Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Its most important representatives include the Carracci family, including Ludovico Carracci, and his two cousins, the brothers Agostino Carracci and Annibale Carracci. Certain artistic conventions, which time became traditionalist, had been developed in Rome during the first decades of the 16th century. As time passed, some artists sought new approaches to their work that no longer reflected only the Roman manner and this style was seen as both systematic and imitative, borrowing particular motifs from the past Roman schools of art and innovating a modernistic approach. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, Volume 4 pp 394-481, francis P. Smyth and John P. ONeill (Editors in Chief. National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, ed, the Age of Correggio and the Carracci, Emilian Painting of the 16th and 17th Centuries
Tommaso da Modena
Tomaso Barisini, better known as Tommaso da Modena and sometimes called Tomaso Baffini was an Italian painter of the mid-14th century. Tommaso trained in Venice and worked mostly in Northern Italy, in Karlstein Castle, two pictures on wood are attributed to him, an Ecce Homo and a Madonna. A St Catherine is in the Gallerie dellAccademia in Venice, perhaps Tommasos most important work was done in Treviso. The work is in the room of the former Dominican convent of San Nicolo at Treviso. The portrait of Saint-Cher is the earliest known depiction of a person wearing spectacles, ralph Nicholson Wornum, ed. Biographical catalogue of the principal Italian painters. Woodfall & Kinder, Angel Court, Skinner Street, Digitized by Googlebooks from Oxford University copy on Jun 27,2006
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and these are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014,264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC, the city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the La Dominante, Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Masks, City of Bridges, The Floating City, and City of Canals.
The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century and this made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period, Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016, the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean beloved, lovable, a connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color sea-blue, is possible.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia, some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae, the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the center in the area. The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, the traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Pauls magister militum. In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius, located in Numidia, Augustine is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God and Confessions, according to his contemporary, Augustine established anew the ancient Faith. In his early years, he was influenced by Manichaeism. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin, when the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City. His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview, the segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople closely identified with Augustines On the Trinity.
Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Christian Church, and he is the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death, Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses. Many Protestants, especially Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him to be one of the fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation. Lutherans, and Martin Luther in particular, have held Augustine in preeminence, Luther himself was a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites. In the East, some of his teachings are disputed and have in the 20th century in particular come under attack by such theologians as John Romanides, but other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant appropriation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine surrounding his name is the filioque, which has been rejected by the Orthodox Church, other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, and predestination.
Nevertheless, though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is considered a saint. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 28 August and he was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. Augustine was the bishop of Hippo Regius, located in Numidia and he is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God and Confessions, Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the municipium of Thagaste in Roman Africa. His mother, Monica or Monnica, was a devout Christian, in his writings, Augustine leaves some information as to the consciousness of his African heritage
A polyptych is a painting which is divided into sections, or panels. Polyptychs typically display one central or main panel that is usually the largest of the attachments, while the panels are called side panels. Sometimes, as evident in the Ghent and Isenheim works, the panels can be varied in arrangement to show different views or openings in the piece. Polyptychs were most commonly created by early Renaissance painters, the majority of which designed their works to be altarpieces in churches, the polyptych form of art was quite popular among ukiyo-e printmakers of Edo period Japan. Some medieval manuscripts are polyptychs, particularly Carolingian works, in which the columns on the page are framed with borders that resemble polyptych paintings, altar displays may form polyptychs. Dominic Polyptych by Lorenzo Lotto Media related to polyptychs at Wikimedia Commons
Lorenzo Veneziano was an Italian painter. His earliest altarpiece was painted for the altar of the church of Sant Antonio di Castello. The Accademia possesses an altar-piece by him executed in 1371 and it consisted of five panels, on which an Annunciation and six figures of saints were painted, but it is now broken up into separate works. Also by Lorenzo is Saviour Enthroned with Saints and Angels in the Museo Correr, walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical, York St. #4, Covent Garden, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell and Sons. Pope-Hennessy, John & Kanter, Laurence B, [The Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Media related to Lorenzo Veneziano at Wikimedia Commons
Vitale da Bologna
Vitale da Bologna, known as Vidolini, Vitale di Almo de Cavalli or Vitale degli Equi, was an Italian painter, of the Early Renaissance. He is a representative of the 14th century school of painting in Bologna and he was active in Pomposa, where he painted the frescoes in the apse of the Pomposa Abbey, and in Udine. He is last registered in Udine in 1369, where he is presumed to have died and his masterwork is the panel with St. George and the Dragon, held in the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna. Also notable is the Madonna dei denti
The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa. It includes major art movements and periods and regional art, revivals, the crafts. Art historians attempt to classify medieval art into major periods and styles, in addition each region, mostly during the period in the process of becoming nations or cultures, had its own distinct artistic style, such as Anglo-Saxon art or Norse art. Medieval art in Europe grew out of the heritage of the Roman Empire. These sources were mixed with the vigorous barbarian artistic culture of Northern Europe to produce an artistic legacy. Indeed, the history of art can be seen as the history of the interplay between the elements of classical, early Christian and barbarian art. The period ended with the self-perceived Renaissance recovery of the skills and values of art. Since a revival of interest and understanding in the 19th century it has seen as a period of enormous achievement that underlies the development of Western art.
Many regions did not regain their population levels until the 17th century. The population of Europe is estimated to have reached a low point of about 18 million in 650, doubling by 1000, in 1450 it was still only 50 million. To these figures, Northern Europe, especially Britain, contributed a lower proportion than today, and Southern Europe, including France, the increase in prosperity, for those who survived, was much less affected by the Black Death. Until about the 11th century most of Europe was short of labour, with large amounts of unused land. The medieval period saw the falling away of the invasions and incursions from outside the area that characterized the first millennium. The impression may be left by the works that almost all medieval art was religious. Most churches have been rebuilt, often times, but medieval palaces and large houses have been lost at a far greater rate. The situation is similar in most of Europe, though the 14th century Palais des Papes in Avignon survives largely intact.
Paper became available in the last centuries of the period, but was extremely expensive by todays standards. Art in the Middle Ages is a subject and art historians traditionally divide it in several large-scale phases, styles or periods
Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon
The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon. It is housed near place des Terreaux in a former Benedictine convent of the 17th and 18th centuries and it was restored between 1988 and 1998, and despite these important restoration works it remained open to visitors. Its collections range from ancient Egypt antiquities to the Modern art period and it hosts important exhibitions of art, recently there have been exhibitions of works by Georges Braque and Henri Laurens, one on the work of Théodore Géricault. It is one of the largest art museums in France, until 1792, the buildings belonged to the royal abbaye des Dames de Saint-Pierre, built in the 17th century. The abbess always came from the high French nobility and here received the personalities of the kingdom, the institution had a particularly aristocratic slant, as is shown by its renovation by Louis XIV of France in the 17th and 18th centuries. The rest of its current scheme was designed by Nicolas Bidaut, the expulsion of the nuns and the destruction of the église Saint-Saturnin date to the French Revolution, though the abbeys other church still exists and now houses 19th and 20th century sculptures.
After the Revolution the remaining buildings housed the Palais du Commerce et des Arts, at first made up of works confiscated from the clergy and nobility, for example, it gained archaeology and natural history collections and those of the Académie des Sciences et des Lettres. The imperial drawing school was created in 1805 in the Palais du Commerce et des Arts to provide Lyons silk factories with designers and it gave birth to the famous Lyon School. In 1860, the Chambre de Commerce left the Palais Saint-Pierre, from 1875, the museums collections underwent a major expansion and had to be expanded - the staircase by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes dates to this era. The start of the 20th century was marked by a considerable opening-up of the collections, after several restoration projects, it was in the mid-1990s that the building acquired its present scheme. The paintings department has European paintings of 14th- to mid-20th-century paintings and they are arranged chronologically and by major schools in 35 rooms.
The collection features, Ancient French painting, at the heart of the abbey, the former cloister is now a municipal garden, right in the centre of the town, on the peninsula. The highlights of the collection are its display of sarcophaguses and the gates of Ptolemy III, the rest of the objects throw light on everyday life in ancient Egypt. Room 2, The divine and its rites Along this rooms length a temples decoration is recreated, culminating with the gates of Ptolemy III, the other bas-reliefs in this room come from Koptos - eight are dated to the Middle Kingdom and come from a temple to Min. They were discovered by Adolphe Reinach in 1909 in the foundations of a late building,11 other fragments come from the end of the Ptolemaic era, and more precisely the reign of Cleopatra VII. Room 3, The cult of the divine Entered through the gate of Ptolemy IV, on the walls are shown 3 fragments of bas-reliefs from the 28th Dynasty, found in Koptos. One whole case is devoted to representations of Osiris and another to those of the pharaoh, here can be seen a head of a pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty, attributed to Nectanebo II, a Middle Kingdom bust and a scarab with the name of Amenhotep II.
Room 5, Pharaoh and his servants In one case are 18 wooden models of the 23rd Dynasty from Assiout from tombs, representing scenes from everyday life, in the opposite case are two with displays on writing and on the pharaohs servants respectively
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
In the 16th century the Mannerists Beccafumi and Il Sodoma worked there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and trained in Siena, his major works, Siena remains a remarkably well-preserved Italian late-Medieval town. Pope-Hennessy, John & Kanter, Laurence B, the Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press