The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Da Nang is one of the five largest cities in Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Cần Thơ in terms of urbanization and economy. Located on the coast of the South China Sea at the mouth of the Han River, it is one of Vietnam's most important port cities; as one of the country's five direct-controlled municipalities, it is under the direct administration of the central government. Da Nang is the commercial and educational centre of Central Vietnam, as well as being the largest city in the region. In addition to its well-sheltered accessible port, Da Nang's location on the path of National Route 1A and the North–South Railway makes it a hub for transportation, it is located within 100 km of several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Imperial City of Hue, the Old Town of Hoi An, the My Son ruins. The city was known as Cửa Hàn during early Đại Việt settlement, as Tourane during French colonial rule. Before 1997, the city was part of Quang Nam-Da Nang Province. On 1 January 1997, Da Nang was separated from Quảng Nam Province to become one of four independent municipalities in Vietnam.
Da Nang is listed as a first class city, has a higher urbanization ratio than any of Vietnam's other provinces or centrally governed cities. Most of the names by which Da Nang has been known make reference to its position at the Hàn River estuary; the city's present name is agreed to be a Vietnamese adaptation of the Cham word da nak, translated as "opening of a large river". Other Chamic sources, with similar definitions, have been proposed. Inrasara, a researcher specializing in Champa, suggests Da Nang is a variation of the Cham word daknan. Another name given to Da Nang was Cửa Hàn; the name used by the French, Tourane, is said to derive from this name, by way of a rough transliteration. Notably, this name appears on maps of the area drafted by Alexandre de Rhodes in 1650; the name Kean was another name purportedly used during the 17th century to refer to the land situated at the foot of the Hải Vân Pass. Other names referring to Da Nang include: a colloquial name which survives in folklore.
Trà Úc, Trà Áo, Trà Sơn and Đồng Long Loan, literary names used by Confucian scholars. In Chữ Nôm, used until 1945, "Đà Nẵng" is written as 沱灢. Thái Phiên, a name used after the 1945 August Revolution, commemorating Thái Phiên, the leader of popular revolts during the 1916 Duy Tân Resistance; the city's origins date back to the ancient kingdom of Champa, established in 192 AD. At its peak, the Chams' sphere of influence stretched from Huế to Vũng Tàu; the city of Indrapura, at the site of the modern village of Dong Duong in Quảng Nam Province, was the capital of Champa from about 875 to about 1000 AD. In the region of Da Nang were the ancient Cham city of Singhapura, the location of, identified with an archeological site in the modern village of Trà Kiệu, the valley of Mỹ Sơn, where a number of ruined temples and towers can still be viewed. In the latter half of the 10th century, the kings of Indrapura came into conflict with the Đại Việt, who were based at Hoa Lư near modern Hanoi. In 982, three ambassadors sent to Champa by emperor Lê Hoàn of the Đại Việt were detained in Indrapura.
Lê Hoàn decided to go on the offensive, sacking Indrapura and killing the Cham King Parameshvaravarman I. As a result of these setbacks, the Cham abandoned Indrapura around 1000 AD; the Đại Việt campaign against Champa continued into the late 11th century, when the Cham were forced to cede their three northern provinces to the rulers of the Lý Dynasty. Soon afterwards, Vietnamese peasants began moving into the untilled former Cham lands, turning them into rice fields and moving relentlessly southward, delta by delta, along the narrow coastal plain; the southward expansion of Đại Việt continued for several centuries, culminating in the annexation of most of the Cham territories by the end of the 15th century. One of the first Europeans to visit Da Nang was Portuguese explorer António de Faria, who anchored in Da Nang in 1535. Faria was one of the first Westerners to write about the area and, through his influence, Portuguese ships began to call at Hội An, a much more important port than Da Nang.
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and Spanish traders and missionaries made landfall at Hội An, just south of Đà Nẵng. An American, John White, arrived at Da Nang on 18 June 1819 in the brig Franklin of Salem and was advised that the country was recovering from devastating wars, that what little produce there had been promised. Other American ships arriving shortly after were the Marmion of Boston, the Aurora and Beverly of Salem. Conditions were such that they were unable to conduct trade, the subsequent missions of British East India Company agent John Crawfurd in 1823 and the two missions of Andrew Jackson's agent, diplomatist Edmund Roberts, in 1833 and 1836 were unable to secure trade agreements. Following the edict of Emperor Minh Mạng in 1835, prohibiting European vessels from making landfall or pursuing trade except at Hàn Port, Da Nang surpassed Hội An, becoming the largest commercial port in the central region. In 1847, French vessels dispatched by Admiral Cécille bombarded Đà Nẵng, ostensibly on the grounds of alleged persecution of Roman Catholic missionaries.
Cần Thơ is the fourth largest city in Vietnam, the largest city in the Mekong Delta. It is noted for its floating market, rice paper-making village, picturesque rural canals, it had a population of 1.2 million as of 2011, it has population of 1,520,000 until June 2018, is located on the south bank of the Hau River, a distributary of the Mekong River. In 2007, about 50 people died when the Cần Thơ Bridge collapsed, causing Vietnam's worst engineering disaster. In 2011, Can Tho International Airport opened; the city is nicknamed the "western capital", is located 169 kilometres from Ho Chi Minh City. The city is an independent municipality at the same level as provinces of Vietnam, it was created in the beginning of 2004 by a split of the former Cần Thơ Province into two new administrative units: Cần Thơ City and Hậu Giang Province. Cần Thơ is subdivided into nine district-level sub-divisions: 5 urban districts: 4 rural districts: They are further subdivided into five commune-level towns, 36 communes, 44 wards.
Ninh Kiều, which has the well-known port Ninh Kiều port, is the center district and the most populated and wealthiest of these districts. The city borders the provinces of Hậu Giang, Kiên Giang, Vĩnh Long and Đồng Tháp. Cần Thơ is connected to the rest of the country by National Route 1A and Can Tho International Airport; the city's bridge, now completed, is the longest cable-stayed bridge in south-east Asia. The six-lane Saigon–Cần Thơ Expressway is being built in parts from Hồ Chí Minh City to Mỹ Tho; the hydrofoil express boat links this city with Ho Chi Minh City.. There are many vehicles here such as: taxi, grab bikes, van, coaches and so on; the Mekong Delta is considered to be the "rice basket of Vietnam", contributing more than half of the nation's rice production. People say of Cần Thơ: Cần Thơ is famous for its floating markets, where people sell and buy things on the river, as well as the bird gardens and the port of Ninh Kiều; the city offers a wide range of tropical fruits such as pomelo, jackfruit, guava, rambutan, dragon fruit and durian.
The Cần Thơ City Museum has exhibits on the city's history. Tourist attractions Cần Thơ Bridge Thiền viện Trúc Lâm Phương Nam - Buddhist Temple Nam Nhã Pagoda Bình Thủy Temple BInh Thuy Ancient House Ninh Kiều Quay Cần Thơ pedestrian bridge Cái Răng Floating Market, Phong Điền Floating Market Bằng Lăng Stork Sanctuary Canal Tour Cantho Cathedral Ông Chinese Pagoda Pitu Khôsa Răngsey Khmer Pagoda Quang Duc Pagoda Long Quang Pagoda Phat Hoc Pagoda My Khanh tourist village Can Tho seminary Academic institutions in the city are Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ Department of Education and Training, Cần Thơ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tây Đô University, Nam Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ College, College of Foreign Economic Relations – Cần Thơ Branch, Medical College, Can Tho Technical Economic College and Vocational College, with its well-known College of Agriculture and Mekong Delta Rice Research Institute, Cần Thơ University of Technology Cần Thơ's climate is tropical and monsoonal with two seasons: rainy, from May to November.
Average annual humidity is 83%, rainfall 1,635 mm and temperature 27 °C. After 120 years of development, the city now is the delta's most important center of economics, culture and technology, it has two industrial parks. Nice, France Shantou, China Phnom Penh, Cambodia Amol, Iran Riverside, California Jeollanamdo, Korea
Republic of Vietnam Navy
The Republic of Vietnam Navy was the naval branch of the South Vietnamese military, the official armed forces of the former Republic of Vietnam from 1955 to 1975. The early fleet consisted of boats from France. After 1955 and the transfer of the armed forces to Vietnamese control, the fleet was supplied from the United States. With assistance from the U. S. the VNN became the largest Southeast Asian navy, with 42,000 personnel, 672 amphibious ships and craft, 20 mine warfare vessels, 450 patrol craft, 56 service craft, 242 junks. The origins of the Viet Nam Navy began in 1952 with the French Navy. In 1954, in accordance with the Elysée Accords, the French handed control of the armed forces to the Vietnamese, but at the request of the Vietnamese government, continued to be in charge of the Navy until 20 August 1955. By this time the Navy numbered about 2,000 personnel, with 22 vessels; the Vietnamese received assistance in the development of the VNN from the United States Military Assistance Advisory Group.
In 1956, the North Vietnamese began infiltrating men and arms into the Republic of Vietnam's territory by sea. In response the VNN created the Coastal Junk Force of junks manned by Regional Irregular Forces and local fishermen recruited for the occasion, to patrol the waters around the Demilitarized Zone; the force came to be known as Coastal Groups, patrolled the entire 1,200-mile coastline. This force was under the control of the regional military zone commands rather than the Navy, was not incorporated into the VNN until 1965, by which time it numbered over 100 vessels. In the late 1950s the Vietnam Navy was being modernized and developed, receiving ships and training from the United States Navy. By 1961 the VNN had a force of 23 ships, the largest of which were LSMs, 197 boats, 5,000 men; this was insufficient to counter the growing threat of enemy infiltration and the years 1962-1964 were marked by a rapid expansion. The number of ships increased to 44 and number of personnel to 8,100; this process continued and by the end of 1967 the personnel strength of the VNN had increased to 16,300, with 65 ships, along with 232 vessels of the River Assault Group, 290 junks, 52 miscellaneous craft.
Throughout 1968 the VNN gave priority to the improvement and expansion of their training programs in anticipation of gaining increased responsibility in the war effort as well as additional assets from the US. By the end of 1968 plans for the turnover of the majority of the United States Navy assets in Vietnam had been formulated. In early 1969, President Richard M. Nixon formally adopted the policy of "Vietnamization"; the naval part, called ACTOV, involved the phased transfer to Vietnam of the U. S. river and coastal fleet, as well as operational command over various operations. In mid-1969, the VNN took sole responsibility for river assault operations when the U. S. Mobile Riverine Force stood down and transferred 64 riverine assault craft to the VNN. By the end of 1970, the U. S. Navy ceased all operations throughout South Vietnam, having transferred a total of 293 river patrol boats and 224 riverine assault craft to the VNN. During 1970 and 1971 the United States relinquished control of the coastal and high seas patrols to the VNN.
The U. S. naval command transferred four Coast Guard cutters, a destroyer escort radar picket ship, an LST, various harbor control, mine craft, support vessels. By August 1972, the VNN took responsibility for the entire coastal patrol effort when it took over the last 16 U. S. coastal radar installations. In addition to ships and vessels, the U. S. transferred support bases. The first change of command occurred in November 1969 at Mỹ Tho, the last in April 1972 at Nhà Bè, Bình Thủy, Cam Ranh Bay, Đà Nẵng. By 1973, the Vietnam Navy numbered over 1,400 ships and vessels. In 1973 and 1974, as a result of the Paris Peace Accords, the United States drastically cut its financial support for the Vietnamese armed forces; the VNN was compelled to reduce its overall operations by half, its river combat and patrol activities by 70%. To conserve supplies, over 600 river and harbor craft and 22 ships were laid up. On 19 January 1974, four VNN ships fought a battle with four ships of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy over ownership of the Paracel Islands, 200 nautical miles due east of Đà Nẵng.
The VNN ship Nhựt Tảo was sunk, Lý Thường Kiệt was damaged, both Trần Khánh Dư and Trần Bình Trọng suffered light damage. The Chinese occupied the islands. In the spring of 1975, North Vietnamese forces occupied all of northern and central South Vietnam, Saigon fell on 30 April 1975; however Captain Kiem Do had secretly planned and carried out the evacuation of a flotilla of thirty-five Vietnam Navy and other vessels, with 30,000 sailors, their families, other civilians on board, joined the U. S. Seventh Fleet when it sailed for Subic Bay, Philippines. Most of the Vietnamese ships were taken into the Philippine Navy, though the LSM Lam Giang, fuel barge HQ-474, gunboat Kéo Ngựa were scuttled after reaching the open sea and transferring their cargo of refugees and their crews to other ships. VNN Fleet Command was directly responsible to the VNN Chief of Naval Operations for the readiness of ships and craft; the Fleet Commander assigned and scheduled ships to operate in the Coastal Zones, Riverine Areas, the Rung Sat Specia
Nha Trang Air Base
Nha Trang Air Base was a French Air Force, Republic of Vietnam Air Force, United States Air Force and Vietnam People's Air Force military airfield used during the Vietnam War. It is located on the southern edge of Nha Trang in Khánh Hòa Province; the French Air Force opened an air training center for the fledgling RVNAF in 1951 and in March 1952 began training pilots and maintenance personnel at the base. On 4 January 1953 maintenance personnel from the USAF 24th Air Depot Wing at Clark Air Base were sent on temporary duty to Nha Trang to provide maintenance support for C-47s provided to the French Air Force, they would be replaced by French crews on 14 August 1953. In May 1953 USAF crews delivered 6 C-119s to Nha Trang, these were flown by Civil Air Transport crews to Cat Bi Air Base. On 7 July 1955 the RVNAF took over the Nha Trang Training Center and formed the 1st and 2nd Liaison Squadrons equipped with L-19s. In December 1961 the RVNAF 2nd Fighter Squadron equipped. In late 1961 4 USAF T-28 pilots from Operation Farm Gate were sent to Nha Trang to train RVNAF crews.
The 2nd Fighter Squadron became operation in mid-1962. It was renamed the 516th Fighter Squadron in January 1963. In September 1962 the RVNAF 12th Air Base Squadron was formed at the base. In September 1963 the USAF opened a training center at the base equipped with L-19s. RVNAF flight crews would undergo 1 month of preflight training followed by 3 months of primary flight training with a total of 80 flying hours. In February 1964 the 516th Fighter Squadron moved to Da Nang Air Base. In June 1964 the 116th Liaison Squadron equipped. In January 1965 the RVNAF 62nd Tactical Wing and 516th Fighter Squadron, equipped with A-1H Skyraiders deployed to Nha Trang from Pleiku Air Base while a new runway was built at Pleiku. In August 1965 the 524th Fighter Squadron equipped. On 30 June 1969 all AC-47 Spooky gunships of D Flight, 3rd Special Operations Squadron were transferred to the RVNAF at the base; the USAF Detachment 12, Thirteenth Air Force had been supporting RVNAF operations at Nha Trang since February 1962 and in May 1962 they were designated the 6223rd Air Base Squadron and on 7 June it was assigned to the 2nd Advanced Echelon.
In September 1962 the 23rd Special Air Warfare Detachment equipped with 6 OV-1 Mohawk reconnaissance aircraft deployed to Nha Trang and began flying visual and photo-reconnaissance in support of RVNAF and Army of the Republic of Vietnam units. In December 1963 Detachment 4, 8th Aerial Port Squadron was formed at the base. In July 1963 the 37th Air Base Squadron replaced the 6223rd Air Base Squadron. On 23 September 1963 3 Viet Cong sappers penetrated the base and destroyed 2 C-47s with satchel charges. From February 1964 3 C-123Bs and 3 air commando C-47s were kept at Nha Trang to support operations of the 5th Special Forces Group which had its headquarters at Nha Trang; these aircraft supported remote Special Forces bases. In December 1964 half of the 310th Troop Carrier Squadron equipped with 7 C-123s were sent to Nha Trang to replace the C-47s. In addition 3 U. S. Army and one Royal Australian Air Force CV-2 Caribous were sent to support the Special Forces. In late November 1965 the 5th Air Commando Squadron equipped with 4 C-47s and 17 U-10 Super Couriers was formed at the base and dispersed to forward operating bases throughout central South Vietnam.
In January 1966 the A-1 equipped 602nd Air Commando Squadron moved to Nha Trang from Bien Hoa Air Base. The RVNAF 2nd Air Division took over the base from the USAF in mid-1970; the 14th Air Commando Wing was activated at Nha Trang on 8 March 1966 and it would be the host unit at the base until 15 October 1969 when it moved to Phan Rang Air Base. The airfield was managed by the 14th Combat Support Group. On its establishment the 14th Wing assumed control of all USAF squadrons at Nha Trang and the 1st Air Commando Squadron and it assumed control of the 20th Helicopter Squadron. In April 1966 the 361st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron equipped with EC-47s was formed at the base. From July-December USAF RED HORSE units carried out 22 major construction/reconstruction projects of maintenance and storages areas, parking ramps, accommodation and drainage took place at the base to accommodate the expanded activity there. Housing on the base was in short supply and the USAF billets were adjacent to an ARVN ammunition dump, relocated north to Nha Trang, many of the new arrivals were forced to live in tents until proper accommodation could be built.
In January 1967 Flight C from the 4th Air Commando Squadron equipped with AC-47 Spooky gunships began operating from the base. On 21 September 1967 the first AC-130A Project Gunship II prototype arrived at Nha Trang for combat evaluation, the evaluation program concluded on 8 December 1967. On 25 October 1967 the 14th Air Commando Squadron was activated at Nha Trang, with 3 AC-47s of A Flight-based there. In late December 1968 the 71st Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G Shadow gunships arrived from Lockbourne Air Force Base and began operations from the base. On 1 June 1969 the 17th Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G gunships was activated at Nha Trang and it replaced the 71st Special Operations Squadron which returned to Bakalar Air Force Base for inactivation. In mid-1969, as part of the process of Vietnamization, USAF units at Nha Trang began to relocate or deactivate and by October 1969 all USAF units had left the base and only 800 USAF personnel remained there to support operations until the hando
National Order of Vietnam
The National Order of Vietnam was a combined military-civilian decoration of South Vietnam and was considered the highest honor that could be bestowed upon an individual by the Republic of Vietnam government. The decoration was created in 1950 and was awarded to any person who performed "grandiose works, remarkable deeds, exhibited bravery, or for those who have honored and served the country by lofty virtues and outstanding knowledge." The National Order was modelled after the French Légion d'honneur, as such it was issued in five degrees: Grand Cross - wore the badge of the Order on a sash on the right shoulder, plus the star of the Order on the left chest. Both the badge and the star had the same design; the ribbon was red with yellow borders. It was in fact the ribbon of the former Order of the Dragon of Annam when awarded by the Emperor of Annam himself. During the Vietnam War, the National Order of Vietnam was bestowed on several members of the United States military, most of whom were senior military and political advisors to the South Vietnamese government.
The decoration could be awarded posthumously. Since the National Order of Vietnam was both a civil and a military decoration, it was displayed above all other awards when worn on a military uniform. A purely military equivalent of the decoration was the Vietnam Military Merit Medal, awarded only to members of the military. Alfredo M. Santos Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia Cao Văn Viên General, Army of the Republic of Vietnam, Commander, III Corps. Alexander Haig Dr Hồ Văn Nhựt, Founder of the Southern Red Cross of Vietnam J. M. Abdul Aziz, Saigon business leader, recipient Legion d'Honneur, French Red Cross Military awards and decorations of South Vietnam Images of Orders and Medals of the Republic of Vietnam Military Orders and Medals of the Republic of Vietnam
1962 South Vietnamese Independence Palace bombing
The 1962 South Vietnamese Independence Palace bombing in Saigon was an aerial attack on 27 February 1962 by two dissident Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots, Second Lieutenant Nguyễn Văn Cử and First Lieutenant Phạm Phú Quốc. The pilots targeted the Independence Palace, the official residence of the President of South Vietnam, with the aim of assassinating President Ngô Đình Diệm and his immediate family, who acted as his political advisors; the pilots said they attempted the assassination in response to Diệm's autocratic rule, in which he focused more on remaining in power than on confronting the Vietcong, a Marxist–Leninist guerilla army who were threatening to overthrow the South Vietnamese government. Cử and Quốc hoped that the airstrike would expose Diệm's vulnerability and trigger a general uprising, but this failed to materialise. One bomb penetrated a room in the western wing where Diệm was reading but failed to detonate, leading the president to claim that he had "divine" protection.
With the exception of Diệm's sister-in-law Madame Nhu, who suffered minor injuries, the Ngô family were unscathed. Three palace staff died and 30 were injured. Afterwards, Cử escaped to Cambodia. In the wake of the airstrike, Diệm became hostile towards the American presence in South Vietnam. Diệm claimed that the American media was seeking to bring him down and he introduced new restrictions on press freedom and political association; the media speculated that the United States would use the incident to justify the deployment of combat troops to South Vietnam. S. remained circumspect. Domestically, the incident was reported to have increased plotting against Diệm by his officers. Cử was the second son of a leader of the VNQDD, which opposed the Diệm regime. In 1960, Diệm had jailed Lực for one month for engaging in "anti-government activities"; the VNQDD planned that Cử and Quốc, another pilot from the same squadron, would attack the Independence Palace on 27 February. Quốc had been commended by Diệm for his achievements in combat, having been honoured as one of the best pilots in the Republic of Vietnam Air Force.
Quốc had relatives who were involved with the VNQDD. Cử recruited Quốc by claiming the Vietnamese armed services and the United States were aware of the plot, showing him a Newsweek article critical of Diệm as evidence. Quốc had more subordinates but was not sure of their loyalty, so he did not try to recruit them for the attack on the palace. Years Cử blamed Diệm's treatment of opposition parties as the motivation for his attack, he believed that Diệm had prioritised remaining in power over fighting the VC and that, for six years, Cử had been denied promotion because of Diệm's obsession with hindering political opponents. Cử criticised the Americans for having supported Diệm, saying: "the Americans had slammed the door on those of us who wanted the fight against the communists". Quốc and Cử, who were trained in France and the United States were given orders to fly from Saigon to the Mekong Delta in an early morning mission against the Vietcong, an armed Marxist guerilla army who wished to overthrow the government and who had backing from the Marxist government of North Vietnam.
The communists had been involved in attacks on Army of the Republic of Vietnam units 60 km south of the capital and had inflicted heavy damage. Instead of proceeding south from Bien Hoa Air Base as ordered, they changed course to attack the Independence Palace, the official presidential residence; this meant that two companies of communist guerrillas were able to retreat after their attack without counter-attack. At around 07:00, the deer on the expansive lawns of the French colonial-era palace were frightened off as Quốc and Cử — flying American-built A-1 Skyraiders single-seater ground attack planes—flew low over their target to inspect the ruling family's residence. On their second run, they attacked with bombs and napalm before strafing the presidential compound with rocket and machine-gun fire; the duo continued their runs for 30 minutes before units loyal to the president arrived and launched a counter-attack. Taking advantage of poor weather and low cloud cover, the two pilots circled the palace at altitudes of around 150 m, periodically diving out of the clouds to re-attack before darting back into them.
The airstrike caught the Saigon garrison off guard and, in the confusion, they were unable to determine whether the aircraft were acting alone or with ground forces. Loyalist tanks and armoured personnel carriers rushed to their battle stations and anti-aircraft batteries opened fire, nearly hitting the loyalist aircraft from Bien Hoa Air Base in pursuit of the two rebel planes. Two tanks and a number of jeeps armed with 50-calibre machine guns patrolled the smoke-filled streets as a precaution; the first 500 lb bomb penetrated a room in the western wing where Diệm was reading a biography of George Washington. The bomb failed to detonate, which gave Diệm enough time to seek shelter in a cellar in the eastern wing, he was joined there by his elder brother Archbishop Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục, younger brother Ngô Đình Nhu, Madame Nhu—who sustained an arm fracture while running toward the cellar—and their children. Elsewhere within the palace, three servants and guards were killed, about thirty more staff were injured.
Outside the palace grounds, an American contractor died after falling from a rooftop where he had been watching the bombing. Despite the confusion, most of the city's inhabitants went about their usual business, indifferent to the chaos; the attack lasted 30 minutes and although they carried enough bombs to level the palace, the pilots did not expend all their mun