Synaxarion or Synexarion is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches to a compilation of hagiographies corresponding to the martyrology of the Roman Church. There are two kinds of synaxaria: Simple synaxaria: lists of the saints arranged in the order of their anniversaries, e.g. the calendar of Morcelli Historical synaxaria: including biographical notices, e.g. the Menologion of Basil II and the synaxarium of Sirmond. The notices given in the historical synaxaria are summaries of those in the great menologies, or collections of lives of saints, for the twelve months of the year; as the lessons in the Byzantine Divine Office are the lives of saints, the Synaxarion became the collection of short lives of saints and martyrs, but of accounts of events, of famous visions seen by saints and useful narratives whose memory is kept. The exact meaning of the name has changed at various times, its first use was for the index to other lessons to be read in church.
In this sense it Comes. The Synaxarion was filled up with the whole text of the pericopes to be read; as far as the Holy Liturgy was concerned this meant that it was transformed into the "Gospel" and "Apostle" books. Synaxarion remained the title for the index to the other lessons. Without changing its name it was filled up with complete texts of these lessons; the mere index of such lessons is called menologion heortastikon, a book now hardly needed or used, since the Typikon supplies the same, as well as other, information. Certain calendars extant in the Middle Ages were called Synaxaria. Krumbacher describes those composed by Christopher of Theodore Prodromus; the oldest historical synaxaria go back to the tenth century. There are a great number of medieval Synaxaria extant in manuscript, they are important for Byzantine church history. The short lives that form the lessons were collected by various writers. Of these Symeon Metaphrastes is the most important; the accounts are of varying historical value.
Emperor Basil II ordered a revision of the Synaxarion, which forms an important element of the present official edition. The Synaxarion is not now used as a separate book; the account of the saint or feast is read in the Orthros after the sixth ode of the Canon. It is printed in its place here, bears each time the name synaxarion as title. Synaxarion in modern use means, not the whole collection, but each separate lesson in the Menaia and other books. An example of such a Synaxarion will be found in Nilles, op. cit. infra, I, xlix. The publication of the Arabic text of the synaxarion of the Coptic Orthodox Church was started by J. Forget in the Corp. script. Orient. and by R. Basset in the Patrologia Orientalis, it was written using Coptic language before the adoption of Arabic as an official language of Egypt, that of the Ethiopian synaxarion was begun by I. Guidi in the Patrologia orientalis; the Armenian synaxarion, called the Synaxarion of Ter Israel, was published at Constantinople in 1834, again in Patrologia Orientalis.
There are various Georgian synaxaria. During the Eastern Orthodox Divine Services the reading of the synaxarion will take place after the Sixth Ode of the Canon at Matins or at the Divine Liturgy; the synaxaria may be printed in a separate volume or may be included with other liturgical texts such as the Menaion or Horologion. Hagiography Paterikon Calendar of saints Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Fortescue, Adrian. "Synaxarion". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 14. New York: Robert Appleton; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hippolyte. "Synaxarium". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 292. Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Kalendarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae Online on Google Books: vol. 1. 396-434, where the terminology is explained. Introduction to The Synaxarion: The Lives of the Saints of the Orthodox Church, by Hieromonk Makarios of Simonos Petra, Mount Athos
Hegumen, hegumenos, or igumen is the title for the head of a monastery in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, similar to the title of abbot. The head of a convent of nuns is called a ihumenia; the term means "the one, in charge", "the leader" in Greek. The title was applied to the head of any monastery. After 1874, when the Russian monasteries were secularized and classified into three classes, the title of hegumen was reserved only for the lowest, third class; the head of a monastery of the second or first class holds the rank of archimandrite. In the Greek Catholic Church, the head of all monasteries in a certain territory is called the protohegumen; the duties of both hegumen and archimandrite are the same, archimandrite being considered the senior dignity of the two. In the Russian Orthodox Church the title of Hegumen may be granted as an honorary title to any hieromonk one who does not head a monastery. A ruling hegumen is formally installed in a ceremony by the bishop, during which he is presented with his pastoral staff.
Among the Russians, the pastoral staff for a Hegumen tends to be of wood, rather than metal. The hegumen is awarded the gold pectoral cross by the bishop, as for an archpriest. During divine services the hegumen wears a simple black monastic mantle, while the higher ranking archimandrite wears a mantle similar to one worn by a bishop. An archimandrite wears a mitre similar to one worn by a bishop. A hegumen may carry his pastoral staff in processions and when giving blessings in the church, although it stands upright next to his kathisma; when outside the church, a hegumen may use a wooden walking stick similar to that used by a bishop or archimandrite, only not adorned with a silver knob. In the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria the rank is used in the capacity of an archpriest and is one; the name in the Arabic is Kommos, in turn a derivation of the Greek Ighoumenos and this honorary title is granted to both married priests and hieromonks without distinction and is not used in the capacity of an Abbot, although the monasteries' abbots used to be Hegumen until the beginning of the 20th century, but by the mid century, the Church of Alexandria started to appoint Bishops in the capacity of Abbots.
On the other hand, the rank of archimandrite fell into disuse in the Church of Alexandria from the late 16th century. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. 1906
Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem
The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem or Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem Patriarch of Jerusalem, is the head bishop of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, ranking fourth of nine Patriarchs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Since 2005, the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem has been Theophilos III; the Patriarch is styled "Patriarch of the Holy City of Jerusalem and all Holy Land, beyond the Jordan River, Cana of Galilee, Holy Zion." The Patriarch is the head of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre, the religious leader of about 130,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians in the Holy Land, most of them Palestinians. The Patriarchate traces its line of succession to the first Christian bishops of Jerusalem, the first being James the Just in the 1st century AD. Jerusalem was granted autocephaly in 451 by the Council of Chalcedon and in 531 became one of the initial five patriarchates. On the importance of Jerusalem in Christianity, the Catholic Encyclopedia reads: During the first Christian centuries the church at this place was the centre of Christianity in Jerusalem, "Holy and glorious Sion, mother of all churches."
No spot in Christendom can be more venerable than the place of the Last Supper, which became the first Christian church. In the Apostolic Age the Christian Church was organized as an indefinite number of local Churches that in the initial years looked to that at Jerusalem as its main centre and point of reference. James the Just, martyred around 62, is described as the first Bishop of Jerusalem. Roman persecutions following the Jewish revolts against Rome in the 1st and 2nd centuries affected the city's Christian community, led to Jerusalem being eclipsed in prominence by other sees those of Constantinople, Antioch and Rome. However, increased pilgrimage during and after the reign of Constantine the Great increased the fortunes of the see of Jerusalem, in 325 the First Council of Nicaea attributed special honor, but not metropolitan status, to the bishop of Jerusalem. Jerusalem continued to be a bishopric until 451, when the Council of Chalcedon granted Jerusalem independence from the metropolitan of Antioch and from any other higher-ranking bishop, granted what is now known as autocephaly, in the council's seventh session whose "Decree on the Jurisdiction of Jerusalem and Antioch" contains: "the bishop of Jerusalem, or rather the most holy Church, under him, shall have under his own power the three Palestines".
This led to Jerusalem becoming a patriarchate, one of the five patriarchates known as the pentarchy, when the title of "patriarch" was created in 531 by Justinian. After the Saracen conquest in the 7th century, Muslims recognized Jerusalem as the seat of Christianity and the Patriarch as its leader; when the Great Schism took place in 1054 the Patriarch of Jerusalem and the other three Eastern Patriarchs formed the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Patriarch of Rome formed the Roman Catholic Church. In 1099 the Crusaders appointed a Latin Patriarch; as a result, the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchs lived in exile in Constantinople until 1187. Today, the headquarters of the patriarchate is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem; the number of Eastern Orthodox Christians in the Holy Land is estimated to be about 200,000. A majority of Church members are Palestinian Arabs, there are a small number of Assyrians and Georgians; the patriarchate was involved in a significant controversy. Patriarch Irenaios, elected in 2001, was deposed, on decisions of the Holy Synod of Jerusalem, in the aftermath of a scandal involving the sale of church land in East Jerusalem to Israeli investors.
The move enraged many Eastern Orthodox Palestinian members, since the land was in an area that most Palestinians hoped would someday become part of a Palestinian state. On May 24, 2005 a special Pan-Orthodox Synod was convened in Constantinople to review the decisions of the Holy Synod of Jerusalem; the Pan-Orthodox Synod under the presidency of the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, voted overwhelmingly to confirm the decision of the Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre and to strike Irenaios' name from the diptychs, on May 30, Jerusalem's Holy Synod chose Metropolitan Cornelius of Petra to serve as locum tenens pending the election of a replacement for Irenaios. On August 22, 2005, the Holy Synod of the Church of Jerusalem unanimously elected Theophilos, the former Archbishop of Tabor, as the 141st Patriarch of Jerusalem; the early Christian community of Jerusalem was led by a Council of Elders, considered itself part of the wider Jewish community. This collegiate system of government in Jerusalem is seen in Acts 11:30 and 15:22.
Eusebius of Caesarea provides the names of an unbroken succession of thirty-six Bishops of Jerusalem up to the year 324. The first fifteen of these bishops were of Jewish origin. After the Bar Kokhba revolt, Judas ceased to be bishop and all subsequent bishops were Gentiles: "But since the bishops of the circumcision ceased at this time, it is proper to give here a list of their names from the beginning; the first was James, the so-called brother of the Lord. These are the bishops of Jerusalem that lived between the age of the apostles and the time referred to, all of them belonging to the circumcision."James the Just Simeon I Justus I Zaccheu
Menologion of Basil II
The Menologion of Basil II is an illuminated manuscript designed as a church calendar or Eastern Orthodox Church service book, compiled c. 1000 AD, for the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. It contains a synaxarion, a short collection of saints' lives, compiled at Constantinople for liturgical use, around 430 miniature paintings by eight different artists, it was unusual for a menologion from that era to be so richly painted. It resides in the Vatican Library. A full facsimile was produced in 1907; the manuscript is not technically a menologion, but a synaxarion: a liturgical book containing a list of the saints and their feast days with a short description of sixteen lines of text and a painting of a saint or grouping of saints. The more than 430 images are important examples of hagiography, the veneration of saints, in Byzantine illumination. Text and images cover only half of the religious calendar of the Byzantine liturgical year, so it is assumed that there was a second volume to the work, but this was never produced, since some pages within the manuscript were left unfinished.
The miniatures themselves have no liturgical role—it's possible that their purpose was to act as protectors of the Emperor. The manuscript inspired the illustration of a number of subsequent menologia; the work glorifies Emperor Basil II showing him as a warrior defending Orthodox Christendom against the attacks of the Bulgarian Empire, whose attacks on Christians are graphically illustrated. Figures like the archangels were depicted in military guise by the painters; the manuscript was copied and painted at Constantinople at the command of, or as a gift for, the Emperor Basil II. It was completed between the early years of the 11th century. In the course of the 14th century it came into the possession of a Genoese doctor who resided in Constantinople. In the 15th century it was acquired by Duke of Milan. At the beginning of the 17th century the cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati gave it to Pope Paul V and the manuscript now resides in the Vatican library; the artists who produced the images for the Menologion employed perspective and moved away from the flat depictions common up to that time.
The figures' gestures and drapery are depicted in a lifelike manner, with architecture and backgrounds well-rendered. Facial expressions are painted in a naturalistic style; the work thus demonstrates the painting style of the period, referred to as the Macedonian Renaissance in which painters returned to ancient models with gusto. Unusual for a Byzantine manuscript, the name of the painter of each illustration is recorded by a scribe at the edge of each image. A total of eight names can be recognised. One painter, by the name of Pantoleon, who may be referred to in other documents of the time, seems to have been in charge of the group, they worked together in a workshop connected to the Imperial court. The other painters are Georgios, Michael the Younger, Michael of Blachernai, Simeon of Blachernai and Nestor; the names are not the signatures of the artists themselves, since they are all recorded in the same handwriting. It is rare for artistic works from the Middle Ages to record the name of the artist, since it was not the individual artist so much as the meaning of the image, most important.
The reason for the recording of the names of the painters below their works in the Menologion of Basil II is not clear. Il Menologio di Basilio II. Turin 1907. Francesco D'Aiuto: El "Menologio de Basilio II". Città del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Vat. Gr. 1613. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano / Diaconía Apostólica de la Iglesia de Grecia, Athen / Testimonio Compañia Editorial, Madrid 2008, ISBN 978-88-210-0789-7, ISBN 978-960-315-615-4, ISBN 978-84-95767-58-5. Evans, Helen C. & Wixom, William D. The glory of Byzantium: art and culture of the Middle Byzantine era, A. D. 843-1261, no. 55, 1997, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780810965072. In: El „Menologio‟ de Basilio II: Città del Vaticano, Vat. gr. 1613: libro de estudios con ocasión de la edición facsímil. Dirigado por Francesco D'Aiuto. Biblioteca Apostólica Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2008. 47–75. Nancy Patterson Ševčenko: Menologion of Basil II. In: Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, Oxford, 1991, Bd.
2, S. 1341–1342. Ihor Ševčenko: The Illuminators of the Menologium of Basil II. In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers16, 1962, S. 248–276. Facsimile of Vat.gr.1613 from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Greek-Latin edition
Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian was Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820. A senior general, he assumed the throne, he ended the decade-long war with the Bulgars, initiated the second period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. He was assassinated by supporters of Michael the Amorian, one of his most trusted generals, who succeeded him on the throne. Leo was the son of the patrician Bardas, of Armenian descent. Leo served in 803 under the rebel general Bardanes Tourkos, whom he deserted in favor of Emperor Nikephoros I; the Emperor rewarded Leo with two palaces, but exiled him for marrying the daughter of another rebel, the patrician Arsaber. On the other hand, a contemporary source says that one general Leo of the Armeniakon theme was punished for his humiliating defeat by the Arabs during which he lost the salaries of his thematic units. Punishment included depriving of his military rank and hair cutting. Recalled by Michael I Rangabe in 811, Leo became governor of the Anatolic theme and conducted himself well in a war against the Arabs in 812, defeating the forces of the Cilician thughur under Thabit ibn Nasr.
Leo survived the Battle of Versinikia in 813 by abandoning the battlefield, but took advantage of this defeat to force the abdication of Michael I in his favor on 11 July 813. In a diplomatist move, he wrote a letter to Patriarch Nikephoros in order to reassure him of his orthodoxy. One month during his entrance to the Palace quarter, he kneeled before the icon of Christ at the Chalke Gate. A further step in preventing future usurpations was the castration of Michael's sons. With Krum of Bulgaria blockading Constantinople by land, Leo V had inherited a precarious situation, he attempted to have him killed in an ambush. The stratagem failed, although Krum abandoned his siege of the capital, he captured and depopulated Adrianople and Arkadioupolis; when Krum died in spring 814, Leo V defeated the Bulgarians in the environs of Mesembria and the two states concluded a 30-year peace in 815. According to some sources, Krum participated in the battle and abandoned the battlefield injured. With the iconodule policy of his predecessors associated with defeats at the hands of Bulgarians and Arabs, Leo V reinstituted Iconoclasm after deposing patriarch Nikephoros and convoking a synod at Constantinople in 815.
The Emperor used his rather moderate iconoclast policy to seize the properties of iconodules and monasteries, such as the rich Stoudios Monastery, whose influential iconodule abbot, Theodore the Studite, he exiled. Leo V appointed competent military commanders from among his own comrades-in-arms, including Michael the Amorian and Thomas the Slav, he persecuted the Paulicians. When Leo jailed Michael for suspicion of conspiracy, the latter organized the assassination of the Emperor in the palace chapel of St. Stephen on Christmas Eve, 820. Leo was attending the matins service when a group of assassins disguised as monks threw off their robes and drew their weapons. In the dim light they mistook the officiating priest for the Emperor and the confusion allowed Leo to snatch a heavy cross from the altar and defend himself, he called for his guards, but the conspirators had barred the doors and within a few moments a sword stroke had severed his arm, he fell before the communion-table, where his body was hewed in pieces.
His remains were dumped unceremoniously in the snow and the assassins hurried to the dungeons to free Michael II. For them Leo had hidden the key on his person, since it was too early in the morning to find a blacksmith Michael was hastily crowned as Emperor with the iron clasps still around his legs. Leo's family was exiled to monasteries in Princes' Islands, his four sons were castrated, a procedure so brutally carried out that one of them died during the "operation". Sources vehemently hostile to Leo acknowledge his competence in managing state affairs; as with all iconoclast emperors, his actions and intentions cannot be reconstructed due to the extreme bias of the iconodule sources. All known children of Leo V are traditionally attributed to his wife Theodosia, a daughter of the patrician Arsaber. Genesius records four sons: Symbatios, renamed Constantine, co-emperor from 814 to 820. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Basil. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father.
Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople. Gregory. Castrated and exiled following the assassination of his father. Still alive in 847, recorded to have supported the election of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople. Theodosios. Died soon after his castration; the existence of a daughter has been debated by genealogists. The tentative name "Anna" has been suggested. Nicholas Adontz in his book The age and origins of the emperor Basil I expressed a theory that Leo V and Theodosia were ancestors of Basil I; the theory was based on the account of his ancestry given by Constantine VII, a grandson of Basil I. The accounts given by Theophanes Continuatus. Basil I, according to these accounts, was a son
Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'
The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the Bishop of Moscow, the primate of the Russian Orthodox Church. It is preceded by the honorific "His Holiness". While as the diocesan bishop of the Moscow diocese he has direct canonical authority over Moscow only, the Patriarch has a number of church-wide administrative powers within and in accordance with the charter of the Russian Orthodox Church; the patriarchate was established in Moscow in 1589: the first patriarch was Job. Abolished in 1721 by Peter the Great, the patriarchate was restored on October 28, 1917, by decision of the All-Russian Local Council. Patriarch Kirill acceded to this position on 1 February 2009. Different variations of the title "Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia", "Patriarch of Moscow and all the great and small, White Russia" and others have been used; the modern form, "Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'", was used in 1589 through 1721. The current version of the title was restored beginning in 1917 until suspended by Soviet authorities in 1925, since being reinstated with the election of Metropolitan Sergius as patriarch in 1943.
Upon the death of Patriarch Adrian in 1700, Peter I did not permit election of a new patriarch. In the subsequent period, the Synod of Church authorities and public administration in Russia and considered as institutions of public administration; the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church was restored by decision of the All-Russian Local Council on October 28, 1917. The first patriarch elected after restoration was Saint Metropolitan of Moscow. According to the Charter of the Russian Orthodox Church adopted in 2000, patriarch is a life tenure, the right to trial of a deposed patriarch as well as the question of his retirement belongs to the Council of Bishops. Between terms, Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church elects the chair from among its permanent members of the locum tenens of the Patriarchal throne. "Not than six months after the release of locum tenens of the patriarchal throne, the Holy Synod of the local council... shall convene to elect a new Patriarch of Moscow and All the Rus'."
The candidate for the patriarchs must be a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church, not younger than 40 years old, have a "higher theological education, the expertise of the diocesan administration". The procedure for the election of the patriarch of the charter was not detailed, "place-holder establishes the procedure for electing the Holy Synod". In 2011, the Presidium of the Inter-Council Presence reviewed the draft document "The procedure and criteria for the election of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia" and decided to send it to the diocese for comment and publish to the discussion. In the 20th century, Metropolitan Tikhon as patriarch was elected by lot from the three pre-approved for the Local Council candidates. Alexius II was elected to the Local Council in 1990 by secret ballot in the first round, attended by three candidates approved by the Council of Bishops earlier, the second - the two candidates with the most votes in the first round. Kirill I was elected on 27 January 2009 by the ROC Local Council as Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus' and Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church, with 508 votes out of 700.
He was enthroned on 1 February 2009. The Patriarch enters the dignity during a special ceremony of enthronement, held a few days after the election. List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow
The Menaion is the liturgical book used by the Eastern Orthodox Church containing the propers for fixed dates of the calendar year, i.e. entities not dependent of the date of Pascha. The Menaion is the largest volume of the propers for the Byzantine Rite and is used at nearly all the daily services; the complete Menaion is published in one for each month. The Festal Menaion is an abridged version containing texts for those great feasts falling on the fixed cycle, some editions containing feasts of the major saints; the General Menaion contains services for each type of celebration with blank spaces for the name of the saint commemorated. Originating before the invention of printing when the enormous volume of the complete Menaion could not be copied for every church, this is still used for saints that do not have complete services, e.g. for the patron feast of a church named after a minor saint. Supplementary volumes to the Menaion exist for local saints, e.g. one for all the Saints of the Kiev Caves Monastery, or for newly canonized saints or icons which have their own locally observed feasts.
Since 1921, there have been two calendars in use within the Orthodox Church: the Julian Calendar and the Revised Julian Calendar. As of this century there is a thirteen-day difference between the two calendars, so where the former is used, any given fixed date occurs thirteen days than where the latter is used, e.g. Christmas is fixed on December 25, but where the Julian calendar is used, that date falls on what is known as January 7; the date of Pascha, however, is everywhere reckoned using the Julian Calendar, resulting in differing interactions between the Paschal cycle and the fixed cycle, e.g. the Annunciation may fall as late as Bright Wednesday where the Julian Calendar is used but only as late as the Thursday before Palm Sunday where the revised calendar is used. The term "Menaion" is applied to icons of all the saints whose feast days fall within a particular month. A particular church may have 12 such icons, one for each month of the year, or it may have one large icon depicting all 12 months on one panel.
Calendar of Saints Pentecostarion Menologium Synaxarion Triodion Review of Festal Menaion translated by Mother Mary and Archimandrite Kallistos Ware, "Theology Today" 35 July, 241-243. Wikisource has the article of the Catholic Encyclopedia, edition of 1913, now in the public domain: look at Menaion Complete original text in the Greek language, Retrieved 2013-08-29 Complete text in the Church Slavonic language, Retrieved 2013-08-29 Text of the General Menaion in the Church Slavonic language, Retrieved 2013-08-29 Text of the Festal Menaion in the Church Slavonic language, Retrieved 2013-08-29 Snippets of the text in the English language, Retrieved 2013-08-29 Text of the General Menaion in the English language, Retrieved 2013-08-29