Nha Trang Air Base
Nha Trang Air Base was a French Air Force, Republic of Vietnam Air Force, United States Air Force and Vietnam People's Air Force military airfield used during the Vietnam War. It is located on the southern edge of Nha Trang in Khánh Hòa Province; the French Air Force opened an air training center for the fledgling RVNAF in 1951 and in March 1952 began training pilots and maintenance personnel at the base. On 4 January 1953 maintenance personnel from the USAF 24th Air Depot Wing at Clark Air Base were sent on temporary duty to Nha Trang to provide maintenance support for C-47s provided to the French Air Force, they would be replaced by French crews on 14 August 1953. In May 1953 USAF crews delivered 6 C-119s to Nha Trang, these were flown by Civil Air Transport crews to Cat Bi Air Base. On 7 July 1955 the RVNAF took over the Nha Trang Training Center and formed the 1st and 2nd Liaison Squadrons equipped with L-19s. In December 1961 the RVNAF 2nd Fighter Squadron equipped. In late 1961 4 USAF T-28 pilots from Operation Farm Gate were sent to Nha Trang to train RVNAF crews.
The 2nd Fighter Squadron became operation in mid-1962. It was renamed the 516th Fighter Squadron in January 1963. In September 1962 the RVNAF 12th Air Base Squadron was formed at the base. In September 1963 the USAF opened a training center at the base equipped with L-19s. RVNAF flight crews would undergo 1 month of preflight training followed by 3 months of primary flight training with a total of 80 flying hours. In February 1964 the 516th Fighter Squadron moved to Da Nang Air Base. In June 1964 the 116th Liaison Squadron equipped. In January 1965 the RVNAF 62nd Tactical Wing and 516th Fighter Squadron, equipped with A-1H Skyraiders deployed to Nha Trang from Pleiku Air Base while a new runway was built at Pleiku. In August 1965 the 524th Fighter Squadron equipped. On 30 June 1969 all AC-47 Spooky gunships of D Flight, 3rd Special Operations Squadron were transferred to the RVNAF at the base; the USAF Detachment 12, Thirteenth Air Force had been supporting RVNAF operations at Nha Trang since February 1962 and in May 1962 they were designated the 6223rd Air Base Squadron and on 7 June it was assigned to the 2nd Advanced Echelon.
In September 1962 the 23rd Special Air Warfare Detachment equipped with 6 OV-1 Mohawk reconnaissance aircraft deployed to Nha Trang and began flying visual and photo-reconnaissance in support of RVNAF and Army of the Republic of Vietnam units. In December 1963 Detachment 4, 8th Aerial Port Squadron was formed at the base. In July 1963 the 37th Air Base Squadron replaced the 6223rd Air Base Squadron. On 23 September 1963 3 Viet Cong sappers penetrated the base and destroyed 2 C-47s with satchel charges. From February 1964 3 C-123Bs and 3 air commando C-47s were kept at Nha Trang to support operations of the 5th Special Forces Group which had its headquarters at Nha Trang; these aircraft supported remote Special Forces bases. In December 1964 half of the 310th Troop Carrier Squadron equipped with 7 C-123s were sent to Nha Trang to replace the C-47s. In addition 3 U. S. Army and one Royal Australian Air Force CV-2 Caribous were sent to support the Special Forces. In late November 1965 the 5th Air Commando Squadron equipped with 4 C-47s and 17 U-10 Super Couriers was formed at the base and dispersed to forward operating bases throughout central South Vietnam.
In January 1966 the A-1 equipped 602nd Air Commando Squadron moved to Nha Trang from Bien Hoa Air Base. The RVNAF 2nd Air Division took over the base from the USAF in mid-1970; the 14th Air Commando Wing was activated at Nha Trang on 8 March 1966 and it would be the host unit at the base until 15 October 1969 when it moved to Phan Rang Air Base. The airfield was managed by the 14th Combat Support Group. On its establishment the 14th Wing assumed control of all USAF squadrons at Nha Trang and the 1st Air Commando Squadron and it assumed control of the 20th Helicopter Squadron. In April 1966 the 361st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron equipped with EC-47s was formed at the base. From July-December USAF RED HORSE units carried out 22 major construction/reconstruction projects of maintenance and storages areas, parking ramps, accommodation and drainage took place at the base to accommodate the expanded activity there. Housing on the base was in short supply and the USAF billets were adjacent to an ARVN ammunition dump, relocated north to Nha Trang, many of the new arrivals were forced to live in tents until proper accommodation could be built.
In January 1967 Flight C from the 4th Air Commando Squadron equipped with AC-47 Spooky gunships began operating from the base. On 21 September 1967 the first AC-130A Project Gunship II prototype arrived at Nha Trang for combat evaluation, the evaluation program concluded on 8 December 1967. On 25 October 1967 the 14th Air Commando Squadron was activated at Nha Trang, with 3 AC-47s of A Flight-based there. In late December 1968 the 71st Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G Shadow gunships arrived from Lockbourne Air Force Base and began operations from the base. On 1 June 1969 the 17th Special Operations Squadron equipped with AC-119G gunships was activated at Nha Trang and it replaced the 71st Special Operations Squadron which returned to Bakalar Air Force Base for inactivation. In mid-1969, as part of the process of Vietnamization, USAF units at Nha Trang began to relocate or deactivate and by October 1969 all USAF units had left the base and only 800 USAF personnel remained there to support operations until the hando
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Da Nang Air Base
Da Nang Air Base was a French Air Force and Republic of Vietnam Air Force facility located in the city of Da Nang, Vietnam. During the Vietnam War, it was a major base with United States Army, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps units stationed there. Air Vietnam used the facility from 1951 to 1975 for civilian domestic and international flights within Southeast Asia. On 22 September 1940, the Vichy Government signed an agreement with Japan allowing the Japanese to station troops in Tonkin and use three airfields there. On 14 July 1941, the Japanese sent the French an ultimatum demanding the use of bases in Annam and Cochinchina, the French acquiesced and by late July, the Japanese occupied Cam Ranh Bay, Bien Hoa Air Base and Tourane Airfield. In late 1944, the Fourteenth Air Force based in southern China began raiding Japanese bases throughout Indochina and on 12 January 1945, the United States Third Fleet launched attacks on Japanese coastal bases including Da Nang. Tourane Airfield was used by the French Air Force during the French Indochina War.
In December 1950, pursuant to the Mutual Defense Assistance Act and Program, the US delivered B-26 Invaders to the French and these were used to form the Bombardment Group I/19 Gascogne based at Tourane. In 1953, the US Eighteenth Air Force C-119s were deployed to Tourane to support French military operations, a number of these aircraft crewed by civilians flew in support of French forces in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. In 1953/54 the French laid a NATO-standard 7,800-foot asphalt runway at Tourane. In January 1954, the USAF delivered a further 16 B-26s and 3 RB-26s to Tourane and in February assigned USAF maintenance and supply personnel to Tourane on temporary duty to support B-26 operations; the USAF delivered 18 C-47s to Tourane on 9 April to replace aircraft losses. In April VMA-324 delivered 25 F4U/G Corsairs to the French Air Force at Tourane. Following the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu and in anticipation of the Indochina peace treaty, on 23 May the USAF C-119 detachment at Cat Bi Air Base moved to Tourane.
On 6 September the last of the C-119s on loan to the French departed from Tourane. By the end of the Indochina War, the French had established a small Republic of Vietnam Air Force consisting of 2 squadrons of Morane-Saulnier MS.500 and one of Morane-Saulnier MS.315. In January 1955, MAAG Vietnam decided that the RVNAF would comprise one fighter, two liaison and two transport squadrons and that training would be undertaken by the French. Under the Mutual Defence Assistance Program, the US delivered 28 F8Fs, 35 C-47s and 60 L-19s to the RVNAF to equip the planned expansion. On 19 September 1956 the French turned over Tourane Airfield to the RVNAF and on 1 June 1957 all RVNAF training responsibility passed from the French to the United States. In November 1955, the RVNAF 1st Liaison Squadron moved to Da Nang AB from Huế. In 1960, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam established a ranger training facility at Da Nang Air Base. In October 1962, the 2nd Helicopter Squadron was activated at the base and in 3 December Liaison Squadron was activated.
In mid-1962, the RVNAF 2nd Fighter Squadron equipped with T-28s became operational at Nha Trang Air Base and began detaching 6 aircraft to Da Nang AB. In January 1963, the 213th Helicopter Squadron replaced the 2nd Helicopter Squadron, the 110th Liaison Squadron replaced the 1st Liaison Squadron and the 114th Liaison Squadron replaced the 3rd Liaison Squadron. In February 1964, the 516th Fighter Squadron equipped with 15 A-1 Skyraiders moved to Da Nang AB from Nha Trang AB. On 15 March 1964 the RVNAF established a Tactical Wing Headquarters at the base. In May the 217th Helicopter Squadron was established at the base. On 8 February 1965, RVNAF commander Nguyễn Cao Kỳ led VNAF A-1s from the base on a retaliatory raid against North Vietnamese targets. On 2 March 1965, 20 A-1s from the base participated in the first attacks of Operation Rolling Thunder, striking the Vietnam People's Navy base at Quảng Khê. On 14 March the VNAF led by General Kỳ participated in attacks on barracks on Hòn Gió island.
In August 1965, 4 USAF B-57Bs operating from the base were nominally transferred to the RVNAF becoming their first jet aircraft. In 1970, the RVNAF units at Da Nang AB were reorganized as the First Air Division with responsibility for Military Region I. During that year the VNAF began building family housing at the base for its personnel. Da Nang air base was used as the primary entry point for Americans youngsters, flying into Vietnam for the first time to fight in the Vietnam war, it was used by the United States Marine Corps as well as the US Air force. In January 1962, the USAF 5th Tactical Control Group was deployed to Da Nang AB to provide air support operations in I Corps. By 2 March C-123s were stationed at the base under Project Mule Train. On 20 May 1962 the 6222nd Air Base Squadron was formed at the base to support VNAF operations and the growing USAF presence through Farm Gate operations. On 15 June 1962, 12 C-123s from the 777th Troop Carrier Squadron deployed to the base forming the Tactical Air Force Transport Squadron Provisional-2 to supplement the existing Mule Train operations and those of the US Army's 18th Fixed Wing Aviation Company equipped with U-1 Otters.
In early 1962, the base runway was asphalt covered and 7,900-foot long while the taxiways and parking areas were covered in Pierced steel planking. In April 1963, the 777th Troop Carrier Squadron equipped with 16 C-123s was transferred to the base and that year the base's existing Mule Train operations were redesignated as the 311th Troop Carrier Squadr
1960 South Vietnamese coup attempt
On November 11, 1960, a failed coup attempt against President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam was led by Lieutenant Colonel Vương Văn Đông and Colonel Nguyễn Chánh Thi of the Airborne Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. The rebels launched the coup in response to Diệm's autocratic rule and the negative political influence of his brother Ngô Đình Nhu and his sister-in-law Madame Nhu, they bemoaned the politicisation of the military, whereby regime loyalists who were members of the Ngô family's covert Cần Lao Party were promoted ahead of more competent officers who were not insiders. Đông was supported in the conspiracy by his brother-in-law Lieutenant Colonel Nguyen Trieu Hong, whose uncle was a prominent official in a minor opposition party. The main link in the coup was Đông's commanding officer Thi; the coup caught the Ngô family off-guard, but was chaotically executed. The plotters neglected to seal the roads leading into the capital Saigon to seal off loyalist reinforcements, they hesitated after gaining the initiative.
After being trapped inside the Independence Palace, Diệm stalled the coup by holding negotiations and promising reforms, such as the inclusion of military officers in the administration. In the meantime, opposition politicians joined the fray. However, the president's real aim was to buy time for loyalist forces to enter the capital and relieve him; the coup failed when the 5th and 7th Divisions of the ARVN defeated the rebels. More than four hundred people—many of whom were civilian spectators—were killed in the ensuing battle; these included a group of anti-Diệm civilians who charged across the palace walls at Thi's urging and were cut down by loyalist gunfire. Đông and Thi fled to Cambodia, while Diệm berated the United States for a perceived lack of support during the crisis. Afterwards, Diệm ordered a crackdown, imprisoning numerous anti-government critics and former cabinet ministers; those that assisted Diệm were duly promoted. A trial for those implicated in the plot was held in 1963. Seven officers and two civilians were sentenced to death in absentia, while 14 officers and 34 civilians were jailed.
Diệm's regime accused the Americans of sending Central Intelligence Agency members to assist the failed plot. When Diệm was assassinated after a 1963 coup, those jailed after the 1960 revolt were released by the new military junta; the revolt was led by 28-year-old Lieutenant Colonel Vương Văn Đông, a northerner, who had fought with the French Union forces against the Viet Minh during the First Indochina War. Trained at Fort Leavenworth in the United States, Đông was regarded by American military advisers as a brilliant tactician and the brightest military prospect of his generation and he served in the Airborne Division. Back in Vietnam, Đông became discontented with Diệm's arbitrary rule and constant meddling in the internal affairs of the army. Diệm promoted officers on loyalty rather than skill, played senior officers against one another in order to weaken the military leadership and prevent them from challenging his rule. Years after the coup, Đông asserted that his sole objective was to force Diệm to improve the governance of the country.
Đông was clandestinely supported by his brother-in-law Lieutenant Colonel Nguyen Trieu Hong, the director of training at the Joint General Staff School, Hong's uncle Hoang Co Thuy. Thuy was a wealthy Saigon-based lawyer, had been a political activist since World War II, he was the secretary-general of a minority opposition party called the Movement of Struggle for Freedom, which had a small presence in the rubber-stamp National Assembly. Many Army of the Republic of Vietnam officers were members of other anti-communist nationalist groups that were opposed to Diệm, such as the Đại Việt Quốc dân đảng and the Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng, which were both established before World War II; the VNQDĐ had run a military academy in Yunnan near the Chinese border with the assistance of their nationalist Chinese counterparts, the Kuomintang. Diệm and his family had crushed all alternative anti-communist nationalists, his politicisation of the army had alienated the servicemen. Officers were promoted on the basis of political allegiance rather than competence, meaning that many VNQDĐ and Đại Việt trained officers were denied such promotions.
They felt that politically minded officers, who joined Diệm's secret Catholic-dominated Cần Lao Party, used to control South Vietnamese society, were rewarded with promotion rather than those most capable. Planning for the coup had gone on with Đông recruiting disgruntled officers; this included Colonel Nguyễn Chánh Thi. In 1955, Thi had fought for Diệm against the Bình Xuyên organised crime syndicate in the Battle for Saigon; this performance so impressed Diệm—a lifelong bachelor—that he thereafter referred to Thi as "my son". However, the Americans who worked with Thi were less impressed; the CIA described Thi as "an opportunist and a man lacking strong convictions". An American military advisor described Thi as "tough and fearless, but dumb". There is some dispute as to. According to some sources, Thi was still an admirer of Diệm and was forced at gunpoint by Đông and his supporters to join the coup at the last minute, having been kept unaware of the plotting. According to this story, Thi's airborne units were moved into position for the coup without his knowledge.
Many months before the coup, Đông had met Diệm's brother and adviser Ngô Đình Nhu regarded as the brains of the regi
Republic of Vietnam Marine Division
The Republic of Vietnam Marine Division was part of the armed forces of South Vietnam. It was established by Ngo Dinh Diem in 1954 when he was Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, which became the Republic of Vietnam in 1955; the longest-serving commander was Lieutenant General Le Nguyen Khang. In 1969, the VNMC had a strength of 9,300, 15,000 by 1973. and 20,000 by 1975. The Marine Division trace their origins to French-trained Commandos Marine divisions recruited and placed under the command of the French Navy but incorporated in 1960. From 1970 onwards, the South Vietnamese marines and Airborne Division grew supplanting the independent, Central Highlands based Vietnamese Rangers as the most popular elite units for volunteers. Along with the Airborne the Marine Division formed the General Reserve with the strategic transformation under Vietnamization, with elite and highly-mobile units meant to be deployed in People's Army of Vietnam attacking points and incursions. By the level of training had improved and U.
S. General Creighton Abrams who oversaw Vietnamization stated that South Vietnam's Airborne and Marines had no comparable units to match it in the PAVN; this division had earned a total of 9 U. S. presidential citations, with the 2nd Battalion "Crazy Buffaloes" earning two. The Vietnamese Marine Corps had its origins during French rule of Indochina; the 1949 Franco-Vietnamese Agreement stated that the Vietnamese Armed Forces were to include naval forces whose organization and training would be provided by the French Navy. In March 1952, the Navy of Vietnam was established. In 1953, the French and Vietnamese governments agreed to increase the size of Vietnamese National Army, so an increase in the size of the Vietnamese Navy was deemed necessary; as they debated whether the Army or Navy would control the river flotillas, French Vice Admiral Philippe Auboyneau proposed for the first time the organisation of a Vietnamese Marine Corps. When the French withdrew from Vietnam in 1954, the Vietnamese Marine Corps was a component of the Vietnamese Navy.
The Marine Corps consisted of a headquarters, four river companies, one battalion landing force. On October 13, 1954, Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem signed a government decree formally creating within the naval establishment a section of infantry of brigade strength to be designated as the Marine Corps. One of the most notable battles during the early phase of the war was the Battle of Binh Gia, which witnessed for the first time several helicopter transports downed by AA and ground-fire with the 4th Marine Battalion suffering 60% casualties. A few months with the onset of U. S intervention, the 1st and 3rd Battalion participated against a now Soviet and Chinese supplied 9th Viet Cong Division, were tasked with the Battle of Ba Gia. Upon capturing the hamlet the 9th Division sprung an ambush, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. Following the departure of U. S. Marine forces, the South Vietnamese marines were assigned responsibility in defending the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone; the most significant urban-battle in the war was experienced by the South Vietnamese marines during the Easter Offensive.
A massive armored pushed across the DMZ and nearly destroyed this unit alongside I Corps in the city of Quảng Trị. Two months this South Vietnamese marines spearheaded the re-taking of Quảng Trị, with 3,658 KIA in the process; this would be the single longest, bloody battle in the entire war. Prior to the signing of the Paris Peace Accords, the Marine Division attempted to retake the Cửa Việt Base abandoned by U. S. Marines in 1969 in the Battle of Cửa Việt; the PAVN units deployed the experimental 9M14 Malyutka man-portable guided anti-tanks, with the division losing 26 M48 Pattons in the counter-attack. Learning from the Easter Offensive failure, PAVN tanks rolled across not only across the DMZ, but well-disguised series of armoured attacks across the Central Highlands were launched during the Hue–Da Nang Campaign encircling and destroying most of the I Corps that many Marine Division battalions was assigned to. Remnants of the division, drastically short on supplies, held out and made a final stand near Saigon during the Battle of Xuân Lộc before succumbing to defeat.
Divisional Units Headquarters Battalion Amphibious Support Battalion Signal Battalion Engineer Battalion Medical Battalion Anti-tank Company Military Police Company Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol Company147th Marine Brigade 1st Marine Battalion - "Wild Birds" 4th Marine Battalion - "Killer Sharks" 7th Marine Battalion - "Grey Tigers" 1st Marine Artillery Battalion - "Lightning Fire258th Marine Brigade 2nd Marine Battalion - "Crazy Buffaloes" 5th Marine Battalion - "Black Dragons" 8th Marine Battalion - "Sea Eagles" 2nd Marine Artillery Battalion - "Divine Arrows"369th Marine Brigade 3rd Marine Battalion - "Sea Wolves" 6th Marine Battalion - "Divine Hawks" 9th Marine Battalion - "Ferocious Tigers" 3rd Marine Artillery Battalion - "Divine Crossbows"A 4th brigade, the 468th, was added to the VNMC in December, 1974. 14th Marine Battalion 16th Marine Battalion 18th Marine Battalion 4th Marine Artillery Battalion - "Tan Lap" Major Lê Quang Mỹ Lt. Colonel Lê Quang Trọng Major Phạm Văn Liễu Vice Captain Bùi Phó Chí Major Lê Như Hùng Major Le Nguyen Khang Lt. Colonel Nguyễn Bá Liên Colonel Le Nguyen Khang Colonel Bùi Thế Lân Generally, the VNMC weapons and personal equipments were (if not
Vietnamese personal names consist of three parts: one patrilineal family name, one or more middle name, one given name, used in that order. The "family name first" order follows the system of Chinese names and is common throughout the Chinese cultural sphere. However, it is different from Chinese and Japanese names in the usage of "middle names", as they are less common in China and Korea and do not exist in Japan. Persons can be referred to by the whole name, the given name or a hierarchic pronoun, which connotes a degree of family relationship or kinship, in normal usage. Due to the frequency of the major family names such as Nguyễn, Trần, Lê, persons are referred to by their middle name along with their given name in Vietnamese media and youth culture; the Vietnamese language is tonal, so are Vietnamese names. Names with the same spelling but with different tones are different names, which can confuse non-Vietnamese people when the diacritics are dropped, as is done outside Vietnam. Anyone applying for Vietnamese nationality must adopt a Vietnamese name.
The family name is passed on by the father to his children. It is estimated that there are around 100 family names in common use, but some are far more common than others; the name Nguyễn is estimated to be used by 40% of the Vietnamese population. The top three names are so popular because people tended to take family names of emperors to show their loyalty. Over many generations, family names became permanent; the most common family names among the Vietnamese are the following. Altogether, the 14 names account for 90% of the people. Nguyễn 阮 Trần 陳 Lê 黎 Phạm 范 Huỳnh/Hoàng 黃 Phan 潘 Vũ/Võ 武 Đặng 鄧 Bùi 裴 Đỗ 杜 Hồ 胡 Ngô 吳 Dương 楊 Lý 李 The following include other less-common surnames in alphabetical order: In Vietnamese cultural practice, women always keep their family names once they marry, just as in other East Asian cultures, including Chinese culture to the north and the northeast. In formal contexts, people are referred to by their full name. In more casual contexts, people are always on a "first name basis", which involves their given names, accompanying with proper kinship terms.
There is no such thing as family name basis, in Vietnam. Most Vietnamese have one middle name, but it is quite possible to have either two or more of them or to have no middle name at all. In the past, the middle name was selected by parents from a narrow range of options. All women had Thị as their middle name, many men had Văn. More a broader range of names have been used, people named Thị sometimes omit their middle name. Thị is by far the most common female middle name; that word expresses possession. For example, "Trần Thị Mai Loan" is a person who has the given name of "Mai Loan" and the surname "Trần", the combination "Trần Thị" means "a female person belonging to the Trần family." The combination is similar to Western surname formation like "Van" in "Van Helsing", "Mac" in "MacCartney", etc. Male middle names include Văn, Hữu, Đức, Thành, Công, Quang; the middle name can have three uses: To indicate a person's generation. Brothers and sisters share the same middle name, which distinguish them from the generation before them and the generation after them.
To separate branches of a large family: "Nguyễn Hữu", "Nguyễn Sinh", "Trần Lâm". However, this usage is still controversial; some people consider them to be dual family names, not family name + middle name. Some families may, set up arbitrary rules about giving a different middle name to each generation. To indicate a person's position in the family; this usage is less common than others. However, most middle names now do not have those uses, they can have a meaning or only make the full name sound better. In most cases, the middle name is formally part of the given name. For example, the name "Đinh Quang Dũng" is separated into the surname "Đinh" and the given name "Quang Dũng". In a normal name list, those two parts of the full name are put in two different columns. However, in daily conversation, the last word in a given name with a title before it is used to address a person: "Ông Dũng", "Anh Dũng", etc. with "Ông" and "Anh" being words to address the person and depend on age, social position, etc.
The given name is the primary form of address for Vietnamese. It is chosen by parents and has a literal meaning in the Vietnamese language. Names represent beauty, such as bird or flower names, or attributes and characteristics that the parents want in their child, such as modesty. Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name in formal situations, although an honorific equivalent to "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary. That contrasts with the situation in many other cultures in which the family name is used in formal situations, but it is a practice similar to usage in Icelandic usage and, to some degree, Polish, it is similar to the Latin-American and southern European custom of referring to women as "Doña" and men as "Don", along with their first name. Addressing someone by the family name is rare. In the past, married women in the north were called with Thị as a suffix. In recent years, doctors are more than any other social group to be addressed by their family name, but that form of reference is more common in the north than in the south.
Some famous people are sometimes ref
South Vietnam the Republic of Vietnam, was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam", a constitutional monarchy; this became the "Republic of Vietnam" in 1955. Its capital was Saigon. South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast; the Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president, after having served as premier under Emperor Bao Dai, exiled. Its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and 87 other nations, it had membership in several special committees of the United Nations, but its application for full membership was rejected in 1957 because of a Soviet veto.
South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam, Cochinchina, a subdivision of French Indochina, the southern half of Central Vietnam or Annam, a French protectorate. After the Second World War, the anti-Japanese Viet Minh guerrilla forces, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi in September 1945, issuing a Declaration of Independence modeled on the U. S. one from 1776. In 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, a series of short-lived military governments followed. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country after a U. S.-encouraged civilian presidential election from 1967 until 1975. The beginnings of the Vietnam War occurred in 1959 with an uprising by the newly organized National Liberation Front for South Vietnam and supported by the northern Democratic Republic of Vietnam, with other assistance rendered by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact communist satellites, along with neighboring People's Republic of China and North Korea.
Larger escalation of the insurgency occurred in 1965 with the landing of United States regular forces of Marines, followed by Army units to supplement the cadre of military advisors guiding ARVN southern forces. A regular bombing campaign over North Vietnam was conducted by offshore U. S. Navy airplanes and aircraft carriers joined by Air Force squadrons through 1966 and 1967. Fighting peaked up to that point during the Tet Offensive of February 1968, when there were over a million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 U. S. soldiers in South Vietnam. On the war turned into a more conventional fight as the balance of power became equalized. An larger, armored invasion commenced during the Easter Offensive following US ground-forces withdrawal, had nearly overran some major northern cities until beaten back. Despite a truce agreement under the Paris Peace Accords, concluded in January 1973, after a torturous five years of on and off negotiations, fighting continued immediately afterwards; the North Vietnamese regular army and Viet Cong launched a major second combined-arms invasion in 1975, termed the Spring Offensive.
Communist forces overran Saigon on 30 April 1975. On the day President Duong Van Minh declared RVN cease to exist, five ARVN generals, one Saigon police chief, numbers of ARVN soldiers and officers commit suicide to avoid being humiliated surrender. On July 2, 1976, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the official name of the South Vietnamese state was Việt Nam Cộng hòa and the French name was referred to as République du Viêt Nam. The North was known as the "Democratic Republic of Vietnam". Việt Nam was the name adopted by Emperor Gia Long in 1804, it is a name used in ancient times. In 1839, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed the country Đại Nam. In 1945, the nation's official name was changed back to "Vietnam"; the name is sometimes rendered as "Viet Nam" in English. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts.
Other names of this state were used during its existence such as Free Vietnam and the Government of Viet Nam. Before World War II, the southern third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina, administered as part of French Indochina. A French governor-general in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina while Cochinchina was under a French governor, but the difference from the other parts was that most indigenous intellensia and wealthy were naturalized French The northern third of Vietnam (then the colony of Tonkin was under