Westboro Baptist Church
Westboro Baptist Church is a Baptist church which is known for its hate speech, especially against LGBT people, Orthodox Christians, Jews, American soldiers and politicians. The church is known as a hate group and is monitored as such by the Anti-Defamation League. The church has been involved in actions against gay people since at least 1991, in addition to conducting anti-gay protests at military funerals, the organization pickets celebrity funerals and public events. Protests have held against Jews and Catholics, and some protests have included WBC members stomping on the American flag and/or flying the flag upside down on a flagpole. The church has made such as, thank God for dead soldiers, God blew up the troops, thank God for 9/11. The church is headquartered in a neighborhood on the west side of Topeka about 3 miles west of the Kansas State Capitol. Its first public service was held on the afternoon of November 27,1955, the church was headed by Fred Phelps before his death in March 2014, though church representatives said the church had had no defined leader for some time before his death.
The church consists primarily of members of Phelpss extended family, and in 2011, the WBC is not affiliated with any Baptist denomination, although it describes itself as Primitive Baptist and following the five points of Calvinism. Many other Baptist churches and Baptist conventions, including the Baptist World Alliance, in addition, other mainstream Christian denominations have condemned the actions of the independent Westboro Baptist Church. Westboro Baptist Church originated as a branch of the East Side Baptist Church, established in 1931 on the east side of Topeka. In 1954, East Side hired Fred Phelps as a pastor, and promoted him to pastor of their new church plant, Westboro Baptist. Soon after Westboro was established, Phelps broke ties with East Side Baptist, Westboro Baptist began picketing Gage Park in Topeka in 1991, saying it was a den of anonymous homosexual activity. Soon, their protests had spread throughout the city, and within three years the church was traveling across the country, Phelps explained in 1994 that he considered the negative reaction to the picketing to be proof of his righteousness.
On August 20,1995, a bomb exploded outside the home of Shirley Phelps-Roper. The blast damaged an SUV, a fence, and part of the house, in 1996, two men were arrested for the bombing, and both admitted to causing the blast. They had believed that Phelps-Ropers house was that of the pastor, One of the bombers was fined $1,751 and was sentenced to 16 days in prison plus 100 hours of community service. Fred Phelps died of natural causes shortly before midnight on March 19,2014 and his daughter Shirley said that a funeral for her father would not be held because Westboro does not worship the dead. WBC pickets approximately six locations every day, including many in Topeka, on Sundays, up to 15 churches may receive pickets
Criticism of Mormon sacred texts
The Latter Day Saints believe that the Book of Mormon is a sacred text with the same divine authority as the Bible. Some Latter Day Saints recognize the Pearl of Great Price and Doctrine and they cite research in history and other disciplines to support their contentions. There are several theories as to the origin of the Book of Mormon, most adherents of the Latter Day Saint movement view the book as a work of inspired scripture. The most common theory accepted by adherents is that promoted by Joseph Smith, Smith said he discovered these near his home in Palmyra, New York, in the 1820s after being told to go there by the angel Moroni. Besides Smith himself, there are more than 11 witnesses who said they saw the plates physically in 1829, several other witnesses, some of them friendly to Smith and some hostile, observed him dictating the text that eventually became the Book of Mormon. Two separate sets of witnesses—a set of three and a set of eight—testified as having seen the plates, the record from which the Book of Mormon was translated.
Critics, including Jerald and Sandra Tanner and the Institute for Religious Research, note several pieces of evidence that, they argue, call into question the authenticity of the experience. These include letters and affidavits in which Martin Harris stated that the Eight Witnesses never saw the plates, each of the Three Witnesses left the church during Smiths lifetime and considered Smith to have been a fallen prophet. Harris and Cowdery returned to the church, the Institute for Religious Research disputes the sincerity of their conversion and return. Apologists note that the witnesses in most cases affirmed their witness until their death, in 1881, the one witness who never returned to the church, issued an affidavit reaffirming his testimony of the experience. Richard Abanes, the Tanners, and others claim that Smith plagiarized the Book of Mormon, alleged sources include View of the Hebrews by Ethan Smith, The Wonders of Nature by Josiah Priest, the Bible, and the Apocrypha. Moreover, they argue that warnings need be repeated in the face of ageless problems, the Book of Mormon purports to be a record of an ancient Israelite migration to the New World.
The question of whether it is an historical work or a work of fiction has long been a source of contention between members of the Latter Day Saint movement and non-members. For most adherents of the movement, Book of Mormon historicity is a matter of faith, for non-members, on the other hand, its historicity is not accepted, and specific claims made in the Book of Mormon have been questioned from a number of different perspectives. Items typically listed include cattle, asses, sheep, goats, wheat, brass, iron, the lack of linguistic connection between any Native American languages and Near Eastern languages. The lack of current DNA evidence linking any Native American group to the ancient Near East, within the Latter Day Saint movement, there have been many apologetical counter claims attempting to reconcile these apparent discrepancies. Since the introduction of the Book of Mormon in 1830, both Mormon and non-Mormon archaeologists have studied its claims in reference to archaeological evidence.
The Book of Mormon contains an account of peoples who, in succeeding groups between 2500 BC and 600 BC, traveled from the Middle East and settled in the Americas
The Khalistan movement was a Sikh nationalist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān in the Punjab region of South Asia. The Punjab region has been the homeland for the Sikhs. However, the region has a number of Hindus and Muslims, and before 1947. They put forward the idea of Khalistan, envisaging it as a state covering a small part of the greater Punjab region. Following Indias independence in 1947, the Punjabi Suba Movement led by the Akali Dal aimed at creation of a Punjabi-majority state in the Punjab region of India in the 1950s. Concerned that creating a Punjabi-majority state would mean creating a Sikh-majority state. Subsequently, the Sikh leaders started demanding more autonomy for the states, in 1971, the Khalistan proponent Jagjit Singh Chauhan travelled to the United States. He placed an advertisement in The New York Times proclaiming the formation of Khalistan and was able to collect millions of dollars from the Sikh diaspora. On 12 April 1980, he held a meeting with the Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi before declaring the formation of National Council of Khalistan and he declared himself as the President of the Council and Balbir Singh Sandhu as its Secretary General.
In May 1980, Jagjit Singh Chauhan travelled to London and announced the formation of Khalistan, a similar announcement was made by Balbir Singh Sandhu, in Amritsar, who released stamps and currency of Khalistan. The inaction of the authorities in Amritsar and elsewhere was decried by Akali Dal headed by the Sikh leader Harchand Singh Longowal as a stunt by the Congress party of Indira Gandhi. Various pro-Khalistan outfits have been involved in a separatist movement against the government of India ever since, there are claims of funding from Sikhs outside India to attract young people into these pro-Khalistan militant groups. In the 1980s, some of the Khalistan proponents turned to militancy, the handling of the operation, damage to the Akal Takht and loss of life on both sides, led to widespread criticism of the Indian Government. Many Sikhs strongly maintain that the attack resulted in the desecration of the holiest Sikh shrine, the Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her two Sikh bodyguards in retaliation.
Following her death, thousands of Sikhs were massacred in the 1984 anti-Sikh riots in Delhi, termed as a genocide by the congress activists, in January 1986, the Golden Temple was occupied by militants belonging to All India Sikh Students Federation and Damdami Taksal. On 26 January 1986, the gathering passed a resolution favouring the creation of Khalistan, subsequently, a number of rebel militant groups in favour of Khalistan waged a major insurgency against the government of India. Pro-Khalistan organisations such as Dal Khalsa are active outside India, in November 2015, a Sarbat Khalsa, or congregation of the Sikh community was called in response to recent unrest in the Punjab region. The Sarbat Khalsa adopted 13 resolutions to strengthen Sikh institutions and traditions, the 12th resolution reaffirmed the resolutions adopted by the Sarbat Khalsa in 1986, including the declaration of the sovereign state of Khalistan
Criticism of Islam
Criticism of Islam has existed since its formative stages. Early written criticism came from Christians, before the ninth century, the Muslim world itself suffered criticism. Criticism of Islam in the West was renewed after the September 11 attacks, objects of criticism include the morality of the life of Muhammad, the last prophet according to Islam, both in his public and personal life. Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Quran, the Islamic holy book, are discussed by critics. Figures in Africa and India have described what they perceive as destruction of indigenous cultures by Islam, the earliest surviving written criticisms of Islam are to be found in the writings of Christians who came under the early dominion of the Islamic Caliphate. One such Christian was John of Damascus, who was familiar with Islam, the second chapter of his book, The Fount of Wisdom, titled Concerning Heresies, presents a series of discussions between Christians and Muslims. John claimed an Arian monk influenced Muhammad and viewed the Islamic doctrines as nothing more than a hodgepodge culled from the Bible, writing on Islams claim of Abrahamic ancestry, John explained that the Arabs were called Saracens because they were empty of Sarah.
They were called Hagarenes because they were the descendants of the slave-girl Hagar, other notable early critics of Islam included, Abu Isa al-Warraq, a 9th-century scholar and critic of Islam. Ibn al-Rawandi, a 9th-century atheist, who repudiated Islam and revealed religion in general, Al-Maarri, an 11th-century Arab poet and critic of Islam and all other religions. Also known for his veganism and Antinatalism, in the early centuries of the Islamic Caliphate, the Islamic law allowed citizens to freely express their views, including criticism of Islam and religious authorities, without fear of persecution. As such, there have been several notable critics and skeptics of Islam that arose from within the Islamic world itself, in tenth and eleventh-century Syria there lived a blind poet called Al-Maarri. He became well known for a poetry that was affected by a pervasive pessimism and he labeled religions in general as noxious weeds and said that Islam does not have a monopoly on truth. He had particular contempt for the ulema, writing that, In 1280, one of the foremost 12th century rabbinical arbiters and philosophers, sees the relation of Islam to Judaism as primarily theoretical.
Maimonides has no quarrel with the monotheism of Islam. He considered Islamic ethics and politics to be inferior to their Jewish counterparts, maimonides criticised what he perceived as the lack of virtue in the way Muslims rule their societies and relate to one another. In his Epistle to Yemenite Jewry, he refers to Mohammad, in Dantes Inferno, Muhammad is portrayed as split in half, with his guts hanging out, representing his status as a schismatic. Some medieval ecclesiastical writers portrayed Muhammad as possessed by Satan, a precursor of the Antichrist or the Antichrist himself, the Tultusceptrum de libro domni Metobii, an Andalusian manuscript with unknown dating, shows how Muhammad was tricked by Satan into adulterating an originally pure divine revelation. The story argues God was concerned about the fate of the Arabs
Islamic terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism, is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals. Islamic terrorists justify their violent tactics through interpreting the Quran and Hadith according to their own goals, the highest numbers of incidents and fatalities caused by Islamic terrorism occur in Iraq, Nigeria and Syria. In 2015 four Islamic extremist groups were responsible for 74% of all deaths from terrorism, ISIS, Boko Haram, the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, according to the Global Terrorism Index 2016. In recent decades, such incidents have occurred on a scale, affecting not only Muslim-majority states in Africa and Asia, but Europe, Australia, Canada. Such attacks have targeted Muslims and non-Muslims, the literal use of the phrase Islamic terrorism is disputed. Such use in Western political speech has variously been called counter-productive, highly politicized, intellectually contestable, others view the refusal to use the term as an act of self-deception.
Some Muslim commentators assert that extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century to the Kharijites, from their essentially political position, they developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims. The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting an approach of Takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers. Dame Eliza Manningham Buller, the head of MI5, told the Iraq inquiry. For example, Hezbollah initiated suicide bombings after a complex reworking of the concept of martyrdom, the only way to apply a brake to suicide terrorism, Kramer argues, is to undermine its moral logic, by encouraging Muslims to see its incompatibility with their own values. Maajid Nawaz, in a debate with Mehdi Hasan, countered Scheuers contention, the prerequisite to such a disavowal of one’s country of birth is a recalibration of identity, this is the undeniable role of ideological narratives. Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, in their book, The Age of Sacred Terror and they are seen as a sacrament.
Intended to restore to the universe a moral order that had been corrupted by the enemies of Islam and it is neither political or strategic but an act of redemption meant to humiliate and slaughter those who defied the hegemony of God. Two studies of the background of Muslim terrorists in Europe—one of the UK, many lack religious literacy and could actually be regarded as religious novices. Very few have been brought up in strongly religious households, some are involved in drug-taking, drinking alcohol and visiting prostitutes. MI5 says there is evidence that a religious identity actually protects against violent radicalisation. They are estranged from their parents and don’t know where to fit in, or they are recent converts, largely from rural areas and many from divorced families. If Islam or social conditions are essentially to blame for breeding terrorism, why does it not attract first- or third-generation French Muslims, or those whose Islamic culture is the deepest
Moses is a prophet in Abrahamic religions. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew, he is the most important prophet in Judaism and he is an important prophet in Christianity, the Baháí Faith as well as a number of other Abrahamic religions. Moses Hebrew mother, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaohs daughter, the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slavemaster, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak with assurance or eloquence, so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, after 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo.
According to archaeologist William G. Rabbinical Judaism calculated a lifespan of Moses corresponding to 1391–1271 BCE, Jerome gives 1592 BCE, the Biblical account of Moses birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name. He is said to have received it from the Pharaohs daughter and she named him Moses, saying, I drew him out of the water. This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning to draw out, the princess made a grammatical mistake which is prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea. Abraham Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines water or seed and pond, expanse of water, the Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses Egyptian origins. The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Philo linked Mōēsēs to the Egyptian word for water, while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the element, -esês.
Hizkuni suggested she either converted or took a tip from Jochebed, the Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacobs household, his mother was Jochebed, Moses had one older sister and one older brother, Aaron. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew, Moses, in order to escape the Pharaohs death penalty, fled to Midian. There, on Mount Horeb, God revealed to Moses his name YHWH and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his people out of bondage. Moses returned to carry out Gods command, but God caused the Pharaoh to refuse, from Egypt, Moses led the Israelites to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets
Criticism of atheism
Criticism of atheism is criticism of the concepts, validity, or impact of atheism, including associated political and social implications. Various contemporary agnostics like Carl Sagan and theists such as Dinesh DSouza have criticised atheism for being an unscientific position, oxford Professor of Mathematics John Lennox holds that atheism is an inferior world view to that of theism, and attributes to C. S. In other words, it was belief in God that was the motor that drove modern science, the leading American geneticist Francis Collins cites Lewis as persuasive in convincing him that theism is the more rational world view than atheism. Other criticisms focus on perceived effects on morality and social cohesion, the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire, a deist, saw godlessness as weakening the sacred bonds of society, writing If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. The father of Classical Liberalism, John Locke, believed that the denial of Gods existence would undermine the social order, Pope Pius XI wrote that Communist atheism was aimed at upsetting the social order and at undermining the very foundations of Christian civilization.
In the 1990s, Pope John Paul II criticised a spreading practical atheism as clouding the religious and moral sense of the human heart, in his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Burke railed against atheistical fanaticism. Critics of atheism often associate the actions of 20th-century state atheism with broader atheism in their critiques, various poets and lay theologians, among them G. K. Chesterton and C. S. Lewis, have criticized atheism. For example, Chesterton holds that He who does not believe in God will believe in anything, Atheism is the absence of belief that any gods exist, the position that there are no gods, or the rejection of belief in the existence of gods. Deism is a form of theism in which God created the universe and established rationally comprehensible moral and natural laws, deism is a natural religion where belief in God is based on application of reason and evidence observed in the designs and laws found in nature. Christian deism refers to a deist who believes in the moral teachings, the last 50 years has seen an increase in academic philosophical arguments critical of the positions of atheism arguing that they are philosophically unsound.
In 1976, atheist philosopher Antony Flew wrote The Presumption of Atheism, according to Flew, the norm for academic philosophy and public dialogue was, at that time, for atheists and theists to both share their respective burdens of proof for their positions. In 2007, Analytic Philosopher William Lane Craigs described the presumption of atheism as one of the most commonly proffered justifications of atheism. And in 2010, BBC journalist William Crawley explained that Flews presumption of atheism made the case, the presumption of atheism has been the subject of criticism by atheists agnostics, and theists since Flew advance his position more than 40 years ago. Because the atheists conceptualization of rational differs from the theist, Nielsen argues, Analytic Philosopher and modal logician Alvin Plantinga, a theist, rejected the presumption of atheism forwarding a two-part argument. First, he shows that there is no objection to belief in God unless the belief is shown to be false, second, he argues that belief in God could be rationally warranted if it is a properly basic or foundational belief through an innate human sense of the divine.
Alvin Plantingas argument puts theistic belief an equal footing with atheism even if Flews definition of atheism is accepted. McInerny argues that the extent of natural order is so pervasive as to be almost innate. McInernys position goes further than Plantingas arguing that theism is evidenced, William Lane Craig wrote that if Flews broader definition of atheism is seen as merely the absence of belief in God, atheism ceases to be a view and even infants count as atheists
The Talmud is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism. It is referred to as Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, the six orders. Talmud translates literally as instruction in Hebrew, and the term may refer to either the Gemara alone, or the Mishnah, the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, and in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example of court decisions. It is during this period that rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing, the earliest recorded oral Torah may have been of the midrashic form, in which halakhic discussion is structured as exegetical commentary on the Pentateuch. But an alternative form, organized by subject matter instead of by biblical verse, became dominant about the year 200 CE, the Oral Torah was far from monolithic, rather, it varied among various schools.
The most famous two were the School of Shammai and the School of Hillel, in general, all valid opinions, even the non-normative ones, were recorded in the Talmud. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, each tractate is divided into chapters,517 in total, that are both numbered according to the Hebrew alphabet and given names, usually using the first one or two words in the first mishnah. A perek may continue over several pages, each perek will contain several mishnayot with their accompanying exchanges that form the building-blocks of the Gemara, the name for a passage of gemara is a sugya. A sugya, including baraita or tosefta, will comprise a detailed proof-based elaboration of a Mishnaic statement. A sugya may, and often does, range widely off the subject of the mishnah, in a given sugya, scriptural and Amoraic statements are cited to support the various opinions. In so doing, the Gemara will highlight semantic disagreements between Tannaim and Amoraim, and compare the Mishnaic views with passages from the Baraita.
Rarely are debates formally closed, in instances, the final word determines the practical law. There is a literature on the procedural principles to be used in settling the practical law when disagreements exist, see under #Logic. The Mishnah is a compilation of legal opinions and debates, statements in the Mishnah are typically terse, recording brief opinions of the rabbis debating a subject, or recording only an unattributed ruling, apparently representing a consensus view. The rabbis recorded in the Mishnah are known as the Tannaim, the Mishnahs topical organization thus became the framework of the Talmud as a whole. But not every tractate in the Mishnah has a corresponding Gemara, the order of the tractates in the Talmud differs in some cases from that in the Mishnah. In addition to the Mishnah, other tannaitic teachings were current at about the time or shortly thereafter
Criticism of Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth is the central figure of Christianity. Christians believe that he was divine, while Islam considers him to have only a prophet, messenger. Since the time in which he is said to have lived, Early critics of Jesus and Christianity included Celsus in the second century and Porphyry in the third. In the 19th century, Friedrich Nietzsche was highly critical of Jesus, more contemporary notable critics of Jesus include Sita Ram Goel, Christopher Hitchens, Bertrand Russell, and Dayananda Saraswati. The Pharisees and scribes criticized Jesus and his disciples for not observing the Mosaic Law and they criticized his disciples for not washing their hands before eating. Jesus is criticized for eating with the publicans, the Pharisees criticized Jesus disciples for gathering grain on the Sabbath. Judaism holds that Jesus is not the Messiah, arguing that he had not fulfilled the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh nor embodied the personal qualifications of the Messiah. According to Jewish tradition, there were no prophets after Malachi.
Thus Judaism is critical of Jesus own claims and allusions about his Messiahship and his identification as the son of God, even Jesus the Nazarene who imagined that he would be Messiah and was killed by the court, was already prophesied by Daniel. So that it was said, And the members of the outlaws of your nation would be carried to make a vision stand, because, is there a greater stumbling-block than this one. So that all of the prophets spoke that the Messiah redeems Israel, and saves them, and gathers their banished ones, and strengthens their commandments. However, the thoughts of the Creator of the world — there is no force in a human to them because our ways are not Gods ways. So that it is said, Because I will turn toward the nations a clear lip, to all of them in the name of God. Look how all the world already full of the things of the Messiah, and the things of the Torah. And these things spread among the far islands and among the many nations uncircumcised of heart, in his paper published in Evangelical Quarterly, Kevin Giles notes that Jesus often encountered slavery, but not one word of criticism did the Lord utter against slavery.
Giles points to this fact as being used as an argument that Jesus approved of slavery and he has sent me to proclaim freedom for the slaves from war. Celsus, 2nd-century Greek philosopher and opponent of Early Christianity, mounts a wide criticism against Jesus as the founder of the Christian faith and he discounts or disparages Jesus ancestry, birth, ministry, death and continuing influence. According to Celsus, Jesus ancestors came from a Jewish village and his mother was a poor country girl who earned her living by spinning cloth
Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and adherents. In the Early modern period, in the face of rising powers in Europe. The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran–Roman Catholic dialogue notes, In calling the pope the antichrist, the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but even saints had called the bishop of Rome the antichrist when they wished to castigate his abuse of power.6, and 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, Article 26.4. In 1754, John Wesley published his Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament, in his notes on Revelation chapter 13, he commented, The whole succession of Popes from Gregory VII are undoubtedly antichrist. Protestants condemned the Catholic policy of celibacy for priests. Institutional anti-Catholicism in Britain and Ireland began with the English Reformation under Henry VIII, the Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the English crown to be the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England in place of the pope.
Any act of allegiance to the latter was considered treasonous because the papacy claimed both spiritual and political power over its followers and it was under this act that saints Thomas More and John Fisher were executed and became martyrs to the Catholic faith. Queen Mary, Henrys daughter, was a devout Catholic and as queen for five years tried to reverse the Reformation and she married the Catholic king of Spain and executed Protestant leaders. Protestants reviled her as Bloody Mary, the Recusancy Acts, making it a legal obligation to worship in the Anglican faith, date from Elizabeths reign. Assassination plots in which Catholics were prime movers fueled anti-Catholicism in England and these included the famous Gunpowder Plot, in which Guy Fawkes and other conspirators plotted to blow up the English Parliament while it was in session. The fictitious Popish Plot involving Titus Oates was a hoax that many Protestants believed to be true, the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689 involved the overthrow of King James II, of the Stuart dynasty, who favoured the Catholics, and his replacement by a Dutch Protestant.
For decades the Stuarts were supported by France in plots to invade and conquer Britain, finally after great political turmoil the Catholics were emancipated in the early 19th century—that is, freed from most of the penalties and restrictions they faced. Since World War II anti-Catholic feeling in England has abated somewhat, since then, dialogue has continued through envoys and standing conferences. Conflict and rivalry between Catholicism and Protestantism since the 1920, and especially since the 1960s, has centred in the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Anti-Catholicism in Britain was long represented by the burning of an effigy of the Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes at widespread celebrations on Guy Fawkes Night every 5 November and this celebration has, largely lost any anti-Catholic connotation. Only faint remains of anti-Catholicism are found today, as punishment for the rebellion of 1641, almost all lands owned by Irish Catholics were confiscated and given to Protestant settlers. Catholic / Protestant strife has been blamed for much of The Troubles, the English Protestant rulers killed many thousands of Irish people who refused to acknowledge the government and sought an alliance with Catholic France, Englands great enemy