Akbariyya is a branch of Sufi metaphysics based on Ibn Arabi's teachings, an Andalusian Sufi, a gnostic and philosopher. The word is derived from Ibn Arabi's nickname, "Shaykh al-Akbar," meaning "the greatest shaykh." Akbariyya has never been used to indicate a Sufi society in history. It is nowadays used to refer to all historical or contemporary Sufi metaphysicians and Sufis influenced by Ibn Arabi's doctrine Wahdat al-Wujud, it is not to be confused with Al Akbariyya, a secret Sufi society founded by Swedish Sufi'Abdu l-Hadi Aguéli. Wahdat al-Wajud meaning the "unity of being" is a Sufi philosophy emphasizing that'there is no true existence except the Ultimate Truth' or in other words, that the only truth within the universe is God, that all things exist within God only. Ibn Arabi is most characterized in Islamic texts as the originator of this doctrine. However, it is not found in his works; the first to employ this term was Ibn Sabin. Ibn Arabi's disciple and stepson Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi used this term in his works and explained it using philosophical terms.
See Sufi metaphysics In the 20th century there has been focus on the Akbariyya School in academic circles and universities. Viewed in a historical context, increased government support for the study of the Muslim world and Islamic languages emerged in the United States after the Second World War where many students were attracted to Islam and religious studies during the 1970s; the greatest growth in American scholarship on Sufism, took place from the work done by scholars trained during the 1970s. Alexander Knysh notes that “in the decades after World War Two the majority of Western experts in Sufism were no longer based in Europe, but in North America.” Henri Corbin and Fritz Meier who were prominent among these experts, made important contributions to the study of Islamic mysticism. Another important names were Miguel Asín Palacios, Louis Massignon made contributions to Ibn Arabi studies. While Palacios discovered some Akbarian elements in Dante's famous work Divine Comedy Louis Massignon studied on famous Sufi Al-Hallaj saying "Anal Hak" and because of that expression he was executed.
Seyyed Hossein Nasr and his students and academic disciples, have come to play an important role in certain subfields of Sufi studies. The Influence of Nasr and other Traditionalist writers like Rene Guenon and Frithjof Schuon on Sufi studies can be seen on the interpretation of the works of Ibn Arabi and the Akbarian school by such scholars as Titus Burckhardt, Martin Lings, James Morris, William Chittick, Sachiko Murata and others; these names are both practitioners of Sufism and scholars studying Sufism. Viewed, Turkey is situated where Ibn Arabi's most prominent disciple and stepson Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi and other important commentators of Arabi's works lived in the past. Dawūd al-Qayṣarī was invited to Iznik by Orhan Ghazi to be director and teacher of the first Ottoman university was the disciple of Kamāl al-Dīn al-Qāshānī, himself a disciple of Sadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī; this means that the official teaching itself was set in motion by a great master of the Akbarian school. Not only Sufis but Ottoman sultans and intellectuals had been impressed by Ibn Arabi and his disciples and interpreters.
Seyyed Muhammad Nur al-Arabi was impressed by Ibn Arabi's doctrine, though that continued to decrease until the Modern Era. In the 20th century the last important commentator of Fusûs was Ahmed Avni Konuk, he was a composer of Turkish music. Studies on Sufism Akbarian works, were not common until the first Ph. D. thesis was written by Prof. Dr. Mahmud Erol Kılıc in Marmara University's Faculty of Theology titled "Ibn'Arabi's Ontology" in 1995. Academic studies on Akbarian metaphysics and philosophy began to rise after studies on this topic were conducted by Turkish scholars such as Mustafa Tahralı and Mahmud Erol Kılıc. In terms of Akbarian studies, the most important event to take place was the translation of Ibn Arabi's magnum opus,"Futuhat-ı Makkiyya", to Turkish. A Turkish scholar, Prof. Dr. Ekrem Demirli started translating the work in the form of 18 volumes in 2006 and finished in 2012; this particular translation was the first complete translation to another language. Demirli's work includes translating Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi's corpus to Turkish and writing a PhD thesis on him in 2004, writing a commentary on Fusus al-Hikam by Ibn Arabi, writing a book titled İslam Metafiziğinde Tanrı ve İnsan.
There are many Akbarian works in Ottoman Turkish. There had and have been many Akbarian Sufis and philosophers in history from all over the world. Ibn Arabi created the philosophy of Wahdat al-Wujud; the Sufis listed below were members of different orders, but following the concept of Wahdat al-Wujud. Masataka Takeshita: Ibn'Arabi's Theory of the Perfect Man and Its Place in the History of Islamic Thought, Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 1987 William C. Chittick: Ibn'Arabi's Imaginal Worlds: Creativity of Imagination and the Problem of Religious Diversity _____________: The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-'Arabi's Metaphysics of Imagination ______________: Ibn'Arabi - Heir to the Prophets. ______________: Imaginal Worlds. ______________: The Self-Disclosure of God Stephen Hirtenstein: The Unlimited Mercifier: The Spiritual Life and Thought of Ibn'Arabi _____________: Prayer and Contemplation
Dhikr are devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are recited silently within the mind or aloud. It can be counted through fingers of the hand. A person who recites the Dhikr is called a ḏākir. Tasbih is a form of dhikr; the content of the prayers includes a duʿāʾ taken from the hadith or the Quran. There are several verses in the Quran that emphasize the importance of remembering the will of God by saying phrases such as "God willing," "God knows best," and "If it is your will.' This is the basis for dhikr. Sura 18, ayah 24 states a person who forgets to say, "God Willing," should remember God by saying, "May my Lord guide me to do better next time." Other verses include sura 33, ayah 41, "O ye who believe! Celebrate the praises of Allah, do this often," and sura 13, ayah 28, "They are the ones whose hearts rejoice in remembering God. By remembering God, the hearts rejoice." Muhammad said,'The best is La ilaha illa’llah, the best supplicatory prayer is Al-hamdu li’llah. Muslims believe dhikr is one of the best ways to enter the higher level of Heaven and to glorify the Oneness of Allah.
To Sufis, dhikr is seen as a way to gain spiritual enlightenment and achieve union or annihilation in God. All Muslim sects endorse individual rosaries as a method of meditation, the goal of, to obtain a feeling of peace, separation from worldly values, and, in general, strengthen Iman. There are several phrases that are read when remembering Allah. Here are a few: Allāh- الله is the Arabic word for God and mentioned in Quran most of the verses. Allāhu ʾakbar - الله أَكْبَر means "God is greater" or "God is the greatest" Subhan Allah - سبحان الله means "Glory be to God" or "How pure is God" or "Exalted be God" Alhamdulillah - الحمد لله means "All praise is due to God", an expression of gratitude Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llah - لا إله إلا الله means "There is no god but Allah" Lā ḥawla wa-lā quwwata ʾillā bi-llāh - لا حول ولاقوة إلا بالله means "There is no power or strength except with God." Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm - means "In the name of God, the gracious, the merciful", said before anything of spiritual significance.
Audhubillah - means "I seek refuge in Allah". Laa ilaaha illal laahu wahdahoo laa sharikalahoo lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer - means "There is no god but Allah, without partner, his is the sovereignty, His the praise, He has power over everything". SubhanAllah wa biHamdihi - means "Glory be to Allah and Praise Him". SubhanAllahi wa biHamdihi, Subhan-Allahi'l-`adheem Some of these can be said together.e.g- Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar - means "Glory be to Allah, All Praise is for Allah, There is No God but Allah, Allah is the Greatest". Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaahil'aleeul azeem. Laa ilaaha illal laahu wahdahoo laa sharikalahoo lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer - means "There is No God But Allah Alone, who has no partner, his is the dominion and His is the raise, He is Able to do all things". Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaahil'aleeul azeem.
Laa ilaaha illa Anta, subhaanaka inni kuntu min al-zaalimeen. Reciting the Quran sincerely is considered a kind of Dhikr. E.g.- Reciting Sura Ikhlas / Tawheed is equal to one-third of the Quran. Reciting Sura Ikhlas 10 times gives a palace in Heaven. Reciting Sura Kaafiroon is equal to one-fourth of the Quran. Reciting Sura Nasr is equal to one-fourth of the Quran. Reciting Sura Zalzalah is equal to half of the Quran. "Shall I tell you about the best of deeds, the most pure in the Sight of your Lord, about the one, of the highest order and is far better for you than spending gold and silver better for you than meeting your enemies in the battlefield where you strike at their necks and they at yours?" The companions replied, "Yes, O Messenger ﷺ of Allah!" He replied, "Remembrance of Allah ﷻ". "People will not sit in an assembly in which they remember Allah ﷻ without the angels surrounding them, mercy covering them, Allah ﷻ Mentioning them among those who are with Him" “There is nothing, a greater cause of salvation from the punishment of Allah than the remembrance of Allah" Hadhrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal said that the Prophet ﷺ said: "The People of Paradise will not regret except one thing alone: the hour that passed them by and in which they made no remembrance of Allah ﷻ."
It is mentioned in hadith that where people are oblivious to dhikir, remembrance of Allah is like being steadfast in jihad when others are running away. Followers of Sufism engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, the details of which sometimes vary between Sufi orders or tariqah; each order, or lineage within an order, has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation, music, d
The Alian Kızılbaşī community, are a Shi`a order, similar to the Sufi Mevlevi, who live in several regions of Bulgaria. Alians revere the name "Ali" carried by their circle of 12 Ministers, which they consider an emanation of God, they follow the mystical rituals of the wandering dervishes. Their exact origin is not certain, since few relevant historical records have been preserved, but according to the prevailing theory they fled to Bulgaria from Central Anatolia after the 1512 victory by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I, a Sunni, over the first Turcoman Safavid shah of the Persians, Ismail I. Alians appear to be descendants of a Sufi-dervish-like group of priests but they themselves believe about 10% are the descendants of the earliest Christians of Asia Minor who fled the Sunni invasion of Anatolia, they believe. Ali for them is not one single historical person but the ineffable name kept by God's Ministers, it has been suggested that they first came to the Balkans during the 15th century, in order to keep up the morale of Ottoman soldiers and to help integrate the newly conquered peoples into the empire.
However, it is not since the Ottomans were Sunnis while the Alians are viewed as ghulat by other Muslims for their heterodox views concerning Muhammad and Ali. However, the reverse accusation is returned that their attackers are Munafiqun for abandoning the articles of Imaan that concerning belief in the 4 books which Alians believe and for adopting ibn Hazm's doctrine of Tahrif instead which Alians reject; the Alians have similar beliefs and practices to the Alevis and along with Alevis are surviving examples of pre-Sunni Islam because the Alians are believed to be descendants of a member of the Banu Eli tribe, called Abbas ibn Ali and Umm ul-Banin so their 12 imams has nothing to do with Twelver Shiism. They believe the Quran was compiled by an Alian ex-convert to Monophysitism from Zoroastrianism called Salman e Fars whom they hold in high esteem, their tafsir of the Quran based on syncretic harmony between the 4 books places them within the Judeo-Christian tradition. They are a closed society and zealously hide their rituals.
Circumcision, reserved for the priests, is done. At the age of 13 years his pubic hair may be trimmed in a special ceremony where only male Elders are present, they should only marry other Alians. Marriages may be arranged years in advance by the families but the couple are only married together as young men and women because, contrary to general Islamic practice, child marriages are abhorred by Alians, it is known that Alians are mysticists and believe in personal communication with God through a near-trance state during Zikr. They do not use the Sunni Islamic rituals, but the Persian calendar, an Old Rite-style breviary and use candles and wine during their Mass which they call Dzhem on Thursday nights to achieve the Haqq–Muhammad–Ali communion, they celebrate Christmas and Easter while revering Christian saints Saint Nicholas as well as Sufi saints using icons and crosses alongside tasbih. Along with other Alevis, they are considered crypto-Jews for sharing many practices and traditions in common with Judaism.
They placed a great role among themselves for converting Christians in Bulgaria. A tradition is performed among Alians and other Alevis after the 3rd week of December until the first week of January where St Nicholas and his bride Fadike and a character known as the Arab will visit the homes in the community to perform a play and collect gifts go on to distribute them to others in the community Zeyi and distribute nuts, sweets and dried fruits to children. Alian shrines are visited by Balkan Christians and do themselves sometimes attend Christian Churches and frequent Balkan Christian Shrines. However, Alians have always refused to visit madrassahs in the Ottoman Empire, because orthodox Sunni Islam was taught there; as a consequence, they educated their children only within the bounds of their society, that has led to a decline among them. The situation, along with the reticence of their esoteric culture, the urbanization, doomed them to gradual assimilation into Orthodox Christianity or secularism.
By the Second World War and the following communism in Bulgaria, many Alians fled in the European part of Turkey. In recent decades, the Muslim Brotherhood has pushed an agenda to assimilate them into Sunni Islam but have failed miserably. In fact, Alians have converted thousands of Sunnis to their form of Islam since World War 2. Demir Baba teke is a sacred place to Alians and other Islamic sects because Demir Baba, a famous dervish who lived during the 16th century, is buried there in the lands of northeastern Bulgaria; the tekke of Otman Baba, located in the Haskovo-region village of Teketo, is another Alian holy site. In Bulgaria, Alians inhabit predominantly the villages of Yablanovo and Malko Selo in Sliven Province.
A tariqa is a school or order of Sufism, or a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth". A tariqa has a murshid; the members or followers of a tariqa are known as muridin, meaning "desirous", viz. "desiring the knowledge of God and loving God". The metaphor of "way, path" is to be understood in connection of the term sharia which has the meaning of "path", more "well-trodden path; the "path" metaphor of tariqa is that of a further path, taken by the mystic, which continues from the "well-trodden path" or exoteric of sharia towards the esoteric haqiqa. A fourth "station" following the succession of shariah and haqiqa is called marifa; this is the "unseen center" of haqiqa, the ultimate aim of the mystic, corresponding to the unio mystica in Western mysticism. Tasawwuf, Arabic word that refers to mysticism and Islamic esotericism, is known in the West as Sufism; the most popular tariqa in the West is the Mevlevi Order, named after Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi.
In the same time the Bektashi Order was founded, named after the Alevi Muslim saint Haji Bektash Veli. Four large tariqas in South Asia are: the Naqshbandi Order, named after Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Large tariqats in Africa include Tijaniyya. Others can be offshoots of a tariqa. For example, the Qalandariyya has roots in Malamatiyya and Wafa'i of orders are offshoots of the Suhrawardi order; the Ashrafia after the 13 the century illustrious sufi saint Ashraf Jahangir Semnani is the sub branch of Chisti spiritual lineage. The Maizbhandari Tariqa or Maizbhandari Sufi Order is a liberated Sufism order established in the Bangladesh in the 19th century by the Gausul Azam Shah Sufi Syed Ahmadullah Maizbhandari, 27th descendent of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Membership of a particular Sufi order is not exclusive and cannot be likened to the ideological commitment to a political party. Unlike the Christian monastic orders which are demarcated by firm lines of authority and sacrament, Sufis are members of various Sufi orders.
The non-exclusiveness of Sufi orders has consequences for the social extension of Sufism. They cannot be regarded as indulging in a zero sum competition which a purely political analysis might have suggested. Rather their joint effect is to impart to Sufism a cumulant body of tradition, rather than individual and isolated experiences. In most cases the sheikh nominates his khalifa or "successor" during his lifetime, who will take over the order. In rare cases, if the sheikh dies without naming a khalifa, the students of the tariqa elect another spiritual leader by vote. In some orders it is recommended to take a Khalif from the same order as the murshid. In some groups it is customary for the khalifa to be the son of the sheikh, although in other groups the khalīfa and the sheikh are not relatives. In yet other orders a successor may be identified through the spiritual dreams of its members. Tariqas have silsilas "chain, lineage of sheikhs". All orders except the Naqshbandi order claim a silsila that leads back to Muhammad through Ali..
Every Murid, on entering the tariqa, gets his awrad, or daily recitations, authorized by his murshid. These recitations are extensive and time-consuming. One must be in a state of ritual purity; the recitations change. The Initiation ceremony is routine and consists of reading chapter 1 of the Quran followed by a single phrase prayer. Criteria have to be met to be promoted in rank: the common way is to repeat a single phrase prayer 82,000 times or more as in the case of Burhaniyya, a number that grows with each achieved rank. Murids who experience unusual interaction during meditation: hear voices like "would you like to see a prophet?" or see visions who might communicate with the Murid are held dear in the "Haḍra", the weekly group-chanting of prayers in attempt of reaching spirits as they are to experience something unusual and pass it on. This Murid is promoted faster than others; the least common way is to cause a miracle to happen with criteria similar to that of Catholic Sainthood. Being followers of the spiritual traditions of Islam loosely referred to as Sufism, these groups were sometimes distinct from the Ulma or mandated scholars, acted as informal missionaries of Islam.
They provided accepted avenues for emotional expressions of faith, the Tariqas spread to all corners of the Muslim world, exercised a degree of political influence inordinate to their size (take for example the influence that the sheikhs of the Safavid had over the armies of Tamerlane, or the missionary work of Ali-Shir Nava'i in Tu
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Walī is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", "friend". In the vernacular, it is most used by Muslims to indicate an Islamic saint, otherwise referred to by the more literal "friend of God". In the traditional Islamic understanding of saints, the saint is portrayed as someone "marked by divine favor... holiness", and, "chosen by God and endowed with exceptional gifts, such as the ability to work miracles". The doctrine of saints was articulated by Islamic scholars early on in Muslim history, particular verses of the Quran and certain hadith were interpreted by early Muslim thinkers as "documentary evidence" of the existence of saints. Graves of saints around the Muslim world became centers of pilgrimage — after 1200 CE — for masses of Muslims seeking their barakah. Since the first Muslim hagiographies were written during the period when the Islamic mystical trend of Sufism began its rapid expansion, many of the figures who came to be regarded as the major saints in orthodox Sunni Islam were the early Sufi mystics, like Hasan of Basra, Farqad Sabakhi, Dawud Tai, Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya, Maruf Karkhi, Junayd of Baghdad.
From the twelfth to the fourteenth century, "the general veneration of saints, among both people and sovereigns, reached its definitive form with the organization of Sufism... into orders or brotherhoods". In the common expressions of Islamic piety of this period, the saint was understood to be "a contemplative whose state of spiritual perfection... permanent expression in the teaching bequeathed to his disciples". In many prominent Sunni Islamic creeds of the time, such as the famous Creed of Tahawi and the Creed of Nasafi, a belief in the existence and miracles of saints was presented as "a requirement" for being an orthodox Muslim believer. Aside from the Sufis, the preeminent saints in traditional Islamic piety are the Companions of Muhammad, their Successors, the third generation after the Prophet called "the Successors of the Successors". Additionally, the prophets of Islam are believed to be saints by definition, although they are referred to as such, in order to prevent confusion between them and ordinary saints.
In short, it is believed that "every prophet is a saint, but not every saint is a prophet". In the modern world, the traditional Sunni and Shia idea of saints has been challenged by movements such as Salafism and Islamic modernism, all three of which have, to a greater or lesser degree, "formed a front against the veneration and theory of saints." As has been noted by scholars, the development of these movements has indirectly led to a trend amongst some mainstream Muslims to resist "acknowledging the existence of Muslim saints altogether or... their presence and veneration as unacceptable deviations". However, despite the presence of these opposing streams of thought, the classical doctrine of saint-veneration continues to thrive in many parts of the Islamic world today, playing a vital role in daily expressions of piety among vast segments of Muslim populations in Muslim countries like Pakistan, Turkey, Iraq, Algeria, Indonesia and Morocco, as well as in countries with substantive Islamic populations like India, China and the Balkans.
Regarding the rendering of the Arabic walī by the English "saint", prominent scholars such as Gibril Haddad have regarded this as an appropriate translation, with Haddad describing the aversion of some Muslims towards the use of "saint" for walī as "a specious objection... for – like'Religion','Believer','prayer', etc. – generic term for holiness and holy persons while there is no confusion, for Muslims, over their specific referents in Islam, namely: the reality of iman with Godwariness and those who possess those qualities." In Persian, which became the second most influential and widely-spoken language in the Islamic world after Arabic, the general title for a saint or a spiritual master became pīr. Although the ramifications of this phrase include the connotations of a general "saint," it is used to signify a spiritual guide of some type. Amongst Indian Muslims, the title peer baba is used in Hindi to refer to Sufi masters or honored saints. Additionally, saints are sometimes referred to in the Persian or Urdu vernacular with "Hazrat."
In Islamic mysticism, a pīr's role is to instruct his disciples on the mystical path. Hence, the key difference between the use of walī and pīr is that the former does not imply a saint, a spiritual master with disciples, whilst the latter directly does so through its connotations of "elder." Additionally, other Arabic and Persian words that often have the same connotations as pīr, hence are sometimes translated into English as "saint", include murshid and sarkar. In the Turkish Islamic lands, saints have been referred to by many terms, including the Arabic walī, the Persian s̲h̲āh and pīr, Turkish alternatives like baba in Anatolia, ata in Central Asia, as well as eren or ermis̲h̲ or yati̊r in Anatolia, their tombs, are "denoted by terms of Arabic or Persian origin alluding to the idea of pilgrimage (mazār
The Aissawa is a religious and mystical brotherhood founded in Meknes, Morocco, by Sheikh al-Kamil Mohamed al-Hadi ben Issa, best known as the Shaykh Al-Kamil, or "Perfect Sufi Master". The terms Aissawiyya and Aissawa, derive from the name of the founder, designate the brotherhood and its disciples, they are known for their spiritual music, which comprises songs of religious psalms, characterized by the use of the oboe ghaita accompanied by percussion using polyrhythm. Complex ceremonies, which use symbolic dances to bring the participants to ecstatic trance, are held by the Aissawa in private during domestic ritual nights, in public during celebrations of national festivals as well as during folk performances or religious festivities, such as Ramadan, or mawlid, the "birth of the Prophet." These are organized by the Algerian States. Some details regarding Ben Issa remain unknown, he has a controversial genealogy and a hagiography that projects the image of a Sufi master and legendary ascetic of considerable spiritual influence.
Ben Issa built his own mausoleum in Zaouia in the city of Meknes. This is now a destination for his modern followers to visit and pray while participating in individual or collective acts of piety. Ben Issa was initiated into Sufism by three masters of the tariqa Shadhiliyya/Jazuliyya: Abu al-Abbas Ahmad Al-Hariti, Abdelaziz al-Tebaa and Muhammad as-Saghir as-Sahli; the spiritual doctrine of the Issawa follows the earlier mystical tradition of the tariqa Shadhiliyya/Jazuliyya. This religious teaching first appeared in 15th century Marrakesh and is the most orthodox mystical method to appear in the western region of North Africa known as the Maghreb. Issawa disciples are taught to follow the instruction of their founder by adhering to Sunni Islam and practising additional psalms including the long prayer known as "Glory to the Eternal"; the original Issawa doctrine makes no mention of ecstatic or ritual exercises such as music and dance. The Zaouia or monastery in Meknes is the main spiritual centre of the Issawa brotherhood.
Founded by Muhammad Ben Issa at the end of the 15th century, construction resumed three centuries under sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah. Renovated by the Ministry for Habous and Islamic Affairs and maintained by the municipal services, this is the center of the brotherhood's international network; the site is open to the public all year round and is the location of the tombs of founder Shiekh al-Kamil, his disciple Abu ar-Rawayil, the alleged son of the founder, Issa Al-Mehdi. Issawa's international growth began in the 18th century. From Morocco, it has spawned organizations in Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Iraq. Outside of these countries, Issawi practice without immediate access to Issawa institutions, as in France, Italy, the Netherlands, the USA and Canada. There is a building movement in the United States, focused in Chicago. Theoretically, the brotherhood's network is led from the mother-monastery in Meknes by direct biological descendants of Muhammad Ben Issa; the leader is Sidi Allal al-Issawi, a teacher and member of the League of Oulemas of Morocco and Senegal, as well as a poet and historian.
In Morocco, the brotherhood – the musicians together with their rituals and music – enjoy a particular vogue. The basic cell of the religious order in Morocco is the team, which takes the form of a traditional musical orchestra with twenty to fifty disciples. Since a decision taken in the 17th century by the mother-monastery, groups of musicians are placed under the authority of a delegate. There are orchestras of the brotherhood across Morocco, but they are numerous in the towns of Fes and Meknes, under the authority of the master Haj Azedine Bettahi, a well-known Sufi musician; as leader of the muqaddem-s, Haj Azedine Bettahi has under his authority the following individuals: Haj Mohamed Ben Bouhama Haj Muhammad'Azzam Haj Said El Guissy Haj Said Berrada Abdeljelil Al Aouam'Abdelatif Razini'Adnan Chouni'Omar'Alawi'Abou Lhaz Muhammad'Abdallah Yaqoubi Muhammad Ben Hammou Haj Hussein Lbaghmi Idriss Boumaza Haj'Abdelhak Khaldun Muhammad Ben Chabou Mohcine Arafa Bricha Moustafa Barakat Nabil Ben Slimane Hassan Amrani Youssef'Alami Youssef Semlali'Abdellah al-Mrabet Benaissa Ghouali Djamel Sahli Nadjib Mekdia Lounis Ghazali Djamel Blidi Essaid Haddadou Mustapha Ben Ouahchia Hadj Ali Al Badawi Cheikhuna Hakim Meftah Al Bedri Abdelillah BerrahmaAll Issawa groups lead ceremonies that mix mystical invocation with exorcisms and trance-inducing group dances.
In Morocco, the ceremonies of the Issawa brotherhood take the form of domestic nightly rituals, organized by Imam Shiekh Boulila, at the request of women sympathizers. Women are the principal customers of the orchestras of the brotherhood in Morocco; as the Aissawa are supposed to bring to people blessings, reasons for organizing a ceremony are varied and include celebration of a Muslim festivity, birth, circumcision, or exorcism, the search for a cure for illness or to make contact with the divine through the extase. Rituals have standardized phases among all the Aissawa orchestras; these include mystical recitations of Sufi litanies and the singing of spiritual poems along with exorcisms, collective dances. Ludic aspects of the ceremony are attested to by the participants' laughter and dances, alongside ecstatic emo