Hariphunchai or Haribhunjaya was a Mon kingdom in the north of present Thailand in the centuries before the Thais moved into the area. Its capital was at Lamphun, which at the time was called Hariphunchai. In 1292 the city was captured by Mangrai of the Thai kingdom of Lan Na. According to the Camadevivamsa and "Jinakalamali" chronicles, the city was founded by a hermit named Suthep in 629 AD, the Mon ruler of Lavo Kingdom sent his daughter Jamadevi to become its first queen. However, this date is now considered as too early, the actual beginning is placed at around 750 AD. At that time, most of what is now central Thailand was under the rule of various Mon city states, known collectively as the Dvaravati kingdom. Queen Jamadevi gave birth to twins, the older succeeding her as the ruler of Lamphun, the younger becoming ruler of neighboring Lampang; the kingdom under King Adityaraja, came into conflict with the Khmers in the twelfth century. Lamphun inscriptions from 1213, 1218, 1219, mention King Sabbadhisiddhi endowing Buddhist monuments.
The chronicles say that the Khmer unsuccessfully besieged Hariphunchai several times during the 11th century. It is not clear if the chronicles describe actual or legendary events, but the other Dvaravati Mon kingdoms did in fact fall to the Khmers at this time; the early 13th century was a golden time for Hariphunchai, as the chronicles talk only about religious activities or constructing buildings, not about wars. Hariphunchai was besieged in 1292 by the Lan Na king Mangrai, who incorporated it into his Lan Na kingdom. Names of monarchs of the Hariphunchai kingdom according to Tamnan Hariphunchai: Camadevi, Queen Hanayos Kumanjaraj Rudantra Sonamanjusaka Samsara Padumaraj Kusadeva Nokaraj Dasaraj Gutta Sera Yuvaraj Brahmtarayo Muksa Traphaka Uchitajakraphad king of Lavo Kampol Jakaphadiraj, King of Atikuyaburi Vasudev Yeyyala Maharaj, King of Lampang Sela Kanjana Chilanka Phunthula Ditta Chettharaj Jeyakaraj Phatijjaraj Thamikaraj Ratharaj Saphasith Chettharaj Jeyakaraj Datvanyaraj Ganga Siribun Uthen Phanton Atana Havam Trangal Yotta Yip'Historic Lamphun: Capital of the Mon Kingdom of Haripunchai', in: Forbes and Henley, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 4.
Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN B006J541LE Swearer, Donald K. and Sommai Premchit. The Legend of Queen Cama: Bodhiramsi's Camadevivamsa, a Translation and Commentary. New York: State University of New York Press, 1998
Theravāda is the most ancient branch of extant Buddhism today and the one that preserved their version of the teachings of Gautama Buddha in the Pāli Canon. The Pāli Canon is the only complete Buddhist canon which survives in a classical Indian language, Pāli, which serves as both sacred language and lingua franca of Theravāda Buddhism. For more than a millennium, Theravāda has focused on preserving the dhamma as preserved in its texts and it tends to be conservative with regard to matters of doctrine and monastic discipline. Since the 19th century, meditation practice has been re-introduced and has become popular with a lay audience, both in traditional Theravada countries and in the west; as a distinct school of early Buddhism, Theravāda Buddhism developed in Sri Lanka and subsequently spread to the rest of Southeast Asia. It is the dominant form of religion in Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand and is practiced by minority groups in India, China and Vietnam. In addition, the diaspora of all of these groups as well as converts around the world practice Theravāda Buddhism.
Contemporary expressions include Buddhist modernism, the Vipassana movement and the Thai Forest Tradition. The name Theravāda comes from the ancestral Sthāvirīya, one of the early Buddhist schools, from which the Theravadins claim descent; the Sthavira nikāya arose during the first schism in the Buddhist sangha, due to their desire to tighten monastic discipline by adding new Vinaya rules, against the wishes of the majority Mahāsāṃghika group who disagreed with this. According to its own accounts, the Theravāda school is fundamentally derived from the Vibhajjavāda "doctrine of analysis" grouping, a division of the Sthāvirīya. According to Damien Keown, there is no historical evidence that the Theravāda school arose until around two centuries after the Great Schism which occurred at the Third Council. Theravadin accounts of its own origins mention that it received the teachings that were agreed upon during the putative Third Buddhist council under the patronage of the Indian Emperor Ashoka around 250 BCE.
These teachings were known as the Vibhajjavāda. Emperor Ashoka is supposed to have assisted in purifying the sangha by expelling monks who failed to agree to the terms of Third Council; the elder monk Moggaliputta-Tissa was at the head of the Third council and compiled the Kathavatthu, a refutation of various opposing views, an important work in the Theravada Abhidhamma. The Vibhajjavādins in turn is said to have split into four groups: the Mahīśāsaka, Kāśyapīya, Dharmaguptaka in the north, the Tāmraparṇīya in South India; the Tambapaṇṇiya, were established in Sri Lanka but active in Andhra and other parts of South India and across South-East Asia. Inscriptional evidence of this school has been found in Nagarjunakonda. According to Buddhist scholar A. K. Warder, the Theravāda. Spread south from Avanti into Maharashtra and Andhra and down to the Chola country, as well as Sri Lanka. For some time they maintained themselves in Avanti as well as in their new territories, but they tended to regroup themselves in the south, the Great Vihara in Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of Sri Lanka, becoming the main centre of their tradition, Kanchi a secondary center and the northern regions relinquished to other schools.
The Theravāda is said to be descended from the Tāmraparṇīya sect, which means "the Sri Lankan lineage". Missionaries sent abroad from India are said to have included Ashoka's son Mahinda and his daughter Sanghamitta, they were the mythical founders of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, a story which scholars suggest helps to legitimize Theravāda's claims of being the oldest and most authentic school. According to the Mahavamsa chronicle their arrival in Sri Lanka is said to have been during the reign of Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura who converted to Buddhism and helped build the first Buddhist stupas. According to S. D. Bandaranayake: The rapid spread of Buddhism and the emergence of an extensive organization of the sangha are linked with the secular authority of the central state... There are no known artistic or architectural remains from this epoch except for the cave dwellings of the monks, reflecting the growth and spread of the new religion; the most distinctive features of this phase and the only contemporary historical material, are the numerous Brahmi inscriptions associated with these caves.
They record gifts to the sangha by householders and chiefs rather than by kings. The Buddhist religion itself does not seem to have established undisputed authority until the reigns of Dutthagamani and Vattagamani... The first records of Buddha images come from the reign of king Vasabha, after the 3rd century AD the historical record shows a growth of the worship of Buddha images as well as Bodhisattvas. In the 7th century, the Chinese pilgrim monks Xuanzang and Yijing refer to the Buddhist schools in Sri Lanka as Shàngzuòbù, corresponding to the Sanskrit Sthavira nikāya and Pali Thera Nikāya. Yijing writes, "In Sri Lanka the Sthavira school alone flourishes; the school has been using the name Theravāda for itself in a written form since at least the 4th century, about one thousand years after the Buddha's death, when the term appears in the Dīpavaṁsa. Between the reigns of Sena I and Mahinda IV, the city of Anuradhapura saw a "colossal building effort" by various kings during a long period of peace and prosperity, the great part o
History of Isan
The history of Isan has been determined by its geography, situated as it is on the Korat Plateau between Cambodia and Thailand. The national government claimed that the name "Isan" was derived from Sanskrit Īśāna, a name of Shiva they claimed referred to his rule of the northeast; this interpretation was intended to reinforce Isan's identity as the northeast of Thailand, rather than as part of the Lao kingdom because of the fear of the Lao people seceding. The Thai king Vajiravudh reinvoked the ancient name, designating the northeast sector of the Rattanakosin Kingdom "Isan". In the reign of Chulalongkorn in early 20th century, the sector was called Hua Mueang Lao for the area north of Nakhon Ratchasima and Khamen Pa Dong for the townships to the east; the term Isan came into wide, if unofficial, use as a term for the northeastern region, khon Isan as a general term for the peoples of Isan. Isan has been dominated by each of its neighbors in turn, although its relative infertility meant it was more a battleground than a prize.
Rather than being incorporated into the respective empires of each power, the area was divided into mueang, each paying tribute to one or more powers under the mandala system. Throughout the 20th century, the Thai government took steps to cement Isan's status as a part of Thailand and to de-emphasize the Lao and Kuy origins of its population, a process known as Thaification; the majority of people in present-day Isan speak the Lao language known as Isan. Many Khmer speakers live in the southern half and substantial minorities of Katuic speakers exist. Most Isan people are both conversant and to some degree literate in Central Thai. Before the central government introduced the Thai alphabet and language in regional schools, the people of Isan wrote in the Lao alphabet, a similar script that Thai adopted. Most people still speak a dialect of the Lao language, as their first language. A significant minority in the south speak Northern Khmer; the Kuy people, an Austrosiatic people concentrated around the core of what was once the Chenla Kingdom and known as the Khmer Boran "ancient Khmer", are a link to the region's pre-Tai history.
Four Homo erectus fossil skull fragments found in northern Thailand's Hat Pudui cave by Thai paleontologists Somsak Pramankij and Vadhana Subhavanin, were in deposits dating from the mid-Pleistocene era, before the Khorat Plateau had uplifted from an extensive plain. Professor Phillip V. Tobias of Johannesburg's University of the Witwatersrand examined the fragments and said: "It seems unavoidable but to conclude that Thailand must have been a highway or crossroads in the movement of hominids — members of the family of man."Pha Taem cliff paintings alongside the Mekong in Udon Thani Province date to around 1500 BC. They are younger than but similar in composition to the Rock Paintings of Hua Mountain in southern China, which are attributed to the Luoyue people of what is today the lowland plains of northern Vietnam the marshy, agriculturally rich area of the Red River Delta, associated with the Bronze Age Đông Sơn culture of mainland Southeast Asia; the Ban Chiang archaeological site, dating from around 3000 BC to 300 AD, attracted attention in 1966 as the world's oldest site showing traces of a Bronze Age culture, due to errors in dating.
In Fine Arts, the site is remarkable for its pottery. The question as to why the site was abandoned until resettled by 19th–century Lao émigrés remains to be settled; the Bronze Age site of Ban Non Wat in the southeast of the plateau is under investigation The first major civilisation to occupy Isan was considered, by the study of artifacts, to be Dvaravati. The remains of walled and moated towns scattered the region, in the valleys of Mun Rivers; the remains show the Buddhist and Hinduist influence expanding from the western part or the coastal and the Chao Phraya River basin. To obtain a fuller and more correct picture of the society and culture of the early urban life on the Khorat Plateau, we must, as Professors Thiva and Srisakra have argued, undertake more archaeological research than has been done thus far. And, I would add, we can further increase our understanding of these societies through systematic research on a number of the indigenous legends of the Thai-Lao people of northeastern Thailand.
From the 11th century, the Dvaravati or Mon culture from the Chao Phraya River basin was displaced by the Khmer Empire of Angkor. Many principal centers became Angkor's tributary states. A number of temples influenced by ancient Khmer art were found in Isan, most notably in southern part, at Phanom Rung and Phimai, which lie on the so-called Ancient Khmer Highway, the direct link to Angkor. Inscriptions found told the connections between vassal towns and the court of Angkor; the Sukhothai Kingdom broke free from the Angkor Empire around the 13th century. Although Isan is not thought to have been a part of the Sukhothai kingdom due to the lack of clear evidence, the Khmer empire became weaker and retreated to its Cambodian heartlands, leaving Isan in the hands of fragmented muang city-states or statelets. However, many Khmer-speaking people remained and are still a prominent fixture in the southern area, constituting the majority in present-day southern part of the region such as in present-day Surin Province, Burir
History of Thailand since 2001
The history of Thailand since 2001 has been dominated by the politics surrounding the rise and fall from power of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and the subsequent conflicts between his supporters and opponents. Thaksin and his Thai Rak Thai Party came to power in 2001 and became popular among the electorate rural voters. Opponents, criticized his authoritarian style and accused him of corruption. Thaksin was deposed in a coup d'état in 2006, Thailand has since been embroiled in continuing rounds of political crisis involving elections won by Thaksin's supporters, massive anti-government protests by multiple factions, removals of prime ministers and disbanding of political parties by the judiciary, two military coups. Thaksin was prime minister from 2001 to 2006, when he was ousted by a coup following protests by the anti-Thaksin People's Alliance for Democracy. However, his supporters were brought back to power in a new election following the enactment of new constitution in 2007.
The PAD protested against the government through most of 2008, the ruling party was dissolved by the Constitutional Court. The opposition Democrat Party, led by Abhisit Vejjajiva, formed a government, but faced protests by the opposing Red Shirt movement led by the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship; this led to a violent military crackdown in May 2010. Another Thaksin-aligned party won the election in 2011, installing his sister Yingluck Shinawatra as prime minister. Renewed anti-government protests began in November 2013, continued until the military again staged a coup in May 2014. Coup leader Prayut Chan-o-cha took power as prime minister, oversaw systemic suppression of political freedom before allowing elections, which are expected in 2019; the conflicts have divided popular opinion in Thailand. In exile, Thaksin still commands strong support among the rural population of the North and Northeast, who benefited from his policies and form the majority of the electorate, they are joined after the 2006 coup, by liberal academics and activists, who oppose his opponents' pushes to achieve a non-elected government.
On the other hand, Thaksin's opponents consist of much of Bangkok's urban middle class and the Southern population and academics, as well as members of the "old elite" who wielded political influence before Thaksin came to power. They claim that Thaksin abused his power and undermined democratic processes and institutional checks and balances, monopolizing power and using populist policies to secure his political standing. While Thaksin's opponents claim that elections which resulted in victories for his allies were not democratic because of such interference, his supporters have accused the courts, which brought down multiple Thaksin-aligned governments, of engaging in judicial activism; these events took place. The King, who had reigned for 70 years, died in October 2016 after several years of deteriorating health during which he appeared less and less in public. Bhumibol had long been regarded as a uniting figure and guiding moral authority for the country, commanded a great amount of respect, unlike his successor Maha Vajiralongkorn.
The uncertainties surrounding the impending royal succession compounded the political instability. Many anti-Thaksin groups claimed to be loyal to Bhumibol, accusing their opponents of bearing republican sentiments. Prosecutions under the lèse-majesté law increased after 2006, in what has been criticized as politicization of the law at the expense of human rights. Meanwhile, the long-standing separatist movement in the deep South has worsened since 2004, with 7,000 having been killed in the conflict. Economically, the country made its recovery from the 1997 Asian financial crisis and became an upper-middle income economy in 2011, though it was affected by the Great Recession and GDP growth has slowed from the early 2000s; the multiple political crises and coups had little impact on the Thai economy individually, the country recovered from major disasters including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and widespread flooding in 2011. However, inequality remains high, contributing to the urban–rural divide and fuelling further social and political conflict.
The future of the country remains unclear as the 2017 constitution, drafted under junta, paved the way for further military intervention in politics, amidst concerns regarding the return to democratic rule and the changing role of the monarchy under a new reign. Thaksin's Thai Rak Thai Party came to power through a general election in 2001, where it won a near-majority in the House of Representatives; as prime minister, Thaksin launched a platform of policies, popularly dubbed "Thaksinomics", which focused on promoting domestic consumption and providing capital to the rural populace. By delivering on electoral promises, including populist policies such as the One Tambon One Product project and the 30-baht universal healthcare scheme, his government enjoyed high approval as the economy recovered from the effects of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Thaksin became the first democratically elected prime minister to complete a four-year term in office, Thai Rak Thai won a landslide victory in the 2005 general election.
However, Thaksin's rule was marked by controversy. He had adopted an authoritarian "CEO-style" approach in governing, centralising power and increasing intervention in the bureaucracy's operations. While the 1997 constitution had provided for greater government stability, Thaksin used his influence to neutralise the independent bodies d
Pattani or the Sultanate of Patani was a Malay sultanate in the historical Patani Region. It covered the area of the modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia; the 6–7th century Hindu state of Pan Pan may or may not have been related. Langkasuka was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, founded in the region as early as the 2nd century CE, which appeared in many accounts by Chinese travellers, the most famous of whom was the Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching; the kingdom drew trade from Chinese and local traders as a stopping place for ships bound for, or just arrived from, the Gulf of Thailand. Langkasuka reached its greatest economic success in the 6th and 7th centuries and afterward declined as a major trade center. Political circumstances suggest that by the 11th century Chola invasion, Langkasuka was no longer a major port visited by merchants. However, much of the decline may be due to the silting up of its harbour, shown most poignantly today because the most substantial Langkasukan ruins lie 15 kilometres from the sea.
Patani became part of the Hindu-Buddhist Empire of Srivijaya, a maritime confederation based in Palembang. Srivijaya dominated trade in the South China Sea and exacted tolls on all traffic through the Straits of Malacca. Malay culture had substantial influence on the Khmer Empire, the ancient city of Nakhon Pathom; the founding of the Islamic kingdom of Patani is thought to have been around the mid-13th century CE, with folklore suggesting it was named after an exclamation made by Sultan Ismail Shah, "Pantai ini!". However, some think. An alternative theory is. Local stories tell of a fisherman named Pak Tani, sent by a king from the interior to survey the coast, to find a place for an appropriate settlement. After he established a successful fishing outpost, other people moved to join him; the town soon grew into a prosperous trading center. The authors of the 17th–18th century Hikayat Patani chronicle claim this story is untrue, support the claim that the kingdom was founded by the Sultan; the Patani kingdom's golden age was during the reign of its four successive queens from 1584, known as Ratu Hijau, Ratu Biru, Ratu Ungu and Ratu Kuning, during which the kingdom's economic and military strength was increased to the point that it was able to fight off four major Siamese invasions, with the help of the eastern Malay kingdom of Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanate of Johor.
In the 14th century CE, King Ram Khamhaeng the Great of Sukhothai, occupied Nakhon Si Thammarat and its vassal states – including Patani. The Thai Ayutthaya kingdom conquered the isthmus during the 14th century CE, bringing it into a single unified state, with Ayutthaya as a capital, many smaller vassal states under its control; this consisted of a self-governing system in which the vassal states and tributary provinces owed allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya, but otherwise ran their own affairs. A sheikh named Sa'id or Shafi'uddin from Kampong Pasai (presumably a small community of traders from Pasai who lived on the outskirts of Patani healed the king of a rare skin disease and after much negotiation, the king agreed to convert to Islam, adopting the name Sultan Ismail Shah. All of the sultan's officials agreed to convert. However, there is fragmentary evidence that some local people had begun to convert to Islam prior to this; the existence of a diasporic Pasai community near Patani shows the locals had regular contact with Muslims.
There are travel reports, such as that of Ibn Battuta, early Portuguese accounts that claimed Patani had an established Muslim community before Melaka, which would suggest that merchants who had contact with other emerging Muslims centres were the first to convert to the region. During much of the 15th century Ayutthaya's energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula the trading port of Malacca, which fell under the rule of the Malacca Sultanate. Ayutthaya's sovereignty extended over the Malay states south of Tambralinga. Ayutthaya helped develop and stabilise the region, opening the way for lucrative trade on the isthmus; this attracted Chinese merchants seeking speciality goods for the Chinese market. The 16th century witnessed the rise of Burma, which under an aggressive dynasty had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and made war on Ayutthaya. A second siege led by King Bayinnaung forced King Maha Chakkraphat to surrender in 1564; the royal family was taken to Bago, with the king's second son Mahinthrathirat installed as the vassal king.
With the brief decline of Ayutthaya's hegemony in this period, Patani may have become independent temporarily. King Dhammaraja was a Siamese noble of the Sukhothai dynasty, was the King of Phitsanulok - an important city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Dhammaraja became the King of Ayutthaya by aiding the Burmese King in the siege of Ayutthaya in 1568. After, taking over Ayutthaya, Bayinnaung installed Dhammara as a vassal king. After Bayinnaung's death in 1581, uparaja Naresuan proclaimed Ayutthaya's independence in 1584; the Thai fought off repeated Burmese invasions. Thai independence was restored by Dhammaraja son, King Naresuan the Great, who rebelled against the Burmese and by 1593 had driven them from the ki
Peopling of Thailand
The peopling of Thailand refers to the process by which the ethnic groups that comprise the population of present-day Thailand came to inhabit the region. The Tai migration from the northern mountains into Thailand and Laos was a slow process, with the Tai remaining near the mountainous area in the region, where they were able to use their specialized agricultural knowledge relating to the use of mountain water for rice production; the earliest Tai settlements in Thailand were in the river valleys in the northern reaches of the country. The Tai settled the central plains of Thailand and displaced and inter-bred with the pre-existing Austroasiatic population; the languages and culture of the Tai came to dominate the regions of both modern-day Laos and Thailand. In more recent times, many of the Tai tribes of Laos migrated west across the border, establishing communities in Thailand; the Laotian Tai ethnic groups referred to as the Lao, are clustered in the Isan region of Thailand. Comparative linguistic research seems to indicate that the Tai people were a proto-Tai–Kadai-speaking culture of southern China, like the Malayo-Polynesians, they may have been of Austronesian descent.
Prior to living in mainland China, the Tai are thought to have migrated from a homeland on the island of Taiwan, where they spoke a dialect of proto-Austronesian or one of its descendant languages. Unlike the Malayo-Polynesian group who sailed south to the Philippines and other parts of maritime Southeast Asia, the ancestors of the modern Tai-Kadai people sailed west to mainland China and traveled along the Pearl River, where their language changed from other Austronesian languages under the influence of Sino-Tibetan and Hmong–Mien language infusion; the coming of the Han Chinese to this part of southern China may have prompted the Tai to migrate once again. This time they went over the mountains of southern China into Southeast Asia through the mountains of Burma and Laos to the north of present day Thailand; the Tai ethnic groups are believed to have begun migrating south from China to Southeast Asia during the first millennium CE. While this theory of the origin of the Tai predominates, there is insufficient archaeological evidence to prove it, linguistic evidence alone is not conclusive.
In support of the theory, however, it is believed the O1 Y-DNA haplogroup is associated with both the Austronesian people and the Tai. Over the centuries, the Tai intermarried and absorbed many of the other populations who co-inhabited and/or politically occupied the region populations of Mon–Khmer and Chinese descent; this fusion of ethnicity has led to considerable genetic diversity in the modern Thai people, has resulted in a Tai population that differs in culture and apparel from the Tai ethnic groups who remained in China. Many of the individual Tai ethnic groups have assumed a common Thai identity and have adopted Thai cultural norms. There are presently more than 30 distinct Tai ethnic groups in Thailand, contributing nearly 85 percent of the nation's population; the genetic stratification of the ethnic clades of the Tai ethnicity is an ongoing topic of debate among linguists and other social scientists. The history of Chinese immigration to Thailand dates back many centuries, the specific Chinese ethnic groups which made their way to Thailand are numerous, although there is a greater concentration of Chinese from the southern provinces due to their geographic proximity to Thailand.
The Chinese are part of the greater Sino-Tibetan ethnicity which includes the Tibeto-Burmans. The Chinese immigrants were able to merge into the predominant Tai culture, have contributed to the economy and infrastructure of Thailand over the years; every king of the Chakri Dynasty, which rules Thailand, is part Chinese on his mother's side. Of note, the Khek River in Thailand derives its name from the Thai word Khek, the Thai name for the Hakka people of China who settled along its banks in Phitsanulok Province. Chinese traders in Thailand from Fujian and Guangdong Provinces, began arriving in Ayutthaya by at least the 13th century. Ayutthaya was under constant Burmese threat from the 16th century, the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Empire was alarmed by Burmese military might. From 1766-1769, the Qianlong Emperor sent his armies four times to subdue the Burmese, but all four invasions failed. Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese in 1767. During the Ayutthaya period, many Chinese traders and soldiers inter-married with local Tai, infusing Chinese culture into the population early in its history.
In the late-18th century, King Taksin of Thonburi, himself half-Chinese encouraged Chinese immigration and trade. Settlers came from Chaozhou prefecture in large numbers. By 1825, the population of Chinese in Thailand had reached 230,000, it grew due to a constant stream of Chinese immigrants to the country throughout the 19th century. Early Chinese immigration consisted entirely of Chinese men, who, of necessity, married Thai women; the children of such intermarriages were called meaning ` children of Chinese' in Thai. The Chinese population in Thailand had risen to 792,000 by 1910. By 1932 12.2 percent of the population was ethnic Chinese. The corruption of the Qing dynasty and the massive population increase in China, combined with high taxes, caused many families to leave for Thailand in search of work and a better life; those who came before the First World War came overland or by sailboats called sampams, while after World War II most arrived by steam ship. The earlier tradition of Chinese-Thai intermarriage declined once larg
Economy of Thailand
Thailand is a newly industrialized country. Its economy is export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of its gross domestic product. In 2017, according to the IMF, Thailand had a GDP of 15.450 trillion baht, the 8th largest economy of Asia. Thailand has a headline inflation rate of 3.02 percent and an account surplus of 0.7 percent of the country's GDP. The Thai economy is expected to post 4.1% growth in 2018. Its currency, the Thai Baht ranked as the tenth most used world payment currency in 2017; the industrial and service sectors are the main sectors in the Thai gross domestic product, with the former accounting for 39.2 percent of GDP. Thailand's agricultural sector produces 8.4 percent of GDP—lower than the trade and logistics and communication sectors, which account for 13.4 percent and 9.8 percent of GDP respectively. The construction and mining sector adds 4.3 percent to the country's gross domestic product. Other service sectors account for 24.9 percent of the country's GDP.
Telecommunications and trade in services are emerging as centers of industrial expansion and economic competitiveness. Thailand is the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia, after Indonesia, its per capita GDP in 2017, ranks in the middle of Southeast Asian per capita GDP, after Singapore and Malaysia. In July 2018 Thailand held US$237.5 billion in international reserves, the second-largest in Southeast Asia. Its surplus in the current account balance ranks tenth of the world, made US$49.2 billion to the country in 2017. Thailand ranks second in Southeast Asia in external trade volume, after Singapore; the nation is recognized by the World Bank as "one of the great development success stories" in social and development indicators. Despite a low per capita gross national income of US$5,210 and ranking 89th in the Human Development Index, the percentage of people below the national poverty line decreased from 65.26 percent in 1988 to 8.61 percent in 2016, according to the NESDB's new poverty baseline.
Thailand's one of countries with the lowest unemployment rate in the world, reported as 1 percent for the first quarter of 2014. This is due to a large proportion of the population working in subsistence agriculture or on other vulnerable employment; the Kingdom of Thailand's FY2017 budget is 2,733,000 million baht. In May 2018, the Thai Cabinet approved a FY2019 budget of three trillion baht, up 3.4 percent—100 billion baht—from FY2018. Annual revenue is projected to reach up 4.1 percent, or 100 billion baht. Overall, the national budget will face a deficit of 450 billion baht; the cabinet approved a budget deficits until 2022 in order to drive the economy to growth of 3.5–4.5 percent a year. Thailand known as Siam, opened to foreign contact in the pre-industrial era. Despite the scarcity of resources in Siam, coastal ports and cities and those at the river mouth were early economic centers which welcomed merchants from Persia, the Arab countries and China; the rise of Ayutthaya during the 14th century was connected to renewed Chinese commercial activity, the kingdom became one of the most prosperous trade centers in Asia.
When the capital of the kingdom moved to Bangkok during the 19th century, foreign trade became the focus of the government. Chinese merchants came to trade. A number of Chinese merchants and migrants became high dignitaries in the court. From the mid-19th century onward, European merchants were active; the Bowring Treaty, signed in 1855, guaranteed the privileges of British traders. The Harris Treaty of 1856, which updated the Roberts Treaty of 1833, extended the same guarantees to American traders; the domestic market developed with serfdom a possible cause of domestic stagnation. Most of the male population in Siam was in the service of court officials, while their wives and daughters may have traded on a small scale in local markets; those who were indebted might sell themselves as slaves. King Rama V abolished slavery in 1901 and 1905 respectively. From the early 20th century to the end of World War II, Siam's economy became globalized. Major entrepreneurs were ethnic Chinese. Exports of agricultural products were important and Thailand has been among the top rice exporters in the world.
The Siamese economy suffered from the Great Depression, a cause of the Siamese revolution of 1932. Significant investment in education in the 1930s laid the basis for economic growth, as did a liberal approach to trade and investment. Postwar domestic and international politics played significant roles in Thai economic development for most of the Cold War era. From 1945 to 1947, the Thai economy suffered because of the Second World War. During the war, the Thai government declared war against the Allies. After the war Thailand had to supply 1.5 million tons of rice to Western countries without charge, a burden on the country's economic recovery. The government tried to solve the problem by establishing a rice office to oversee the rice trade. During this period a multiple-exchange-rate system was introduced amid fiscal problems, the kingdom experienced a shortage of consumer goods. In November 1947, a brief democratic period was ended by a military coup and the Thai economy regained its momentum.
In his dissertation, Somsak Nilnopkoon considers the period from 1947 to 1951 one of prosperity. By Ap