The kudus are two species of antelope of the genus Tragelaphus: Lesser kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis, of eastern Africa Greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, of eastern and southern Africa The name of the animal was imported into English in the 18th century from isiXhosa iqhude, via Afrikaans koedoe part zebra part deer. Kudu, or koodoo, is the Khoikhoi name for this antelope. Tragos elaphos a deer. Strepho means "twist", strephis is "twisting". Keras refers to the horn of the animal. Lesser kudus come from the savanna near Commiphora shrubs, they have to rely on thickets for protection, so they are seen in the open. Their brown and striped pelts help to camouflage them in scrub environments. Like many other antelope, male kudus can be found in bachelor groups, but they are more to be solitary, their dominance displays tend not to last long and are fairly peaceful, consisting of one male making himself look big by making his hair stand on end. When males do have a face-off, they will lock their horns in a competition to determine the stronger puller.
Sometimes two competing males are unable to unlock their horns and, if unable to disengage, will die of starvation or dehydration. Males are seen with females only in the mating season, when they join in groups of 5–15 kudus, including offspring. Calves grow quickly and at six months are independent of their mothers. A pregnant female will leave the herd to give birth to a single offspring, she will leave the newborn lying hidden for 4–5 weeks while coming back only to nurse it, the longest amount of time for any antelope species. The calf will start meeting its mother for short periods. At 3 or 4 months, the calf will be with its mother and at about six months they will permanently join the group; when threatened, the kudu will run away rather than fight. Wounded bulls have been known to charge the attacker, hitting the attacker with their sturdy horn base rather than stabbing it. Wounded females can keep running for many miles without stopping to rest for more than a minute, they are capable of breaking a wild dog's or jackal's neck or back.
They are good can clear a 5-foot fence from a standing start. Kudus eat leaves and shoots. In dry seasons they eat wild watermelons and other fruit for their liquid content and the natural sugars that they provide; the lesser kudu is less dependent on water sources than the greater kudu. Predators, such as lions and leopards, African wild dogs and sometimes pythons, hunt kudu and their young. Kudu numbers are affected by humans hunting them for their meat and horns, or using their habitats for charcoal burning and farming. Kudus were susceptible to the rinderpest virus, many scientists think recurring epidemics of the disease reduced kudu populations in East Africa. Kudus are susceptible to rabies in times of extended drought, they have been known to enter other buildings when infected. Infected animals appear have a distinct frothing at the mouth, they are fearless and bulls may sometimes attack humans who get too close to them. Kudu meat is similar to venison, with liver-like flavor, it is a dry and lean meat, so it needs to be cooked to avoid drying it out and making it difficult to eat.
A kudu horn is a musical instrument made from the horn of the kudu. A form of it is sometimes used as a shofar in Jewish ceremonies, it is seen in the Western world in its use as a part of the Scouting movement's Wood Badge training program which, when blown, signals the start of a Wood Badge training course or activity. A horn of this shape, when used by soccer fans, is called kuduzela; the kudu, "tholo" in the languages of Sepedi and Venda, is a tribal totem of the Barolong and Batlhaping people of Botswana and South Africa. In the sport of kudu dung-spitting, contestants spit pellets of kudu dung, with the farthest distance reached being the winner; the sport is popular among the Afrikaner community in South Africa, a world championship is held each year. Media related to Tragelaphus strepsiceros at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Tragelaphus imberbis at Wikimedia Commons Kudu: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation
The bateleur is a medium-sized eagle in the family Accipitridae. Its closest relatives are the snake eagles, it is the only member of the genus Terathopius and may be the origin of the "Zimbabwe Bird", national emblem of Zimbabwe. It is endemic to small parts of Arabia. "Bateleur" is French for "street performer". The average adult is 55 to 70 cm long with a 186 cm wingspan; the wing chord averages 51 cm. Adult weight is 2 to 2.6 kg. The bateleur is a colourful species with a short tail which, together with its white underwing coverts, makes it unmistakable in flight; the tail is so small the bird's legs protrude beyond the tail during flight. The bateleur is sexually dimorphic; the female additionally has tawny secondary wing feathers. Less the mantle may be white. Immature birds have greenish facial skin, it takes them eight years to reach full maturity. The bateleur eagle is a common to common resident of the open savanna country and woodland within Sub-Saharan Africa. Total distribution size is estimated at 28,000,000 km2.
The bird's range has diminished in recent decades due to poisoning, as such has been confined to conservation areas such as national wildlife parks. In April 2012, a juvenile bateleur was seen in Algeciras in southern Spain; this was the first European record for the bateleur. The bateleur is diurnal, hunts over a territory of 250 square miles a day. Bateleurs are hunters and scavengers, they will attack other species for food and will scavenge carrion; the bird is adept at finding smaller carcasses before most other scavengers. The bateleur will hunt birds, small reptiles, small mammals, its prey is stolen by the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax, the bateleur may attempt kleptoparasitism of white-backed vultures. The bateleur is silent, but on occasions it produces a variety of barks and screams; the bird spends a considerable amount of time on the wing in low-altitude glides. "Bateleur" is French for "tumbler". This name implies the bird’s characteristic habit of rocking its wings from side to side when gliding, as if catching its balance.
The bateleur is a territorial bird and will defend its territory by means of an aggressive attack flight pattern shown to intruding conspecifics. Intruders to whom this behavior is displayed always submit and submission is shown by retreating to a safe upper boundary. Males and females both display this behavior in all stages of the breeding cycle; this behavior is shown to members of the same sex and to non-adults, as it is thought that they may have a greater ability to take over another bird's territory. Bateleur eagles are among a group of raptors that secrete a clear, salty fluid from their nares whilst eating. According to Schmidt-Nielson's hypothesis, this is due to the general necessity for birds to use an extrarenal mechanism of salt secretion to aid water reabsorption. Bateleurs are monogamous and breed from January - April. Bateleurs lay only one egg at a time. Both parents put equal amounts of care into the young and breeding failures are due to predation or a failure to lay the egg.
Incubation lasts for annual mean production is 0.47 chicks per breeding pair per year. The bateleur is considered to have a lifespan about 27 years; the annual adult survival rate is estimated at 95%, while the annual juvenile survival rate is estimated at 75%. Average sex ratios remain 1:1. In 2009, the bateleur was placed in the near threatened IUCN Red List category due to loss of habitat, capture for international trade and nest disturbance. Decline of the species is suspected to have been moderately rapid over the past three generations. Current conservation efforts are unknown. In South Africa and Namibia the bateleur has been labelled as a "Vulnerable" species, most due to being trapped for its feathers used in traditional medicine; the population has decreased due to it feasting on poisoned animal carcasses being left out for other species. Like the martial eagle, the bateleur is reasonably common in conservation areas and scarce elsewhere. Global population is estimated at 10,000 to 100,000 individuals.
Bateleur - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
The hartebeest known as kongoni, is an African antelope. Eight subspecies have been described, including two sometimes considered to be independent species. A large antelope, the hartebeest stands just over 1 m at the shoulder, has a typical head-and-body length of 200 to 250 cm; the weight ranges from 100 to 200 kg. It has a elongated forehead and oddly shaped horns, short neck, pointed ears, its legs, which have black markings, are unusually long. The coat is short and shiny. Coat colour varies by the subspecies, from the sandy brown of the western hartebeest to the chocolate brown of the Swayne's hartebeest. Both sexes of all subspecies have horns, with those of females being more slender. Horns can reach lengths of 45–70 cm. Apart from its long face, the large chest and the sloping back differentiate the hartebeest from other antelopes. Gregarious animals, hartebeest form herds of 20 to 300 individuals, they are alert and non-aggressive. They are grazers, with their diets consisting of grasses.
Mating in hartebeest takes place throughout the year with one or two peaks, depends upon the subspecies and local factors. Both males and females reach sexual maturity at one to two years of age. Gestation is eight to nine months long, after. Births peak in the dry season; the lifespan is 12 to 15 years. Inhabiting dry savannas and wooded grasslands, hartebeest move to more arid places after rainfall, they have been reported from altitudes on Mount Kenya up to 4,000 m. The hartebeest was widespread in Africa, but populations have undergone drastic decline due to habitat destruction, human settlement, competition with livestock for food; each of the eight subspecies of the hartebeest has a different conservation status. The Bubal hartebeest was declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1994. While the populations of the red hartebeest are on the rise, those of the Tora hartebeest Critically Endangered, are falling; the hartebeest is extinct in Algeria, Lesotho, Morocco and Tunisia.
It is a popular game animal due to its regarded meat. The vernacular name "hartebeest" could have originated from the obsolete Afrikaans word hertebeest deer beast; the name was given based on the resemblance of the antelope to deer. The first use of the word "hartebeest" in South African literature was in Dutch colonial administrator Jan van Riebeeck's journal Daghregister in 1660, he wrote: "Meester Pieter ein hart-beest geschooten hadde". Another name for the hartebeest is a Swahili word. Kongoni is used to refer in particular to one of its subspecies—Coke's hartebeest; the scientific name of the hartebeest is Alcelaphus buselaphus. First described by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766, it is classified in the genus Alcelaphus and placed in the family Bovidae. In 1979, palaeontologist Elisabeth Vrba supported Sigmoceros as a separate genus for Lichtenstein's hartebeest, a kind of hartebeest, as she assumed it was related to Connochaetes, she had analysed the skull characters of living and extinct species of antelope to make a cladogram, argued that a wide skull linked Lichtenstein's hartebeest with Connochaetes.
However, this finding was not replicated by Alan W. Gentry of the Natural History Museum, who classified it as an independent species of Alcelaphus. Zoologists such as Jonathan Kingdon and Theodor Haltenorth considered it to be a subspecies of A. buselaphus. Vrba dissolved the new genus in 1997 after reconsideration. An MtDNA analysis could find no evidence to support a separate genus for Lichtenstein's hartebeest, it showed the tribe Alcelaphini to be monophyletic, discovered close affinity between the Alcelaphus and the sassabies —both genetically and morphologically. Eight subspecies are identified, of which two – A. b. caama and A. b. lichtensteinii – have been considered to be independent species. However, a 1999 genetic study by P. Arctander of the University of Copenhagen and colleagues, which sampled the control region of the mitochondrial DNA, found that these two formed a clade within A. buselaphus, that recognising these as species would render A. buselaphus paraphyletic. The same study found A. b. major to be the most divergent, having branched off before the lineage split to give a combined caama/lichtensteinii lineage and another that gave rise to the remaining extant subspecies.
Conversely a 2001 phylogenetic study, based on D–loop and cytochrome b analysis by Øystein Flagstad and colleagues, found that the southern lineage of A. b. caama and A. lichtensteinii diverged earliest. Analysis of skull structure supports partition into three major divisions: A. b. buselaphus division, A. b. tora division and A. b. lelwel division. Another analysis of cytochrome b and D-loop sequence data shows a notable affinity between the A. b. lelwel and A. b. tora divisions. The eight subspecies, including the two controversial ones, are: † A. b. buselaphus: Known as the Bubal hartebeest or northern hartebeest. Occurred across northern Africa, from Morocco to Egypt, it was exterminated by the 1920s. It was declared extinct in 1994 by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. A. b. caama: Known as Cape hartebeest. Formerl
Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa. Tsetse flies include all the species in the genus Glossina, which are placed in their own family, Glossinidae; the tsetse are obligate parasites. Tsetse have been extensively studied because of their role in transmitting disease, they have a prominent economic impact in sub-Saharan Africa as the biological vectors of trypanosomes, which cause human sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis. Tsetse are multivoltine and long-lived producing about four broods per year, up to 31 broods over their lifespans. Tsetse can be distinguished from other large flies by two observed features. Tsetse fold their wings when they are resting so that one wing rests directly on top of the other over their abdomens. Tsetse have a long proboscis, which extends directly forward and is attached by a distinct bulb to the bottom of their heads. Fossilized tsetse have been recovered from the Florissant Fossil Beds in Colorado, laid down some 34 million years ago.
Twenty-three extant species of tsetse flies are known from Africa. Tsetse were absent from much of eastern Africa until colonial times; the accidental introduction of rinderpest in 1887 killed most of the cattle in these parts of Africa and the resulting famine removed much of the human population. Thorny bush ideal for tsetse grew up where there had been pasture, was repopulated by wild mammals. Tsetse and sleeping sickness soon colonised the whole region excluding the reintroduction of farming and animal husbandry. Sleeping sickness has been described by some conservationists as "the best game warden in Africa"; the word tsetse means "fly" in a Bantu language of southern Africa. Tsetse without the fly has become more common in English in the scientific and development communities; the word is pronounced tseh-tseh in the Sotho languages and is rendered in other African languages. During World War II, a de Havilland antisubmarine aircraft was known as the'Tsetse' Mosquito; the biology of tsetse is well understood by entomologists.
They have been extensively studied because of their medical and economic importances, because the flies can be raised in a laboratory, because they are large, facilitating their analysis. Tsetse flies can be seen as independent individuals in two forms: as third-instar larvae, as adults. Tsetse first become separate from their mothers during the third larval instar, during which they have the typical appearance of maggots. However, this life stage is short, lasting at most a few hours, is never observed outside of the laboratory. Tsetse next develop a hard external case, the puparium, become pupae—small, hard-shelled, oblongs with two distinctive, dark lobes at the tail end. Tsetse pupae are under 1.0 cm long. Within the puparial shell, tsetse complete the last two larval instars and the pupal stage. At the end of the pupal stage, tsetse emerge; the adults are large flies, with lengths of 0.5-1.5 cm, have a recognizable shape or bauplan which makes them easy to distinguish from other flies. Tsetse have large heads, distinctly separated eyes, unusual antennae.
The thorax is quite large, while the abdomen is wide rather than elongated and shorter than the wings. Four characteristics definitively separate adult tsetse from other kinds of flies: Like all other insects, tsetse flies have an adult body comprising three visibly distinct parts: the head, the thorax and the abdomen; the head has large eyes, distinctly separated on each side, a distinct, forward-pointing proboscis attached underneath by a large bulb. The thorax is large, made of three fused segments. Three pairs of legs are attached to the thorax, as are two halteres; the abdomen is short but wide and changes in volume during feeding. The internal anatomy of tsetse is typical of the insects; the crop is large enough to accommodate a huge increase in size during the bloodmeal since tsetse can take a bloodmeal equal in weight to themselves. The reproductive tract of adult females includes a uterus which can become large enough to hold the third-instar larva at the end of each pregnancy; the article Parasitic flies of domestic animals has a diagram of anatomy of dipteran flies.
Most tsetse flies are physically tough. Houseflies are killed with a flyswatter, but a great deal of effort is needed to crush a tsetse fly. Tsetse have an unusual lifecycle. A female fertilizes only one egg at a time and retains each egg within her uterus to have the offspring develop internally during the first three larval stages, a method called adenotrophic viviparity. During this time, the female feeds the developing offspring with a milky substance secreted by a modified gland in the uterus. In the third larval stage, the tsetse larva begins its independent life; the newly independent tsetse larva crawls into the ground, develops a hard outer shell called the puparial case, in which it completes its morphological transformation into an adult fly. This lifestage has a variable duration 20 to 30 days, the larva must rely on stored resources during this time; the importance of the richness of blood to this development can be seen, since all tsetse development before it emerges from the puparial case as a full adult occurs without feeding, based only on nutritional resources provided by the female parent.
The female must get enough energy for her needs, for the needs of her developing offspring, for
Wildebeests called gnus, are antelopes in the genus Connochaetes. They belong to the family Bovidae, which includes antelopes, goats and other even-toed horned ungulates. Connochaetes includes two species, both native to Africa: the black wildebeest or white-tailed gnu, the blue wildebeest or brindled gnu. Fossil records suggest these two species diverged about one million years ago, resulting in a northern and a southern species; the blue wildebeest remained in its original range and changed little from the ancestral species, while the black wildebeest changed more as adaptation to its open grassland habitat in the south. The most obvious way of telling the two species apart are the differences in their colouring and in the way their horns are oriented. In East Africa, the blue wildebeest is the most abundant big-game species. Breeding in both takes place over a short period of time at the end of the rainy season and the calves are soon active and are able to move with the herd, a fact necessary for their survival.
Some fall prey to large carnivores the spotted hyena. Wildebeest graze in mixed herds with zebra, which gives heightened awareness of potential predators, they are alert to the warning signals emitted by other animals such as baboons. Wildebeest are a tourist attraction but compete with domesticated livestock for pasture and are sometimes blamed by farmers for transferring diseases and parasites to their cattle; some illegal hunting goes on but the population trend is stable and some populations are in national parks or on private land. The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists both as least-concern species; the wildebeest called the gnu is an antelope of the genus Connochaetes. Wildebeest is Dutch for "wild beast" or "wild cattle" in Afrikaans, while Connochaetes derives from the Greek words κόννος, kónnos, "beard", χαίτη, khaítē, "flowing hair", "mane"; some sources claim. Others contend the name and its pronunciation in English go back to the word!nu: used for the black wildebeest by the San people.
The wildebeest, genus Connochaetes, is placed under the family Bovidae and subfamily Alcelaphinae, where its closest relatives are the hartebeest, the hirola, species in the genus Damaliscus, such as the topi, the tsessebe, the blesbok and the bontebok. The name Connochaetes was given by German zoologist Hinrich Lichtenstein in 1812. Dutch settlers first "discovered" wildebeest in about 1700, on their way to the interior of South Africa. Due to their resemblance to wild cattle, these people called them "wild ox" or "wildebeest"; the blue wildebeest was first known to westerners in the northern part of South Africa a century in the 1800s. In the early 20th century, one species of the wildebeest, C. albojubatus, was identified in eastern Africa. In 1914, two separate races of the wildebeest were introduced, namely Gorgon a. albojubatus and G. a. mearnsi. However, in 1939, the two were once again merged into a single race, Connochaetes taurinus albojubatus. In the mid-20th century, two separate forms were recognised, Gorgon taurinus hecki and G. t. albojubatus.
Two distinct types of wildebeest – the blue and black wildebeest – were identified. The blue wildebeest was at first placed under a separate genus, while the black wildebeest belonged to the genus Connochaetes. Today, they are united in the single genus Connochaetes, with the black wildebeest being named and the blue wildebeest. According to a mitochondrial DNA analysis, the black wildebeest seem to have diverged from the main lineage during the Middle Pleistocene and became a distinct species around a million years ago. A divergence rate around 2% has been calculated; the split does not seem to have been driven by competition for resources, but instead because each species adopted a different ecological niche and occupied a different trophic level. Blue wildebeest fossils dating back some 2.5 million years ago are widespread. They have been found in the fossil-bearing caves at the Cradle of Humankind north of Johannesburg. Elsewhere in South Africa, they are plentiful at such sites as Elandsfontein and Florisbad.
The earliest fossils of the black wildebeest were found in sedimentary rock in Cornelia in the Orange Free State and dated back about 800,000 years. Today, five subspecies of the blue wildebeest are recognized, while the black wildebeest has no named subspecies; the diploid number of chromosomes in the wildebeest is 58. Chromosomes were studied in a female wildebeest. In the female, all except a pair of large submetacentric chromosomes were found to be acrocentric. Metaphases were studied in the male's chromosomes, large submetacentric chromosomes were found there, as well, similar to those in the female both in size and morphology. Other chromosomes were acrocentric; the X chromosome is the Y chromosome a minute one. The two species of the wildebeest are known to hybridise. Male black wildebeest have been reported to mate with female blue vice versa; the differences in social behaviour and habitats have prevented interspecific hybridisation between the species, but hybridisation may occur when they are both confined within the same area.
The resulting offspring are fertile. A study of these hybrid animals at Spioenkop Dam Nature Reserve i
The vervet monkey, or vervet, is an Old World monkey of the family Cercopithecidae native to Africa. The term "vervet" is used to refer to all the members of the genus Chlorocebus; the five distinct subspecies can be found throughout Southern Africa, as well as some of the eastern countries. Vervets were introduced to Florida, St. Kitts, Cape Verde; these herbivorous monkeys have black faces and grey body hair color, ranging in body length from about 50 centimetres for males to about 40 centimetres for females. In addition to behavioral research on natural populations, vervet monkeys serve as a nonhuman primate model for understanding genetic and social behaviors of humans, they have been noted for having human-like characteristics, such as hypertension and social and dependent alcohol use. Vervets live in social groups ranging from 10 to 70 individuals, with males moving to other groups at the time of sexual maturity; the most significant studies done on vervet monkeys involve their communication and alarm calls in regard to kin and group recognition and particular predator sightings.
The vervet monkey was classified as Cercopithecus aethiops. The vervet and malbrouck have been considered conspecific, or as subspecies of the widespread grivet; the five subspecies of vervet monkey are: Chlorocebus pygerythrus excubitor C. p. hilgerti from southern Kenya C. p. nesiotes C. p. pygerythus from South Africa, Botswana and Swaziland C. p. rufoviridis from Mozambique and Uganda has a distinctly reddish-coloured back, darker towards the base of the tail. C. p. pygerythrus, as Cercopithecus aethiops, was formerly divided into four subspecies: C. a. pygerythrus, from South Africa, Lesotho. C. a. cloetei, from northern KwaZulu-Natal and northern South Africa. C. a. marjoriae, from the North West Province of South Africa. C. a. ngamiensis, from the Okavango. These subspecies are synonymous with C. p. pygerythrus. The vervet monkey resembles much like a gray langur, having a black face with a white fringe of hair, while the overall hair color is grizzled-grey; the species exhibits sexual dimorphism.
Adult males weigh between 3.9 and 8.0 kg, averaging 5.5 kg, have a body length between 420 and 600 mm, averaging 490 mm from the top of the head to the base of the tail. Adult females weigh between 3.4 and 5.3 kg and average 4.1 kg, measure between 300 and 495 mm, averaging 426 mm. When males reach sexual maturity, they move to a neighboring group. Males will move with a brother or peer for protection against aggression by males and females of the resident group. Groups that had transferred males show less aggression upon the arrival of another male. In every case, males migrate to adjacent groups; this increases benefits in regard to distance traveled, but reduces the amount of genetic variance, increasing the likelihood of inbreeding. Females remain in their groups throughout life. Separate dominance hierarchies are found for each sex. Male hierarchies are determined by age, tenure in the group, fighting abilities, allies, while female hierarchies are dependent on maternal social status. A large proportion of interactions occur between individuals which are ranked and related.
Between unrelated individuals, there is female competition for grooming members of high-ranking families to gain more access to resources. These observations suggest individual recognition is possible and enables discrimination of genetic relatedness and social status. Interactions between different groups are variable, ranging from aggressive to friendly. Furthermore, individuals seem to be able to recognize cross-group vocalizations, identify from and to which monkey each call is intended if the call is made by a subadult male, to transfer groups; this suggests the members within a group are monitoring the activity of other groups, including the movement of individuals within a group. Within groups, aggression is directed at individuals that are lower on the hierarchy. Once an individual is three years or older, it is more to be involved in conflict. Conflict arises when one group member shows aggression toward a close relative of another. Further, both males and females may redirect aggression towards individuals in which both had close relatives that were involved in a conflict.
This suggests complex recognition not only of individuals, but of associations between individuals. This does not suggest recognition of other's individual kinship bonds is possible, but rather that discrimination of social relationships does occur. Vervet monkeys have four confirmed predators: leopards, eagles and baboons; the sighting of each predator elicits an acoustically distinct alarm call. As infants vervets learn to make the variety of calls from observation alone, without explicit tutelage. In experimentation with unreliable signalers, individuals became habituated to incorrect calls from a sp
Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder