The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Their traditional territory spreads from Wollombi in the south, to the Lower Hunter River near Newcastle and Lake Macquarie in the north. In the traditional language, Awaba is the word for Lake Macquarie, meaning flat or plain surface, the Awabakal were bounded to the north–west by the Wonnarua, the Worimi to the north–east, and the Darkinjung peoples to the west and south. The Awabakal people, like most of the Aboriginal Australian tribes in Australia, awabagal is a common alternate name for the Awabakal people. Awaba is now the name of a town in the region. Tindale claims that the Ninyowa clan were from the Newcastle area, the Awabakal language was used by the Awabakal people and by the Wonnarua people. Oral historians and linguists are reviewing the language in order to develop a dictionary of the language of the Hunter River. The eaglehawk or wedge-tailed eagle has special significance for the Awabakal people, their celestial entity, looks like an Aboriginal man, but in flight resembles an eagle-hawk.
The Awabakal people played a significant part in shaping the environment of their region and they practised fire-stick farming extensively, which helped them to hunt and to navigate through dense prickly scrub along the coast. Tracks and paths were maintained, including a path from the shore to the top of a hill which became Watt Street in Newcastle, particularly for shellfish, was a significant part of the Awabakal peoples diet and culture pre-colonisation. Academic research by Webb indicates east coast Australia tribes were violent, the Awabakal Newcastle Aboriginal Cooperative Limited is a not-for-profit community controlled organisation operating in the Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and Hunter Region with 195 members. In 2014 financial year, Awabakal had income of $10. 7million, approximately half of the income is used on employee benefits expenses, being $5. 87million in 2014. Total assets for both 2013 and 2014 were ca, in 1976, the Awabakal Environmental Education Centre began operating.
It is a NSW Department of Education and Communities facility, the centre provides opportunities for teachers and students in the Hunter Region to learn about the environment and human interactions with the natural world. The Centre contains examples of habitats including perched lagoons, creek catchments and wet sclerophyll forest. Being located on Awabakal land, the centre provides the opportunity for students to learn about Aboriginal perspectives, knowledge. There is a significant Awabakal presence at the Wollotuka Institute at the University of Newcastle, Wollotuka is an Awabakal word meaning eating and meeting place. Attempts by the Awabakal Local Aboriginal Land Council to claim native title over land within Newcastle, biraban – a recognised headman of the Awaba clan who assisted the Rev Lancelot Threlkeld compile the first grammar of an Aboriginal language in Australia
Bogan River, a perennial river that is part of the Macquarie–Barwon catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the central west and Orana regions of New South Wales, Australia. From its origin near Parkes, the Bogan River flows for about 617 kilometres in length and flows into the Little Bogan River to form the Darling River, near Bourke. The name Bogan is an Australian Aboriginal term meaning the birthplace of a headman of the local tribe. From the foothills of the Herveys Range, the Bogan River rises to the west of the headwaters of the Little River at Cooks Myalls, the river flows in a generally north-north-westerly direction past Tottenham, Peak Hill and through Nyngan. East of Bourke, the Bogan River joins with the Little Bogan River to form the Darling River, the Bogan River has over twenty tributaries. The main tributaries to the west are Bullock, Pangee, the eastern catchment between the Bogan and Macquarie Rivers is ill-defined and has only one major tributary, Mulla Cowal.
Other sources have claimed that Bugwah Cowal, and Burrill, unlike the other main rivers of inland New South Wales, the Bogan does not rise in the well-watered highland areas, so its flow is low and erratic and not much use for irrigation. Major weirs along the watercourse are at Muddal Weir, located west of Peak Hill, the Nyngan Weir, located north of Nyngan, and Gongolgon Weir, the Kamilaroi Highway crosses the Bogan River 43 kilometres east of Bourke. A number of Aboriginal peoples lived in the surrounding the Bogan River for many thousands of years. In the area surrounding Peak Hill, the inhabitants of the area were the Wiradjuri clan. In the area surrounding Nyngan, the Ngiyambaa Aboriginal people were the custodians of the land. The river was crossed by John Oxley in 1817, but was named by Charles Sturt in his 1828-9 expedition as New Years Creek on 1 January 1829 and it was called the Bogan River prior to Major Sir Thomas Mitchell reaching here in 1835. On 17 April 1835 Richard Cunningham wandered away from the Mitchell party near the Bogan River and it is believed that he was killed here by Aborigines.
In April 1990, major flooding occurred along the river and in Nyngan, the floods caused A$50 million damage with the railway line so severely affected that rail services to Nyngan have since ceased, although freight services from Cobar are unaffected. Other significant flooding of the Bogan River occurred in 1928, Rivers of New South Wales Macquarie-Bogan River, NSW Water Quality and River Flow Objectives at the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. Images of the Bogan River at the State Library of New South Wales, muir, G. L, Johnson, W. D. Chemistry of the Bogan River, New South Wales, with Special Reference to the Sources of Dissolved Material, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
Barwon River (New South Wales)
Barwon River, a perennial river that is part of the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the north-west slopes and Orana regions of New South Wales, Australia. The history and livelihoods of the local Aboriginal people are closely intertwined with the Barwon River and its associated tributaries, the river is formed through the confluence of the Macintyre River and Weir River, north of Mungindi, in the Southern Downs region of Queensland. The Barwon River generally flows south and west, joined by 36 tributaries, including major inflows from the Boomi, Gwydir, Namoi, Bokhara, during major flooding, overflow from the Narran Lakes and the Narran River flows into the Barwon. The confluence of the Barwon and Culgoa rivers, between Brewarrina and Bourke, marks the start of the Darling River, towns on the Barwon River, from its source towards its mouth include Mungindi, Collarenebri and Brewarrina. Aboriginal people from six language groups occupied the area of the Barwon River wetlands. These were the Ngemba, the Baranbinja, the Murrawari, the Ualayai, the Weilwan, the Aboriginal people generally used the wetlands for hunting and gathering uses, and for cultural association.
Aboriginal people built a series of fish traps on the Barwon River at Brewarrina. These traps are a large, well-preserved example of type of prehistoric site. The traps were built of rocks placed in the bed to form a large number of V-shaped or diamond-shaped channels. The Brewarrina fish traps have now been listed on the Australian National Heritage List owing to the rarity of these works and they are of importance to modern Aboriginal people and are still in use. There are rocky rapids above and below Collarenebri as well as weirs, in 1846 Roderick Mitchell, Commissioner of Crown Lands and the son of explorer, Sir Thomas Mitchell, proved that the Barwon and MacIntyre Rivers were the same river under different names. Regular steamer services ran from Walgett to Bourke during 1880 to 1912, during the floods of 1879 and 1886 the steamers were able to travel into Collarenebri and even as far as Mungindi in 1890. The Brewarrina Lift Bridge which was built in 1888 over Barwon River on the Kamilaroi Highway has assessed as being of State significance.
The Boonanga bridge completed in 1928 to cross the Barwon River near Boomi, is an example of Allan timber truss road bridges. This bridge has been recorded with the NSW State agency heritage register, List of rivers of New South Wales Mungindi Bridge Macquarie-Bogan River catchment. Barwon and Far Western catchments
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the worlds oldest publishing house and it holds letters patent as the Queens Printer. The Presss mission is To further the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries. Its publishing includes journals, reference works, textbooks. Cambridge University Press is an enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press and it originated from Letters Patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, and has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed.
Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses, authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking. In 1591, Thomass successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, the London Stationers objected strenuously, claiming that they had the monopoly on Bible printing. The universitys response was to point out the provision in its charter to print all manner of books. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university towards the house and presse and James Halman, Registrary of the University. It was in Bentleys time, in 1698, that a body of scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the Presss affairs. The Press Syndicates publishing committee still meets regularly, and its role still includes the review, John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century. Baskervilles concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design, a technological breakthrough was badly needed, and it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates.
This involved making a mould of the surface of a page of type. The Press was the first to use this technique, and in 1805 produced the technically successful, under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, who was University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the Press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks, during Clays administration, the Press undertook a sizable co-publishing venture with Oxford, the Revised Version of the Bible, which was begun in 1870 and completed in 1885. It was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories, the Cambridge Modern History was published between 1902 and 1912
The Kamilaroi is one of the four largest indigenous nations in Australia. The Kamilaroi language is classified in the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages, the Kamilaroi Highway, Sydney Ferries Limiteds vehicular ferry Kamilaroi, and a cultivar of Durum wheat have all been named after the Kamilaroi people. The language is no longer spoken, though parts have bneen reconstructed by late field work. Robert M. W. Dixon and his student Peter Austin recorded some around Moree, while Corinne Williams wrote a thesis on the Yuwaaliyaay dialect spoken at Walgett, the Gamilaroi were hunters and gatherers with a band-level social organization. Important vegetable foods were yams and other roots, as well as a sterculia grain, insect larvae and eggs of several different animals were gathered. Various birds, emus, possums, dingo pups were regarded as a delicacy. Fish were consumed, as were crayfish, men typically hunted and prepared the game for cooking. Women did the cooking, in addition to fishing and gathering.
Individual Kamilaroi did not eat animals that were their totems, the Gamilaroi or Gomilaroi from the word Kamil or Gamil meaning no, are a large nation of Aborigines consisting of many tribes. The Gamilaroi are the second largest Aboriginal nation on the side of Australia. The nation was made up of smaller family groups who had their own parcels of land to sustain them. One of the great Kings of this tribe was Red Chief, the last link with tribal law and custom in Mungindi would be the forebear of the present Cubby family, who was the last known Respected Elder in the tribe. The Kamilaroi were regarded as fierce warriors and there is evidence of intertribal warfare. The Northern Gamilaroi people have a cultural connection with the Bigambul people. Kamilaroi tradition includes Baiame, the ancestor or patron god, the Baiame story tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers and forests. He gave the people their laws of life, songs and he created the first initiation site.
This is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood, when he had finished, he returned to the sky, and people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father. He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is identified as an emu
Aboriginal History is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal published as an open access journal by Aboriginal History Inc. The Journal has been described as, a flagship of the field of Australian Aboriginal history. The journals scope includes the areas of Australian Indigenous history and oral histories, biographies, bibliographic guides, a focus on cultural and economic history is complemented by critiques of current events of relevance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and society. The journal is co-published by ANU Press, an open access academic publisher located at the Australian National University in Canberra, the journal is fully accessible online from the ANU Press website. Aboriginal History Inc. the journals publisher, publishes monographs on a range of topics in Aboriginal. Since 2006 the monographs have been available through the website of open access co-publisher, official website Open access to journal through co-publisher ANU Press Open access to monographs through co-publisher ANU Press
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies