or enjoy diverse delicacies at both Eastern and Western-style pubs and restaurants. There is a famous dessert restaurant called Honeymoon Dessert that brings in many visitors from all over Hong Kong and from abroad. In addition to Sai Kung, Tseung Kwan O or Junk Bay, a booming new town, is part of Sai Kung District. Tseung Kwan O connects Sai Kung Peninsula with the Kowloon urban area. Junk Bay was once a natural bay area in Sai Kung, quite near the famous seafood village of Lei Yue Mun.
There once was an iron and steel factory, the area around Hang Hau Village was famous for the shipyards. In 1997, the Hong Kong Government started a major development project in this area, developing it into the seventh Hong Kong new town. Reclamation has since covered the whole bay area and it is now able to accommodate around 380,000 inhabitants, accounting for 95% of the district's total population; this new town was renamed its present name. Tseung Kwan O now includes an industrial estate; the MTR metro system was extended to Tseung Kwan O. In contrast to the densely populated areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, Sai Kung District's heartland is a coastal area characterised by its scenery, small villages and seascapes; the area is known for quiet living. Inasmuch as it remains only urbanised, Sai Kung is known as the "last back garden" of Hong Kong. Sai Kung Volcanic Rock Region lies in Sharp Island, High Island, the Ninepin Group and the Ung Kong Group, where volcanic rocks, intrusive rocks and world-unique acidic hexagonal volcanic columnar rock joints created by Hong Kong's last large-scale volcanic activity some 16.5 million to 14 million years ago crop out.
With a host of volcanic rock coastal landforms, they form a comprehensive showcase of diverse and complex volcanic activities that explain Sai Kung's geological past. Sai Kung East Country Park occupies a vast area of east Sai Kung Peninsula. With the High Island Reservoir, High Island, Tai Long Wan, Pak Tam Au, Chek Keng, Sheung Yiu, Wong Shek Pier and the surrounding countryside, the 4,494 hectare protected area consists of the largest number of bays and coves among all country parks in Hong Kong. Part of the Geopark is located there. Sai Kung East Country Park, including the Sai Kung West Country Park, occupies a vast area of west Sai Kung Peninsula. Old preserved villages, such as Yung Shue O and Lai Chi Chong are the places of interest. Clearwater Bay Country Park occupies the rugged terrain around High Junk Peak in the eastern and the western part of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula. High Junk Peak, one of the four treacherous peaks in Hong Kong, is the no. 1 attraction of the park. Sai Kung has some of the most cleanest beaches in Hong Kong.
Here is a list of the beaches in Sai Kung: Clear Water Bay 1st Beach Clear Water Bay 2nd Beach Silverstrand Beach Tai Long Wan Tai Long Wan 1.5 hours walk from the nearest road, is one of the few places in Hong Kong where surfing is possible in the winter months. Long Ke Wan On summer nights, a lot of people hire small boats known as kaitos or sampan, some to catch cuttle-fish, a popular pastime for local residents, others for leisurely trips through the island-dotted inland sea of Port Shelter. Popular islands to visit include: Kau Sai Chau Kiu Tsui Chau Leung Shuen Wan Chau Pak Sha Chau Yeung Chau Yim Tin Tsai The large island of Kau Sai Chau is the location for a public golf course developed and run by the Hong Kong Jockey Club. There are numerous cultural sites, heritage sites and country parks in the Sai Kung peninsula, such as: Hong Kong UNESCO Global Geopark Sheung Yiu Folk Museum, located in a former Hakka village Memorial Monuments for Sai Kung Martyrs During World War II Sai Kung Outdoor Recreation Centre Lions Nature Education Centre Sai Kung East and West Country Pa
Choi Hung Estate
Choi Hung Estate is one of the oldest public housing estates in Hong Kong. It is located in the Wong Tai Sin District of Kowloon; the estate was built by the former Hong Kong Housing Authority and is now managed by the current Hong Kong Housing Authority. It received a Silver Medal at the 1965 Hong Kong Institute of Architects Annual Awards. Choi Hung Estate is located in Ngau Chi Wan and is surrounded by eastern Kowloon Peninsula's several major roads. To the north is Lung Cheung Road; the geographical location accounts for the excellent transport network near the estate. The Hong Kong government granted the land to the Hong Kong Housing Authority to build a large housing estate in 1958; the blocks of the estate were completed between 1962 and 1964. An opening ceremony was held in 1963 with the presence of Hong Kong Governor, Sir Robert Brown Black. A signboard commemorating the ceremony is located in the estate's Lam Chung Avenue. Accommodating nearly 43,000 people, it was the largest public housing estate at the time.
It subsequently attracted several prominent visitors, including Richard Nixon in 1964, Britain's Princess Margaret in 1966, Princess Alexandra in 1967. There are 11 blocks of residential buildings, one car park and five schools in the estate, with various shops and restaurants on the ground floor of each block. Roads in the estate connect the blocks to major roads. Car park post office bus terminus 2 markets Choi Hung Estate Catholic Secondary School S. K. H. St. Benedict's School CCC Kei Wa Primary School S. K. H. Ching Shan Primary School S. K. H. Yat Sau Primary School Because the estate is accessible from major roads of Kowloon, the bus network is convenient; the Choi Hung MTR Station on the Kwun Tong Line, named after the estate, is in the north of the estate. Exits C3 and C4 are available for access to the estate. Public housing in Hong Kong List of public housing estates in Hong Kong Hong Kong Housing Authority