In ecology, a niche is a term with a variety of meanings related to the behavior of a species living under specific environmental conditions. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors, the notion of ecological niche is central to ecological biogeography, which focuses on spatial patterns of ecological communities. Species distributions and their dynamics over time result from properties of the species, and interactions between the two — in particular the abilities of some species, especially our own, to modify their environments and alter the range dynamics of many other species. Alteration of a niche by its inhabitants is the topic of niche construction. Island biogeography can help explain island species and associated unfilled niches, the ecological meaning of niche comes from the meaning of niche as a recess in a wall for a statue, which itself is probably derived from the Middle French word nicher, meaning to nest.
The Grinnellian niche concept embodies the idea that the niche of a species is determined by the habitat in which it lives, in other words, the niche is the sum of the habitat requirements and behaviors that allow a species to persist and produce offspring. Its niche is defined by the felicitous complementing of the thrashers behavior and this perspective of niche allows for the existence of both ecological equivalents and empty niches. In 1927 Charles Sutherland Elton, a British ecologist, defined a niche as follows, The niche of an animal means its place in the environment, its relations to food. Elton classified niches according to foraging activities, For instance there is the niche that is filled by birds of prey which eat small animals such as shrews, in an oak wood this niche is filled by tawny owls, while in the open grassland it is occupied by kestrels. Conceptually, the Eltonian niche introduces the idea of a response to. In an extreme example, beavers require certain resources in order to survive and reproduce, the beaver affects the biotic and abiotic conditions of other species that live in and near the watershed.
In a more subtle case, competitors that consume resources at different rates can lead to cycles in resource density that differ between species, not only do species grow differently with respect to resource density, their own population growth can lead to different effects on resource density over time. The hypervolume defines the space of resources available to organisms. The niche concept was popularized by the zoologist G. Evelyn Hutchinson in 1957, Hutchinson inquired into the question of why there are so many types of organisms in any one habitat. For such a distribution, the position and form of the niche correspond to the mean, standard deviation. This postulate, can be misguided, as it ignores the impacts that the resources of each category have on the organism, for instance, the resource in the overlap region can be non-limiting, in which case there is no competition for this resource despite niche overlap. An organism free of interference from other species could use the range of conditions and resources in which it could survive.
Hutchinson used the idea of competition for resources as the mechanism driving ecology
In architecture, an apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, known as an Exedra. Smaller apses may be in other locations, especially shrines, an apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault. Commonly, the apse of a church, cathedral or basilica is the semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or sanctuary, in relation to church architecture it is generally the name given to where the altar is placed or where the clergy are seated. An apse is occasionally found in a synagogue, e. g. Maoz Haim Synagogue, the apse is separated from the main part of the church by the transept. Smaller apses are sometimes built in other than the east end. The domed apse became a part of the church plan in the early Christian era. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the apse is known as diaconicon. Various ecclesiastical features of which the apse may form part are drawn here, The chancel, directly to the east beyond the choir contains the High Altar.
This area is reserved for the clergy, and was formerly called the presbytery. Hemi-cyclic choirs, first developed in the East, came to use in France in 470, famous northern French examples of chevets are in the Gothic cathedrals of Amiens and Reims. The word ambulatory refers to an aisle in the apse that passes behind the altar and choir. An ambulatory may refer to the passages that enclose a cloister in a monastery, or to other types of aisles round the edge of a church building
The Uffizi Gallery is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in central Florence, region of Tuscany, Italy. The building of Uffizi complex was begun by Giorgio Vasari in 1560 for Cosimo I de Medici so as to accommodate the offices of the Florentine magistrates, hence the name uffizi, the construction was continued by Alfonso Parigi and Bernardo Buontalenti and completed in 1581. The niches in the piers that alternate with columns filled with sculptures of artists in the 19th century. The Uffizi brought together under one roof the administrative offices, the Tribunal and the Archivio di Stato, the state archive. He commissioned from the architect Buontalenti the design of the Tribuna degli Uffizi that collected a series of masterpieces in one room, over the years, more sections of the palace were recruited to exhibit paintings and sculpture collected or commissioned by the Medici. The gallery had been open to visitors by request since the sixteenth century, because of its huge collection, some of its works have in the past been transferred to other museums in Florence—for example, some famous statues to the Bargello. A project was finished in 2006 to expand the exhibition space some 6,000 metres² to almost 13,000 metres².
On 27 May 1993, a car exploded in Via dei Georgofili and damaged parts of the palace. The most severe damage was to the Niobe room and classical sculptures and neoclassical interior, the identity of the bomber or bombers are unknown, although it was almost certainly attributable to the Sicilian Mafia who were engaged in a period of terrorism at that time. Today, the Uffizi is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Florence, in high season, waiting times can be up to five hours. In early August 2007, Florence experienced a heavy rainstorm, the Gallery was partially flooded, with water leaking through the ceiling, and the visitors had to be evacuated. There was a more significant flood in 1966 which damaged most of the art collections in Florence severely. Here is a selection from the collection, The collection contains some ancient sculptures, such as the Arrotino. Collections of the Uffizi Official website Uffizi – Google Art Project
Sir John Newenham Summerson CH CBE was one of the leading British architectural historians of the 20th century. He was born at Barnstead, Coniscliffe Road and his grandfather worked for the Darlington and Stockton Railway and founded the family foundry of Thomas Summerson and Sons in Darlington in 1869. John Summerson was educated at Harrow and University College London, where he gained a degree in 1928. He wrote mainly about British architecture, especially that of the Georgian era and his Architecture in Britain, 1530–1830 remained a standard work on the subject for students and general readers after his death. The Classical Language of Architecture is an introduction to the elements of classical architecture and traces their use. He was curator of Sir John Soanes Museum from 1945 to 1984 and he was Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford for 1958–59. He certainly invented the term prodigy house for showy Elizabethan and Jacobean courtier houses, Summerson was noted for his somewhat elitist approach, and he was not always a consistent friend of the conservation movement.
He was hired by the ESB in Ireland to speak in favour of their demolition of sixteen Georgian townhouses in Fitzwilliam Street, the doomed terrace, he said, was simply one damned house after another. An English Heritage blue plaque commemorating Summerson was erected at his residence in Chalk Farm, London. John Summerson at the archINFORM database
Farinata degli Uberti
Farinata degli Uberti, real name Manente degli Uberti, was an Italian aristocrat and military leader, considered by some of his contemporaries to be a heretic. He is remembered mostly for his appearance in Dante Alighieris Inferno and is mentioned in C. S. Lewiss short sequel to The Screwtape Letters, Farinata belonged to one of the most ancient and prominent noble families of Florence. He was the leader of the Ghibelline faction in his city during the struggles of the time. The exiles sought refuge in Siena, a Ghibelline stronghold, in response to the exile, Farinata allied himself with Fredericks illegitimate son, Manfred of Sicily, who was seeking to expand his alliances in order to secure himself on the throne of Sicily. In September 1260 Farinata led the Ghibelline forces to victory over the rival Guelphs at the Battle of Montaperti, as a result, he was able to capture Florence. The leading Guelph families were banished and the government of Florence was radically restructured to ensure Ghibelline dominance, farinatas allies wanted to ensure that Florence would never again rise to threaten them.
Following the example of Roman ruthlessness towards its enemy Carthage, they voted to raze Florence utterly to the ground. Only Farinata stood out against them, declaring himself to be a Florentine first and a Ghibelline second, the Ghibellines thereupon took the lesser course of destroying the citys defences and the homes of the leading Guelphs, knocking down 103 palaces,580 houses, and 85 towers. This is why Palazzo Vecchio, begun in the 1290s, is not in the center of the piazza, as one might expect, Farinata died at Florence in 1264. In 1283 his body and his wifes, were exhumed from their place in Santa Reparata. They were found guilty by the Franciscan-led Inquisition, their remains faced a posthumous execution, Farinata appears with several other atheists and heretics in Dantes Inferno. Since they denied the immortality of the soul, their punishment is to be entombed in fiery coffins
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Montacute House is a late Elizabethan mansion with garden in Montacute, South Somerset. All parts are maintained by the National Trust which subsidise entry fees and its Long Gallery, the longest in England serves as a South-West outpost of the National Portrait Gallery displaying a skilful and well-studied range of old oils and watercolours. It was visited by 125,442 people in 2013, the house and its gardens have been a filming location for several films and a setting for television costume dramas and literary adaptations. Sir Edward Phelips descendants occupied the house until the early 20th century. Following a brief period, when the house was let to tenants, one of whom was Lord Curzon who lived at the house with his mistress, the novelist Elinor Glyn, it was acquired by the NT in 1927. Montacute House was built in about 1598 by Sir Edward Phelips, whose family had lived in the Montacute area since at least 1460, Edward Phelips was a lawyer who had been in Parliament since 1584. He was knighted in 1603 and a year became Speaker of the House, james I appointed him Master of the Rolls and Chancellor to his son and heir Henry, Prince of Wales.
Phelips remained at the hub of English political life, and his skills were employed when he became opening prosecutor during the trial of the Gunpowder Plotters. Dunster has architectural motifs similar to found at Montacute. Phelips chose as the site for his new mansion a spot close by the existing house, the date work commenced is undocumented, but is generally thought to be c. 1598/9, based on dates on a fireplace and in stained glass within the house, the date 1601, engraved above a doorcase, is considered to be the date of completion. Sir Edward Phelips died in 1614, leaving his family wealthy and landed, he was succeeded by his son, Sir Robert Phelips, Robert Phelips has the distinction of being arrested at Montacute. A staunch Protestant, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London as a result of his opposition to the Spanish Match between the Prince of Wales and a Catholic Spanish Infanta. The familys fame and notoriety were to be short-lived, subsequent generations settled down in Somerset to live the lives of county gentry, representing Somerset in Parliament and when necessary following occupations in the army and the church.
This peaceful existence was jolted when the estate was inherited by William Phelips and he was responsible for the Base Court, a low service range adjoining the south side of the mansion. And the restoration of the Great Chamber, which he transformed into a library, later, he was to become insane, an addicted gambler, he was eventually incarcerated for his own good. Sadly for his family, this was after he had gambled away the family fortune, in 1875, when his son William Phelips took control of the estate, agricultural rents from what remained of the mortgaged estate were low, and the house was a drain on limited resources. Selling the family silver and art works delayed the inevitable by a few years, but in 1911 the family were forced to let the house, for a sum of £650
Some scholars place it at over 300 acres, while others estimate its size to have been under 100 acres. Suetonius describes the complex as ruinously prodigal as it included groves of trees, pastures with flocks, Nero commissioned from the Greek Zenodorus a colossal 35.5 m high bronze statue of himself, the Colossus Neronis. Pliny the Elder, puts its height at only 30.3 m, the statue was placed just outside the main palace entrance at the terminus of the Via Appia in a large atrium of porticoes that divided the city from the private villa. This statue may have represented Nero as the sun god Sol and this idea is widely accepted among scholars but some are convinced that Nero was not identified with Sol while he was alive. The face of the statue was modified shortly after Nero’s death during Vespasian’s reign to make it truly a statue of Sol, Hadrian moved it, with the help of the architect Decrianus and 24 elephants, to a position next to the Flavian Amphitheater. This building took the name Colosseum in the Middle Ages, after the nearby, or, as some historians believe.
The Golden House was designed as a place of entertainment, as shown by the presence of 300 rooms without any sleeping quarter, Neros own palace remained on the Quirinal Hill. No kitchens or latrines have been discovered, rooms sheathed in dazzling polished white marble were given richly varied floor plans, shaped with niches and exedras that concentrated or dispersed the daylight. There were pools in the floors and fountains splashing in the corridors, some of the extravagances of the Domus Aurea had repercussions for the future. The architects designed two of the dining rooms to flank an octagonal court, surmounted by a dome with a giant central oculus to let in light. It was a use of Roman concrete construction. One innovation was destined to have an influence on the art of the future, Nero placed mosaics, previously restricted to floors. According to some accounts, perhaps embellished by Neros political enemies, Pliny the Elder watched it being built and mentions it in his Naturalis Historia.
Frescoes covered every surface that was not more richly finished, the main artist was one Famulus. Fresco technique, working on damp plaster, demands a speedy and sure touch, Pliny, in his Natural History, recounts how Famulus went for only a few hours each day to the Golden House, to work while the light was right. The swiftness of Famuluss execution gives a wonderful unity and astonishing delicacy to his compositions, Pliny the Elder presents Amulius as one of the principal painters of the domus aurea, More recently, lived Amulius, a grave and serious personage, but a painter in the florid style. By this artist there was a Minerva, which had the appearance of looking at the spectators. He only painted a few hours each day, and with the greatest gravity, for he kept the toga on
A reliquary is a container for relics. These may be the purported or actual physical remains of saints, such as bones, pieces of clothing, the authenticity of any given relic is often a matter of debate, for that reason, some churches require documentation of the relics provenance. Relics have long been important to Buddhists, Hindus, in these cultures, reliquaries are often presented in shrines, churches, or temples to which the faithful make pilgrimages in order to gain blessings. Relics are venerated in the Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, reliquaries provide a means of protecting and displaying relics. While frequently taking the form of caskets, they range in size from simple pendants or rings to very elaborate ossuaries, ivory was widely used in the Middle Ages for reliquaries, its pure white color an indication of the holy status of its contents. These objects constituted a form of artistic production across Europe. Many were designed with portability in mind, often being exhibited in public or carried in procession on the saints feast day or on holy days.
Pilgrimages often centered on the veneration of relics, the faithful often venerate relics by bowing before the reliquary or kissing it. Those churches which observe the veneration of relics make a distinction between the honor given to the saints and the worship that is due to God alone. The feretrum was a form of reliquary or shrine containing the sacred effigies. In the late Middle Ages the craze for relics, many now fraudulent, became extreme, 16th-century reformers such as Martin Luther opposed the use of relics since many had no proof of historic authenticity, and they objected to the cult of saints. Nonetheless, the use and manufacture of reliquaries continues to this day, especially in Roman Catholic, post-Reformation reliquaries have tended to take the form of glass-sided caskets to display relics such as the bodies of saints. The earliest reliquaries were essentially boxes, either simply box-shaped or based on an architectural design and these latter are known by the French term chasse, and typical examples from the 12th to 14th century have wooden frameworks with gilt-copper plaques nailed on, decorated in champlevé enamel.
Limoges was the largest centre of production, NB the English usage differs from that of the French châsse, relics of the True Cross became very popular from the 9th century onwards and were housed in magnificent gold and silver cross-shaped reliquaries, decorated with enamels and precious stones. Similarly, the bones of saints were often housed in reliquaries that recalled the shape of the body part. A philatory is a transparent reliquary designed to contain and exhibit the bones and this style of reliquary has a viewing portal by which to view the relic contained inside. During the Middle Ages, the form, mostly used for consecrated hosts, was sometimes used for reliquaries. These housed the relic in a crystal or glass capsule mounted on a column above a base
A grotto is a natural or artificial cave used by humans in both modern times and antiquity, and historically or prehistorically. Naturally occurring grottoes are often small caves near water that are usually flooded or liable to flood at high tide, artificial grottoes are used as garden features. The Grotta Azzurra at Capri and the grotto at the villa of Tiberius in the Bay of Naples are examples of popular natural seashore grottoes, the word grotto comes from Italian grotta, Vulgar Latin grupta, and Latin crypta. It is related by an accident to the word grotesque. The rooms had sunk underground over time, the Romans who discovered this historical monument found it very strange, a sentiment enhanced by the fact that it was uncovered from an underworld source. This led the Romans to give it the name grottesche, or grotesque, grottoes were very popular in Greek and Roman culture. Spring-fed grottoes were a feature of Apollos oracles at Delphi, the Hellenistic city of Rhodes was designed with rock-cut artificial grottoes incorporated into the city, made to look natural.
According to tradition, Praenestes sacred spring had a native nymph, the Roman emperor, filled his grotto with sculptures to create a sense of mythology, perhaps channeling Polyphemus cave in the Odyssey. The numinous quality of the grotto is still more ancient, in a grotto near Knossos in Crete, Eileithyia was venerated, even farther back in time, the immanence of the divine in a grotto is seen in the sacred caves of Lascaux. The popularity of artificial grottoes introduced Mannerist style to Italian and French gardens of the mid-16th century, two famous grottoes in the Boboli Gardens of Palazzo Pitti were begun by Vasari and completed by Ammanati and Buontalenti between 1583 and 1593. One of these grottoes originally housed the Prisoners of Michelangelo, before Boboli grotto, a garden was laid out by Niccolò Tribolo at the Medici Villa Castello, near Florence. At Pratolino, in spite of the dryness of the site, there was a Grotto of Cupid, with water tricks for the unsuspecting visitor. The Fonte di Fata Morgana at Grassina, not far from Florence, is a garden building.
It is decorated with sculptures in the Giambolognan manner, the outside of garden grottoes are often designed to look like an enormous rock, a rustic porch or a rocky overhang. Damp grottoes were cool places to retreat from the Italian sun, in Kuskovo at the Sheremetev estate there is a Summer Grotto, built in 1775. Grottoes could serve as baths, an example of this is at the Palazzo del Te, in the Casino della Grotta, courtiers once bathed in the small cascade that splashed over the pebbles and shells encrusted in the floor and walls. Grottoes have served as chapels, or at Villa Farnese at Caprarola and they were often combined with cascading fountains in Renaissance gardens. The grotto designed by Bernard Palissy for Catherine de Medicis château in Paris, there are grottoes in the gardens designed by André Le Nôtre for Versailles
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is a descriptive dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, in 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the edition was published. Since 2000, an edition of the dictionary has been underway. The first electronic version of the dictionary was available in 1988. The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will probably appear in electronic form, Nigel Portwood, chief executive of Oxford University Press. As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than merely their present-day usages, therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used.
The format of the OEDs entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects and this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries, the dictionarys latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, as entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, put in 2007, run in 2011. Despite its impressive size, the OED is neither the worlds largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language, the Dutch dictionary Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal is the worlds largest dictionary, has similar aims to the OED and took twice as long to complete. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838, the official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, and its first edition was published in 1780.
The Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716, trench suggested that a new, truly comprehensive dictionary was needed. On 7 January 1858, the Society formally adopted the idea of a new dictionary. Volunteer readers would be assigned particular books, copying passages illustrating word usage onto quotation slips, the same year, the Society agreed to the project in principle, with the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor, on 12 May 1860, Coleridges dictionary plan was published and research was started