USS Glacier (AF-4)
USS Glacier was a Glacier-class stores ship acquired by the U. S. Navy for use in the Spanish–American War, she served again during World War I in the dangerous North Atlantic Ocean, delivering general goods and ammunition to American Expeditionary Force troops in Europe. The first Navy ship to be named Glacier was built as the merchant ship, SS Port Chalmers in 1891 by J. L. Thompson & Son, England. J. P. Merrill, USN, commanding. Glacier departed Hampton Roads 15 August, for the following 5 months she supplied ice and stores to ships of the North Atlantic Fleet operating in the West Indies during the Spanish–American War. Sailing from San Juan, Puerto Rico, 3 January 1899, she arrived at New York 1 week and decommissioned there 6 March. Glacier recommissioned at New York 31 March 1899, assigned to the Asiatic Station, she stood out of Hampton Roads 24 May and arrived 15 July at Manila Bay via the Mediterranean and Suez Canal. Operating in the Philippines during these troubled years, she supplied U.
S. Army and Navy forces with ice and stores. Sailing out of Manila Bay 22 April 1903, Glacier arrived at Norfolk, Virginia, 29 June, decommissioned there 1 August. Recommissioning there 15 December, she loaded supplies and provisions at New York and delivered her cargo to ships at Guantanamo, Pensacola and the Panama Canal Zone. Arriving at Boston, Massachusetts, 17 July, Glacier decommissioned there on the 30th and, following repairs, recommissioned 15 September and fitted out for special duty. Glacier became a unit of the Special Service Squadron composed of Brutus and Potomac, assigned to tow the floating dry dock Dewey from Sparrows Point, Maryland, to the Philippines. Departing Solomons, Maryland, on the Patuxent River 28 December 1905, the squadron arrived at Olongapo, via Las Palmas in the Canaries, Port Said and Singapore, 10 July 1906. Following delivery of the dock, Glacier proceeded to Cavite for discharge of cargo and repairs, she stood out of Cavite 16 August, arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, 14 November via the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean, New York.
Departing Boston 4 January 1907, Glacier became a unit of the Atlantic Fleet, engaged in supplying fresh provisions to ships operating in the Atlantic and Caribbean area until returning to New York 14 October. As a storeship, she departed New York 5 December and accompanied the Atlantic Fleet on its good will and training cruise to the Pacific, stopping at various ports in the Caribbean, South America, Mexico en route. Arriving 14 April 1908 at San Francisco, Glacier cruised with the fleet on the California coast until departing San Francisco, California, 29 June, she continued as supply ship to the Atlantic Fleet on its famous voyage around the world, visiting Honolulu, the Fiji Islands, New Zealand and the Philippines. On 21 October, while at Cavite, she became detached from the Atlantic Fleet and assigned to the Pacific Fleet in her former capacity; the Commander in Chief of the Atlantic Fleet reports in 1908: "The storeships Culogoa and Glacier have been in constant attendance on the fleet, have most met all demands upon them.
They have made the fleet independent of the local resources at the ports visited, necessary in view of the large number of men to be subsisted."Loading provisions at Manila and Sydney, Glacier joined the U. S. Pacific Fleet at Talcahuano, Chile, 1 January 1909, accompanied the fleet on a cruise to South and Central American ports and to Magdalena Bay, they arrived at Mare Island 2 June for repairs. Continuing in her service as supply ship to the Pacific Fleet until 1918, Glacier was employed in delivering fresh provisions, ammunition, target material, mail, her principal area of operations was on the U. S. West Coast and Central America, she made two trips to Asiatic waters to supply ships operating in the Hawaiian area, the Philippines, the China and Japan coasts. From 1913 to 1917 she operated between California and Mexico and Nicaragua, delivering stores and men to the Fleet, investigating conditions at Mexican ports, giving refuge to United States and other foreign citizens during the unsettled conditions in Mexico.
She loaded stores, fresh meats, ammunition at San Francisco 9 to 14 May 1917, arrived 30 June at Rio de Janeiro and, through March 1918, delivered her cargo to ships operating on the east coast of South America. Departing Rio de Janeiro 2 April, Glacier arrived at New York on the 24th, became assigned to NOTS; as a Naval Overseas Transport Ship, she made three trips to Europe carrying fresh meats and general stores to naval forces operating in European waters. The first two trips were made from New York to the British Isles, 2 June-26 July 1918 and 13 August-20 October 1918, the third trip from New York to Brest, 4 November 1918 – 4 January 1919, returning to Norfolk, with a cargo of aviation material and high explosives for New York. Standing in at New York 10 January 1919, she was detached from NOTS and assigned to the Train Squadron, Atlantic Fleet. From 6 May to 25 June 1919, she issued stores to the Atlantic Fleet and engaged in target practice with the fleet on the East Coast. Glacier departed New York 24 July, arrived 17 August at
The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was designed like other types of cruisers to operate as a long-range, independent warship, capable of defeating any ship apart from a battleship and fast enough to outrun any battleship it encountered. Varying in size, it was distinguished from other types of cruiser by its belt armor—thick iron plating on much of the hull to protect the ship from shellfire much like that on battleships; the first armored cruiser, the Imperial Russian Navy's General-Admiral, was launched in 1873 and combined sail and steam propulsion. By the 1890s cruisers took on a modern appearance. For many decades naval technology had not advanced far enough for designers to produce a cruiser which combined an armored belt with the long range and high speed required to fulfill its mission, it was possible to build cruisers which were faster and better all-round using this type of ship, which relied on a lighter armored deck to protect the vital parts of the ship.
The invention of face-hardened armor in the mid-1890s offered effective protection with less weight than previously. In 1908 the armored cruiser was supplanted by the battlecruiser which, with armament equivalent to that of a dreadnought battleship and steam turbine engines, was faster and more powerful than armored cruisers. At around the same time, the term "light cruiser" came into use for small cruisers with armored belts. Despite the fact they were now considered second-class ships, armored cruisers were used in World War I. Most surviving armored cruisers from this conflict were scrapped under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, which imposed limits on warships and defined a cruiser as a ship of 10,000 tons or less carrying guns of 8-inch caliber or less—rather smaller than many of the large armored cruisers. A handful survived in one form or another until World War II; the armored cruiser was developed in the 1870s as an attempt to combine the virtues of the armored ironclad warship and the fast and long-ranged, but unarmored, cruisers of the time.
Such a ship was desirable to protect overseas trade and for the French and British, to police their vast overseas empires. The concern within higher naval circles was that without ships that could fulfill these requirements and incorporate new technology, their fleet would become obsolete and ineffective should a war at sea arise. Concern over obsolescence in official circles was further fueled by the race between the increasing size of naval guns and of armor strong enough to withstand such fire. In 1860, one of the largest naval cannons in standard use had a bore of 8 inches and fired a 68-pound solid shot or 51 pound spherical shell. By 1884, guns with as wide a bore as 16.25 inches, firing an 1,800-pound exploding shell, were being mounted on naval vessels. This gun could penetrate up to 34 inches of the earliest form of naval armor; these were muzzle-loading guns. Breech-loading cannon, which were readopted into naval use in the 1870s, were more destructive than muzzle loaders due to their higher rate of fire.
The development of rifled cannon, which improved accuracy, advancements in shells were other factors. Although a cruiser would not face the largest-caliber guns of a battleship and many navies used smaller weapons as they did not wear out as fast as larger ones did, cruisers still needed some form of protection to preclude being shot to pieces; the adoption of rolled iron armor in 1865 and sandwich armor in 1870 gave ships a chance to withstand fire from larger guns. Both these protective schemes used wood as an important component, which made them heavy and limited speed, the key factor in a cruiser's ability to perform its duties satisfactorily. While the first ocean-going ironclads had been launched around 1860, the "station ironclads" built for long-range colonial service such as the British Audacious class and French Belliqueuse were too slow, at 13 and 11 knots to raid enemy commerce or hunt down enemy commerce raiders, tasks assigned to frigates or corvettes. Powered by both sail and steam but without the additional weight of armor, these ships could reach speeds of up to 16 or 17 knots.
The most powerful among them were the British Inconstant, the U. S. Navy's the French Duquesne; the British had hoped to rely on these vessels to serve the more distant reaches of its empire. In the aftermath of the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, where United States wooden warships were defeated by the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia, the Admiralty realized that its ships could theoretically encounter an ironclad in any theater of operation. Ship propulsion was improving but was taking time to develop. Naval engines in the 1860s were single-expansion types, in which steam was expanded into a cylinder, pushed a piston and was released. Compounding, where steam is passed through a series of cylinders of increasing size before being released, was a more efficient process. With greater efficiency came complex machinery and the larger potential for breakdown. However, advances in metallurgy and engineering, the potential for smaller bunkerage and the successful use of compounding in commercial engines made it an attractive option for naval engines, as well.
By the 1870s, compound engines had become standard for warships. Compound
China Relief Expedition Medal
The China Relief Expedition Medal was a decoration of the United States military, issued to members of both the United States Navy and the United States Marines for service in the China Relief Expedition between 1900 and 1901 during the Boxer Rebellion. The medal was authorized by General Orders of the Department of the Navy on June 27, 1908. General Order 81 established the medal authorized for Naval personnel while General Order 82 authorized the medal for the Marine Corps. To be awarded the China Relief Expedition Medal, a service member was required to perform duty within the borders of China as part of the China Relief Expedition; the eligibility dates of the China Relief Expedition Medal were from May 24, 1900 to May 17, 1901. The medal was issued as a one time award and there were no devices authorized for multiple bestowals; the United States Army equivalent of the China Relief Expedition Medal was the China Campaign Medal. A similar medal, known as the China Service Medal was authorized by the Navy in 1941.
The ribbon of the Navy and Marine Corps version of the medal bore a yellow and black motif. The colors were changed in 1915 to yellow and blue to correspond with those of the U. S. Army medal issued for similar service; the first 400 medals struck bear the date "1901." The die in use became replaced with a re-engraved die. This one, had the date "1900" which appears on all subsequent copies. List of military decorations Awards and decorations of the United States military "China Relief Expeditionary Medal". Naval Historical Center. 13 June 1998. Retrieved 2007-10-17
The protected cruiser is a type of naval cruiser of the late 19th century, so known because its armoured deck offered protection for vital machine spaces from fragments caused by exploding shells above. Protected cruisers are similar to armoured cruisers, which had a belt of armour along the sides. From the late 1850s, navies began to replace their fleets of wooden ships-of-the-line with armoured ironclad warships. However, the frigates and sloops which performed the missions of scouting, commerce raiding and trade protection remained unarmoured. For several decades, it proved difficult to design a ship which had a meaningful amount of protective armour but at the same time was capable of the speed and range required of a'cruising warship'; the first attempts to do so, armoured cruisers like HMS Shannon, proved to be unsatisfactory being too slow for their cruiser role. During the 1870s, the increasing power of armour-piercing guns made armouring the sides of a ship more and more difficult, as thick, heavy armour plates were required.
If armour dominated the design of the ship, it was that the next generation of guns would be able to pierce it. The alternative was to leave the sides of the ship vulnerable, but to armour a deck just below the waterline. Since this deck would only be struck obliquely by shells, it could be less thick and heavy than belt armour; the ship could be designed so that the engines and magazines were under the armoured deck, with enough displacement to keep the ship afloat and stable in the event of damage. Cruisers with armoured decks and no side armour became known as protected cruisers, eclipsed the armoured cruisers in popularity in the 1880s and into the 1890s. Shannon was the first warship to incorporate an armoured deck. However, Shannon principally relied on her vertical citadel armour for protection. By the end of the 1870s ships could be found with full-length armoured decks and little or no side armour; the Italian Italia class of fast battleships had armoured decks and guns but no side armour.
The British used a full-length armoured deck in their Comus class of corvettes started in 1878. The breakthrough for the protected cruiser design came with the Chilean cruiser Esmeralda and built by the British firm Armstrong, at their Elswick yard. Esmeralda had a high speed of 18 knots, an armament of two 10in and six 6in guns, her protection scheme, inspired by the Italia class, included a full-length protected deck up to 2in thick, a cork-filled cofferdam along her sides. Esmeralda set the tone for cruiser construction for the years to come, with "Elswick cruisers" on a similar design being constructed for Italy, Japan, Argentina and the United States; the French Navy adopted the protected cruiser wholeheartedly in the 1880s. The Jeune École school of thought, which proposed a navy composed of fast cruisers for commerce raiding and torpedo-boats for coast defence, was influential in France; the first French protected cruiser was the Sfax, laid down in 1882, followed by six classes of protected cruiser – and no armoured cruisers.
The Royal Navy was equivocal about which protection scheme to use until 1887. The large Imperieuse class, begun in 1881 and finished in 1886, were built as armoured cruisers but were referred to as protected cruisers. While they carried an armoured belt some 10 in thick, the belt only covered 140 ft of the 315 ft length of the ship, the belt was submerged below the waterline at full load; the real protection of the class came from the armoured deck 4 in thick, the arrangement of coal bunkers to prevent flooding. These ships were the last armoured cruisers to be designed with sails. However, on trials it became clear that the sails did more harm than good; the masts and rigging were removed and replaced with a single military mast with machine guns. The next class of small cruisers in the Royal Navy, the Mersey class, were protected cruisers, but the Royal Navy returned to the armoured cruiser with the Orlando class, begun in 1885 and completed in 1889. However, in 1887 an assessment of the Orlando type judged them inferior to the protected cruisers and thereafter the Royal Navy only built protected cruisers for large first-class cruiser designs, returning to armoured cruisers only in the late 1890s with the Cressy class, laid down in 1898.
The sole major naval power to retain a preference for armoured cruisers during the 1880s was Russia. The Russian Navy laid down four armoured cruisers and one protected cruiser during the decade, all large ships with sails. Around 1910, armour plate began to increase in quality and steam turbine engines and more powerful than previous reciprocating engines, came into use. Existing protected cruisers became obsolete as they were slower and less well protected than new ships. Oil fired boilers were introduced, making side bunkers of coal unnecessary but losing the protection they afforded. Protected cruisers were replaced by "light armoured cruisers" with a side armoured belt and armoured decks instead of the single deck developed into heavy cruisers; the first protected cruiser of the United States Navy's "New Navy" was USS Atlanta, launched in October 1884, soon followed by USS Boston in December, USS Chicago a year later. A numbered series of cruisers began with Newark, although Charleston was the first to be launched, in July 1888, ending with another Charleston, Cruiser No.
22, launched in 1904. The last survivor of this series is
USS Cleveland (C-19)
USS Cleveland was a United States Navy Denver-class protected cruiser. She was launched 28 September 1901 by Bath Iron Works, Maine, sponsored by "Miss R. Hanna", commissioned 2 November 1903, with Commander William Henry Hudson Southerland in command; the Cleveland cruised with the European Squadron, in West Indies and Cuban waters, along the east coast between Hampton Roads and Boston, on a midshipmen training cruise until 17 May 1907. She sailed from New York via Gibraltar, Port Said, Aden and Singapore to Cavite, arriving 1 August 1907. After three years on the Asiatic station, the Cleveland returned to Mare Island Navy Yard 1 August 1910. Decommissioned 3 August 1910, she was placed in second reserve 8 April 1912, returned to full commission 31 August 1912; the Cleveland alternated patrols in waters off Mexico and Central America with reserve periods at Mare Island Navy Yard between 1912 and 1917, protecting American lives and interests from the turmoil of revolution. On 31 March 1917, she arrived at Hampton Roads, from 9 April to 22 June, patrolled from Cape Hatteras to Charleston.
Assigned to escort convoys to a mid-ocean meeting point, the Cleveland made seven voyages between June 1917 and December 1918. Returning to patrols off Central and South America, the Cleveland was assigned to the Pacific Fleet once more from 16 February 1920, returning to Caribbean waters from time to time, she was reclassified CL-21 on 8 August 1921. During her continued service in the Caribbean and along the South American coasts, the Cleveland made courtesy calls, supported diplomatic activities, gave disaster relief, represented American interests in troubled areas, she was decommissioned at Boston 1 November 1929, sold for scrapping 7 March 1930 in accordance with the Washington Naval Treaty limiting naval armament. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS CLEVELAND at NavSource Naval History
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
Indian Campaign Medal
The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration established by War Department General Orders 12, 1907. The medal was retroactively awarded to any soldier of the U. S. Army who had participated in the American Indian Wars against the Native Americans between 1865 and 1891. A; the Indian Campaign Medal was established by War Department General Orders 12 in 1907. It was created at the same time as the Civil War Campaign Medal. B; the initial ribbon was all red. C. Campaign streamers of the same design as the service ribbon are authorised for display by units receiving campaign credit participation for Indian Wars as early as 1790; the inscriptions for streamers displayed on the organizational flag will be as indicated in the unit's lineage and honors. The inscriptions for the 14 streamers displayed on the Army flag are listed in AR 840-10 and AR 600-8-22; the Code of Federal Regulations declares service in the following campaigns as requirements for award of the Indian Campaign Medal: Southern Oregon, northern California, Nevada between 1865 and 1868.
Against the Comanches and confederate tribes in Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Indian Territory between 1867 and 1875. Modoc War between 1872 and 1873. Against the Apaches in Arizona in 1873. Against the Northern Cheyennes and Sioux between 1876 and 1877. Nez Perce War in 1877. Bannock War in 1878. Against the Northern Cheyennes between 1878 and 1879. Against the Sheep-Eaters and Bannocks between June and October, 1879. Against the Utes in Colorado and Utah between September 1879 and November 1880. Against the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico between 1885 and 1886. Against the Sioux in South Dakota between November 1890 and January 1891. Against hostile Indians in any other action in which United States troops were killed or wounded between 1865 and 1891; the Code of Federal Regulations describes the medal as follows: The medal of bronze is 11⁄4 inches in diameter. On the obverse is a mounted Indian facing sinister, wearing a war bonnet, carrying a spear in his right hand. Above the horseman are the words ‘‘Indian Wars,’’ and below, on either side of a buffalo skull, the circle is completed by arrowheads, conventionally arranged.
On the reverse is a trophy, composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kriss. Below the trophy are the words ‘‘For Service.’’ The whole is surrounded by a circle composed of the words ‘‘United States Army’’ in the upper half and thirteen stars in the lower half. The medal is suspended by a ring from a silk moire ribbon 13⁄8inches in length and 13⁄8 inches in width composed of a red stripe, black stripe, red band, black stripe, red stripe; the Indian Campaign Medal was issued as a one-time decoration only and there were no devices or service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple actions. The only attachment authorized to the medal was the silver citation star, awarded for meritorious or heroic conduct; the silver citation star was the predecessor of the Silver Star and was awarded to eleven soldiers between 1865 and 1891. Awards and decorations of the United States military U.
S. military history: Indian conflicts, battles and campaigns "Named Campaigns – Indian Wars". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 13 December 2005. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Indian Campaign Medal