Mount Santubong is a mountain in the Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is located about 35 km north of the state capital Kuching, mount Santubong lies within a gazetted national park of the same name. Entry to the park is now via the temporary Sarawak Forestry Corporation park headquarter entrance, the issue of custodian of park entry has now been put to rest by the relevant authorities National Parks of Sarawak, by Hans P. Hazebroek, Abang Kashim bin Abang Morshidi. The Encyclopedia of Malaysia, ISBN 981-3018-47-X, on the Law Which Has Regulated the Introduction of New Species. AR Wallace travelog to Borneo and the Malay World, satellite image from Google Earth Sarawak Tourism page on the mountain A song about the two princesses, with translations
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres. The areas importance largely results from one-third of the worlds shipping sailing through its waters, the sea and its mostly uninhabited islands are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries. These claims are reflected in the variety of names used for the islands. South China Sea is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and this name is a result of early European interest in the sea as a route from Europe and South Asia to the trading opportunities of China. In the sixteenth century Portuguese sailors called it the China Sea, the International Hydrographic Organization refers to the sea as South China Sea. The Classic of Poetry, Zuo Zhuan, and Guoyu classics of the Spring and Autumn period referred to the sea, Nan Hai, the South Sea, was one of the Four Seas of Chinese literature.
There are three other seas, one for each of the four cardinal directions, during the Eastern Han dynasty, Chinas rulers called the Sea Zhang Hai. Fei Hai became popular during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, usage of the current Chinese name, Nan Hai, became gradually widespread during the Qing Dynasty. In Southeast Asia it was called the Champa Sea or Sea of Cham. The majority of the sea came under Japanese naval control during World War II following the acquisition of many surrounding South East Asian territories in 1941. Japan calls the sea Minami Shina Kai South China Sea and this was written 南支那海 until 2004, when the Japanese Foreign Ministry and other departments switched the spelling 南シナ海, which has become the standard usage in Japan. In China, it is called the South Sea, 南海 Nánhǎi, in Malaysia and the Philippines, it was long called the South China Sea, with the part within Philippine territorial waters often called the Luzon Sea, Dagat Luzon, by the Philippines. However, following an escalation of the Spratly Islands dispute in 2011, a PAGASA spokesperson said that the sea to the east of the Philippines will continue to be called the Philippine Sea.
In September 2012, Philippine President Benigno Aquino III signed Administrative Order No, states and territories with borders on the sea include, the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China, the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia and Vietnam. Major rivers that flow into the South China Sea include the Pearl, Jiulong, Mekong, Pahang, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the South China Sea as follows, On the South. From Fuki Kaku the North point of Formosa to Kiushan Tao on to the South point of Haitan Tao, the Mainland, the Southern limit of the Gulf of Thailand and the East coast of the Malay Peninsula. The sea lies above a drowned continental shelf, during recent ice ages global sea level was hundreds of metres lower, the South China Sea opened around 45 million years ago when the Dangerous Ground rifted away from southern China. Extension culminated in seafloor spreading around 30 million years ago, a process that propagated to the SW resulting in the V-shaped basin we see today, extension ceased around 17 million years ago
The Sarawak River is a river in Sarawak, Malaysia. It is an important source of water and transportation for the inhabitants in southwestern Sarawak and it is used in water-related sport activities such as the annual Sarawak Regatta which attract tourists from all over the world. The Astana, the residence of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sarawak. It runs around Holiday Inn Kuching and Riverbank Suites apartement near the river, the Sarawak River Cruise runs around it. Sungai Sarawak Regulation Scheme MacKinnon K, Hatta G, Halim H, Mangalik A.1998
Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace OM FRS was a British naturalist, geographer and biologist. He is best known for conceiving the theory of evolution through natural selection. This prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in On the Origin of Species and he was considered the 19th centurys leading expert on the geographical distribution of animal species and is sometimes called the father of biogeography. Wallace was one of the leading thinkers of the 19th century. Wallace was strongly attracted to unconventional ideas and his advocacy of spiritualism and his belief in a non-material origin for the higher mental faculties of humans strained his relationship with some members of the scientific establishment. Aside from scientific work, he was a social activist who was critical of what he considered to be an unjust social and his interest in natural history resulted in his being one of the first prominent scientists to raise concerns over the environmental impact of human activity. Since its publication in 1869 it has never been out of print, Wallace had financial difficulties throughout much of his life.
Alfred Wallace was born in the Welsh village of Llanbadoc, near Usk and he was the seventh of nine children of Thomas Vere Wallace and Mary Anne Greenell. Mary Anne was English, Thomas Wallace was probably of Scottish ancestry and his family, like many Wallaces, claimed a connection to William Wallace, a leader of Scottish forces during the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 13th century. Thomas Wallace graduated in law, but never practised law and he owned some income-generating property, but bad investments and failed business ventures resulted in a steady deterioration of the familys financial position. His mother was from a middle-class English family from Hertford, north of London, when Wallace was five years old, his family moved to Hertford. There he attended Hertford Grammar School until financial difficulties forced his family to him in 1836. Wallace moved to London to board with his older brother John and this was a stopgap measure until William, his oldest brother, was ready to take him on as an apprentice surveyor.
While in London, Alfred attended lectures and read books at the London Mechanics Institute, here he was exposed to the radical political ideas of the Welsh social reformer Robert Owen and of Thomas Paine. He left London in 1837 to live with William and work as his apprentice for six years, at the end of 1839, they moved to Kington, near the Welsh border, before eventually settling at Neath in Glamorgan in Wales. Between 1840 and 1843, Wallace did land surveying work in the countryside of the west of England, by the end of 1843, Williams business had declined due to difficult economic conditions, and Wallace, at the age of 20, left in January. One result of Wallaces early travels is a controversy about his nationality. Since Wallace was born in Monmouthshire, some sources have considered him to be Welsh, one Wallace scholar has stated that the most reasonable interpretation is therefore that he was an Englishman born in Wales
Labuan /ləˈbuːən/, officially the Federal Territory of Labuan, is a federal territory of Malaysia. It is made up of the eponymous Labuan Island and six smaller islands and it is a tourist destination for people travelling through Sabah, nearby Bruneians and scuba divers. The name Labuan derives from the Malay word labuhan which means harbour, Labuan is often referred to as the pearl of Borneo. Since the 15th century, the north and west coast of Borneo including the island of Labuan was part of the Bruneian Empire, in the 18th century, Labuan attracted British interest. James Brooke acquired the island for Britain in 1846 through the Treaty of Labuan with the Sultan of Brunei, the main reason why the British possessed the island was to protect their own interest in the region as a naval base and to suppress piracy in the South China Sea. The British believed the island could be the next Singapore, the island became a Crown Colony in 1848 with James Brooke appointed as the first governor and commander-in-chief, with William Napier as his lieutenant-governor.
In 1849, the Eastern Archipelago Company became the first of several British companies to try to exploit Labuan coal deposits, the company was formed to exploit coal deposits on the island and adjacent coast of Borneo but soon became involved in a dispute with James Brooke. Not proving itself a great commercial or strategic asset, administration of Labuan was handed to the British North Borneo Company in 1890. In 1894, a communications cable was built by the British to link the islands communications with North Borneo, Singapore. By 30 October 1906, the British Government proposed to extend the boundaries of the Straits Settlements to include Labuan, the proposal took effect from 1 January 1907. In World War II, Labuan was occupied by Japan from December 1941 until June 1945, the island served as the administrative centre for the Japanese forces. As the Allied counter-attack came closer, the Japanese developed Labuan, Labuan became the main objective for the Allied forces to repossess. Soon, the 9th Division of the Australian Army launched the attack with support from airstrikes, most of the Labuan island area including the main town of Victoria was under the control of Allied forces within four days of the landing on 10 June.
The name of Labuan was restored by the British and the island was administered under the British Military Administration together with the rest of the Straits Settlements. Labuan on 15 July 1946 joined the North Borneo Crown Colony, in 1984, the Government of Sabah ceded Labuan to the federal government which been accessed to a federal territory. It was declared an international financial centre and free trade zone in 1990. A post office was operating in Labuan by 1864, and used a date stamp as postmark. The postage stamps of India and Hong Kong were used on some mail, from 1867, Labuan officially used the postage stamps of the Straits Settlements but began issuing its own in May 1879
The earliest anatomically modern humans skeleton in Peninsular Malaysia, Perak Man, dates back 11,000 years and Perak Woman dating back 8,000 years, were both discovered in Lenggong. The site has a stone tool production area, created using equipment such as anvils. The Tambun Cave paintings are situated in Perak. From East Malaysia, Sarawaks Niah Caves, there is evidence of the oldest human remains in Malaysia, Niah Caves in Sarawak is an important prehistoric site where human remains dating to ca.40,000 years ago have been found. Archeologists have claimed a much earlier date for stone tools found in the Mansuli valley, near Lahad Datu in Sabah, archaeological finds from the Lenggong valley in Perak show that people were making stone tools and using jewellery. The archaeological data from this come from cave and rock shelter sites. It is believed that Neolithic farmers made their entrance in this region between 3–4000 years ago, more people arrived, including new tribes and seafarers. The Malay Peninsula became the crossroads in maritime trades of the ancient age, seafarers who came to Malaysias shores included Indians, peoples of the Middle East and Chinese.
Ptolemy named the Malay Peninsula the Golden Chersonese, the population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change – the effects of the drowning of an ancient continent. A2009 genetic study published by the 2009 Human Genome Organization Pan-Asian SNP Consortium found that Asia was originally settled by humans via a southern route. The migration came from Africa via India, into Southeast Asia and what are now islands in the Pacific, genetic similarities were found between populations throughout Asia and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Oppenheimer locates the origin of the Austronesians in Sundaland and its upper regions. The theory of the Proto Malay people originating from Yunnan is supported by R. H Geldern, J. H. C Kern, J. R Foster, J. R Logen and Asmah Haji Omar. The Proto Malay who first arrived had agricultural skills while the second wave Deutero Malay who arrived around 1500 BC to dwell along the coastlines had advanced fishery skills.
During the migration, both groups intermarried with peoples of the islands, such as those from Java, and with aboriginal peoples of Australoid, Negrito. Other evidences that support this include, Stone tools found in the Malay archipelago are analogous to Central Asian tools. Similarities between Malay customs and Assamese customs, the Malay language and the Cambodian language are kindred languages because the ancestral home of Cambodians was near the source of the Mekong River. According to Kedah Annals, Kadaram was founded by Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gemeron, Persia around 630 CE, the other Malay literature, Sejarah Melayu too alleged that they were the descendants of Alexander The Great
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. The capital city is Kuala Lumpur, while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government, with a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia, located in the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries on earth, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms present in the area which, from the 18th century, the first British territories were known as the Straits Settlements, whose establishment was followed by the Malay kingdoms becoming British protectorates. The territories on Peninsular Malaysia were first unified as the Malayan Union in 1946, Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and achieved independence on 31 August 1957.
Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia, less than two years in 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a role in politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians. The constitution declares Islam the state religion while allowing freedom of religion for non-Muslims, the government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the prime minister, since its independence, Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6. 5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, commerce.
Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked third largest in Southeast Asia, the name Malaysia is a combination of the word Malay and the Latin-Greek suffix -sia/-σία. The word melayu in Malay may derive from the Tamil words malai and ur meaning mountain and city, malayadvipa was the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word melayu or mlayu may have used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to steadily accelerate or run. This term was applied to describe the current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra
The Baram River is a river in Sarawak on the island of Borneo. The river originates in the Kelabit Highlands, a watershed demarcated by the Iran Mountains of East Kalimantan, the river flows westwards through tropical rainforest to the South China Sea. The river is crossed not far from its mouth by the Miri-Baram Highway, Federal Route, some 100 km upstream lies the town of Marudi. During the Pleistocene epoch or Mesolithic period about 10,000 years ago, at mountaintops, rainfall as snow and accumulated as huge icy sheets, thus making a break in the global hydrological cycle. Due to lack of water discharge into the sea, there was a 120-meter drop of sea levels from the present time, the South China Sea dried up, exposing the Sunda Shelf and previous deep trenches became huge ancient rivers called the North Sunda River. Asian Mainland, Malay Peninsular and Java became connected to Borneo via the landbridge of exposed Sunda Shelf, freshwater catfishes and barbs from those rivers migrated and mated to exchange their genetic materials about 10,000 years ago.
Thus, after the Holocene, when the increased, the landbridges and Sunda River were inudated. However, their motives are still in the DNA as an evidence of the previous connections of Baram River to other isolated rivers in Indochina. Sarawak government website WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative