Vietnamese personal names consist of three parts: one patrilineal family name, one or more middle name, one given name, used in that order. The "family name first" order follows the system of Chinese names and is common throughout the Chinese cultural sphere. However, it is different from Chinese and Japanese names in the usage of "middle names", as they are less common in China and Korea and do not exist in Japan. Persons can be referred to by the whole name, the given name or a hierarchic pronoun, which connotes a degree of family relationship or kinship, in normal usage. Due to the frequency of the major family names such as Nguyễn, Trần, Lê, persons are referred to by their middle name along with their given name in Vietnamese media and youth culture; the Vietnamese language is tonal, so are Vietnamese names. Names with the same spelling but with different tones are different names, which can confuse non-Vietnamese people when the diacritics are dropped, as is done outside Vietnam. Anyone applying for Vietnamese nationality must adopt a Vietnamese name.
The family name is passed on by the father to his children. It is estimated that there are around 100 family names in common use, but some are far more common than others; the name Nguyễn is estimated to be used by 40% of the Vietnamese population. The top three names are so popular because people tended to take family names of emperors to show their loyalty. Over many generations, family names became permanent; the most common family names among the Vietnamese are the following. Altogether, the 14 names account for 90% of the people. Nguyễn 阮 Trần 陳 Lê 黎 Phạm 范 Huỳnh/Hoàng 黃 Phan 潘 Vũ/Võ 武 Đặng 鄧 Bùi 裴 Đỗ 杜 Hồ 胡 Ngô 吳 Dương 楊 Lý 李 The following include other less-common surnames in alphabetical order: In Vietnamese cultural practice, women always keep their family names once they marry, just as in other East Asian cultures, including Chinese culture to the north and the northeast. In formal contexts, people are referred to by their full name. In more casual contexts, people are always on a "first name basis", which involves their given names, accompanying with proper kinship terms.
There is no such thing as family name basis, in Vietnam. Most Vietnamese have one middle name, but it is quite possible to have either two or more of them or to have no middle name at all. In the past, the middle name was selected by parents from a narrow range of options. All women had Thị as their middle name, many men had Văn. More a broader range of names have been used, people named Thị sometimes omit their middle name. Thị is by far the most common female middle name; that word expresses possession. For example, "Trần Thị Mai Loan" is a person who has the given name of "Mai Loan" and the surname "Trần", the combination "Trần Thị" means "a female person belonging to the Trần family." The combination is similar to Western surname formation like "Van" in "Van Helsing", "Mac" in "MacCartney", etc. Male middle names include Văn, Hữu, Đức, Thành, Công, Quang; the middle name can have three uses: To indicate a person's generation. Brothers and sisters share the same middle name, which distinguish them from the generation before them and the generation after them.
To separate branches of a large family: "Nguyễn Hữu", "Nguyễn Sinh", "Trần Lâm". However, this usage is still controversial; some people consider them to be dual family names, not family name + middle name. Some families may, set up arbitrary rules about giving a different middle name to each generation. To indicate a person's position in the family; this usage is less common than others. However, most middle names now do not have those uses, they can have a meaning or only make the full name sound better. In most cases, the middle name is formally part of the given name. For example, the name "Đinh Quang Dũng" is separated into the surname "Đinh" and the given name "Quang Dũng". In a normal name list, those two parts of the full name are put in two different columns. However, in daily conversation, the last word in a given name with a title before it is used to address a person: "Ông Dũng", "Anh Dũng", etc. with "Ông" and "Anh" being words to address the person and depend on age, social position, etc.
The given name is the primary form of address for Vietnamese. It is chosen by parents and has a literal meaning in the Vietnamese language. Names represent beauty, such as bird or flower names, or attributes and characteristics that the parents want in their child, such as modesty. Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name in formal situations, although an honorific equivalent to "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary. That contrasts with the situation in many other cultures in which the family name is used in formal situations, but it is a practice similar to usage in Icelandic usage and, to some degree, Polish, it is similar to the Latin-American and southern European custom of referring to women as "Doña" and men as "Don", along with their first name. Addressing someone by the family name is rare. In the past, married women in the north were called with Thị as a suffix. In recent years, doctors are more than any other social group to be addressed by their family name, but that form of reference is more common in the north than in the south.
Some famous people are sometimes ref
2016 Summer Olympics
The 2016 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event, held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games to be held in South America and the second to be held in a developing country, after the 1968 games in Mexico City. More than 11,000 athletes from 205 National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, the Refugee Olympic Team, took part. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009; these sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city, at five separate venues in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Manaus. These were the first Summer Olympic Games to take place under the International Olympic Committee presidency of Thomas Bach; the host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009.
Rio became the first South American city to host the Olympic Games. These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first summer edition to be held in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere; the lead-up to these Games was marked by controversies, including the Brazil's political and economic crisis. However, nobody competing in or attending the Olympics contracted the Zika virus and the Games took place without any major incident; the United States topped the medal table, winning the most gold and overall medals, 46 and 121, as well as its 1,000th Summer Olympic gold medal overall. Great Britain finished second and became the first country of modern Olympics history to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation. China finished third. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place.
Bahrain, Jordan, Puerto Rico, Tajikistan, Ivory Coast and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes. The process for the 2016 Olympic Games was launched on 16 May 2007; the first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020; the IOC did not promote Doha to the candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, because of their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku failed to make the cut. Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids.
The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections. Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media; the final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Madrid and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round; the lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics.
On 26 June 2011, it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes. Pestana withdrew during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was appointed as COO. Events took place at eighteen existing venues, nine new venues constructed for the Games, seven temporary venues; each event was held in one of four geographically segregated Olympic clusters: Barra, Copacabana and Maracanã. The same was done for the 2007 Pan American Games. Several of the venues were located at the Barra Cluster Olympic Park. Athletes could access their venues in shorter than ten minutes and about 75 percent could do so in less than 25 minutes. Of the 34 competition locations, eight of them underwent permanent works, seven were limited, nine were perpetual legacy venues; the largest venue at the games in terms of seating capacity was the 74,738-seat Maracanã Stadium, which served as the ceremonies venue and site of the football finals.
The second largest stadium was the 60,000-seat Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, which hosted track and field events. The athletes' village was said to be the largest in Olympic history. Fittings inc
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil, the épée, the sabre. A fourth discipline, appeared in the 1904 Olympics but was dropped after that, is not a part of modern fencing. Fencing was one of the first sports to be played in the Olympics. Based on the traditional skills of swordsmanship, the modern sport arose at the end of the 19th century, with the Italian school having modified the historical European martial art of classical fencing, the French school refining the Italian system. There are three forms of modern fencing, each of which uses a different kind of weapon and has different rules. Most competitive fencers choose to specialize in one weapon only. Competitive fencing is one of the five activities which have been featured in every modern Olympic Games, the other four being athletics, cycling and gymnastics. Fencing is governed by Fédération Internationale d'Escrime. Today, its head office is in Switzerland; the FIE is composed of 145 national federations, each of, recognised by its state Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country.
The FIE maintains the current rules used by FIE sanctioned international events, including world cups, world championships and the Olympic Games. The FIE handles proposals to change the rules the first year after an Olympic year in the annual congress; the US Fencing Association has different rules, but adheres to FIE standards. Fencing traces its roots to the development of swordsmanship for duels and self defense. Fencing is believed to have originated in Spain. Treatise on Arms was written by Diego de Valera between 1458 and 1471 and is one of the oldest surviving manuals on western fencing shortly before dueling came under official ban by the Catholic Monarchs. In conquest, the Spanish forces carried fencing around the world to southern Italy, one of the major areas of strife between both nations. Fencing was mentioned in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor written sometime prior to 1602; the mechanics of modern fencing originated in the 18th century in an Italian school of fencing of the Renaissance, under their influence, were improved by the French school of fencing.
The Spanish school of fencing was replaced by the Italian and French schools. The shift towards fencing as a sport rather than as military training happened from the mid-18th century, was led by Domenico Angelo, who established a fencing academy, Angelo's School of Arms, in Carlisle House, London in 1763. There, he taught the aristocracy the fashionable art of swordsmanship, his school was run by three generations of his family and dominated the art of European fencing for a century. He established the essential rules of posture and footwork that still govern modern sport fencing, although his attacking and parrying methods were still much different from current practice. Although he intended to prepare his students for real combat, he was the first fencing master to emphasize the health and sporting benefits of fencing more than its use as a killing art in his influential book L'École des armes, published in 1763. Basic conventions were collated and set down during the 1880s by the French fencing master Camille Prévost.
It was during this time that many recognised fencing associations began to appear in different parts of the world, such as the Amateur Fencers League of America was founded in 1891, the Amateur Fencing Association of Great Britain in 1902, the Fédération Nationale des Sociétés d’Escrime et Salles d’Armes de France in 1906. The first regularized fencing competition was held at the inaugural Grand Military Tournament and Assault at Arms in 1880, held at the Royal Agricultural Hall, in Islington in June; the Tournament featured a series of competitions between army soldiers. Each bout was fought for five hits and the foils were pointed with black to aid the judges; the Amateur Gymnastic & Fencing Association drew up an official set of fencing regulations in 1896. Fencing was part of the Olympic Games in the summer of 1896. Sabre events have been held at every Summer Olympics. Starting with épée in 1933, side judges were replaced by the Laurent-Pagan electrical scoring apparatus, with an audible tone and a red or green light indicating when a touch landed.
Foil was automated in 1956, sabre in 1988. The scoring box reduced the bias in judging, permitted more accurate scoring of faster actions, lighter touches, more touches to the back and flank than before. There are three weapons in modern fencing: foil, épée, sabre; each weapon has its own strategies. Equipment needed includes at least 2 swords, a Lame, a white jacket, underarm protector, two body and mask cords, knee high socks and knickers; the foil is a light thrusting weapon with a maximum weight of 500 grams. The foil targets the torso, but not the legs; the foil has a small circular hand guard. As the hand is not a valid target in foil, this is for safety. Touches are scored only with the tip. Touches that lan
Kim Ji-yeon is a South Korean Sabre fencer. She is the 2012 Olympic Champion in the Women's Sabre Individual Fencing. Kim is the first South Korean woman to win an Olympic gold medal in fencing and the second South Korean female fencer to win any Olympic medal after Nam Hyun-hee, who won silver in 2008, she is the second South Korean fencer to win a gold medal at the Summer Olympics, following male foil fencer Kim Young-ho. Kim began fencing at age 13 as a foil fencer, but converted to sabre in high school at age 16 in 2004. Although she first became a member of the South Korean national fencing team at the age of 18 in 2006, Kim was overshadowed by fellow sabre fencers Kim Hye-lim, Lee Shin-mi and Kim Keum-hwa, omitted from the final national squad before becoming a fixture in the 2011 season. Kim began to garner international attention at the 2011 Summer Universiade where she won the bronze medal in the women's individual sabre fencing. In the semifinals, Kim lost to two-time European champion and eventual gold medalist Olha Kharlan of Ukraine 15-10.
She accumulated another bronze medal in the women's team sabre as a member of Team South Korea. Kim finished the 2011 season as her first full-time member of the national team, her FIE ranking rose from 174 to 11. In February 2012, Kim reached the semifinals at the Orléans Grand Prix, her first international tournament of the 2012 season. Next month, Kim reached her first individual sabre final at the Antalya World Cup in Turkey. In May 2012, Kim became a semi-finalist at the Bologna World Cup in Italy and the Tianjin Grand Prix in China in a row, her success in these tournaments increased her FIE ranking to 5th before the start of the 2012 Olympics. Kim competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London capturing the gold medal in the women's individual sabre event; this was South Korea's second Olympic gold medal in fencing, Kim Young-ho having won the men's foil Gold medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics. Kim reached the final when she defeated two-time Olympic individual sabre champion Mariel Zagunis 15–13 in the semifinal match.
Regarded as the underdog by both competitors and her teammates, she came back from a 12–5 deficit against Zagunis to advance into the finals. Kim beat the reigning world champion, 15 -- 9 in the gold medal match. Kim asserted her dominance early in the contest, with her opponent having little say in the outcome of the first period with an 8–5 triumph for Kim. Velikaya struggled to recover from the setback and the second period followed in much the same way as the first as Kim won 7–4 to win the gold medal. Kim Ji-yeon at BBC Sport Kim Ji-yeon at NBC Olympics Kim Ji-yeon at FIE