Temple University is a state-related research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1884 by the Baptist minister Russell Conwell. In 1882, Conwell came to Pennsylvania to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working-class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules; these students dubbed "night owls", were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot. By 1907, the institution was incorporated as a university; as of 2017, more than 40,000 undergraduate and professional students were enrolled in more than 500 academic degree programs offered at sites across the globe, including eight campuses across Pennsylvania and Tokyo. Temple is among the world's largest providers of professional education, preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Temple University was founded in 1884 by Russell Conwell, a Yale-educated Boston lawyer and ordained Baptist minister, who had served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Conwell came to Pennsylvania in 1882 to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students dubbed "night owls," were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot; the Grace Baptist Church grew popular within the North Philadelphia area. A temporary board of trustees was created to handle the growing formalities associated with the church's programs; when the board conducted its first meeting they named Russell H. Conwell president of "The Temple College." Within the following months, Grace Baptist Church appointed a new board of trustees, printed official admissions files, issued stock to raise funds for new teaching facilities. Regardless of whether they had the resources to support the school, Conwell's desire was “to give education to those who were unable to get it through the usual channels”. Philadelphia granted a charter in 1888 to establish “The Temple College of Philadelphia”, but the city refused to grant authority to award academic degrees.
By 1888, the enrollment of the college was nearly 600. It was in 1907 that Temple College revised its institutional status and incorporated as a university. Legal recognition as a university enhanced Temple in noticeable ways including its reputation and graduate programs, overall enrollment, financial support. Over time, Temple expanded: Samaritan Hospital was founded, a Medical School was added, Temple merged with the Philadelphia Dental College. After the merger, Temple reincorporated as Temple University on December 12, 1907. On April 2, 1965, Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the Nobel peace prize was awarded the Temple University World Peace Prize. During his acceptance speech Pearson criticized American bombing of Vietnam: There are many factors which I am not in a position to weigh, but there does appear to be at least a possibility that a suspension of such air strikes against North Vietnam, at the right time, might provide the Hanoi authorities with an opportunity, if they wish to take it, to inject some flexibility into their policy without appearing to do so as the direct result of military pressure.
The speech infuriated President Lyndon B. Johnson who, the next day at Camp David, took Pearson out onto the terrace and began "laying into in no uncertain fashion". Pearson apologized for the speech. Since 1965, Temple has been a Pennsylvania state-related university, meaning the university receives state funds, subject to state appropriations, but is independently operated. Temple University has six campuses and sites across Pennsylvania, plus international campuses in Rome and Tokyo; the main campus is in North Philadelphia, about 1.5 miles north of Center City. It occupies 118 acres. Events for students and the public include concerts, clubs and lectures; the campus has notable landmarks. O'Connor Plaza surrounds the Founder's Garden between Liacouras Walk; the bronze statue of an owl, the university's mascot, is a popular photo spot at the heart of main campus. The Founder's Garden near Liacouras Walk, is the burial place of Russell Conwell, founder and 38-year president of Temple. A former Yale student, Civil War captain, Boston lawyer, Philadelphia minister, Conwell used the income from his famous “Acres of Diamonds” speech to fund Temple as a place where working-class Philadelphians might receive higher education.
It has been estimated that Conwell, who died at 82, helped more than 90,000 men and women pursue higher education. A bust of Conwell marks his grave. Another green area on campus is the Johnny Ring Garden, it is located near the faculty staff dining'Diamond Club', celebrates Conwell and Johnny Ring. The Bell Tower sits at 110 ft. tall in the center of the Main Campus between Paley Library and Beury Hall. The surrounding plaza and grassy area, the largest "green space" on the urban campus, are called "the beach"; the area is a meeting place and hangout location for students and their protests, speeches, political campaigning, charity drives. It hosts various official events such as Spring Fling. Health Sciences Campus is in North Philadelphia, spanning Broad Street from Allegheny Avenue to Venango street; the campus is home to a teaching hospital.
Allen Saunders was an American writer and cartoonist who wrote the comic strips Steve Roper and Mike Nomad, Mary Worth and Kerry Drake. He is credited with being the originator of the saying, "Life is what happens while you are busy making other plans" in 1957; the saying was popularised by John Lennon in the song "Beautiful Boy". His full name, John Allen Saunders, sometimes led to confusion with his son John, who continued two of his father's strips. Allen Saunders covered the gamut of comics genres: editorial, gag and melodrama. Big Chief Wahoo was popular in its day, a witty romp with puns and satire, but although it defended Native Americans and joked at "palefaces," it relied on exaggerated stereotypes for humor. Saunders admitted that "if we were doing Chief Wahoo today, we'd have problems." It was his serious dramas or "open-ended novels" Steve Roper, Mary Worth, Kerry Drake that showed his mature talents and reflected himself and his views on the human condition. Roper, like Saunders, was a journalist, decent, knew French, smoked a pipe, had run his college newspaper and faced tough challenges.
Through him, Saunders defended journalism while enjoying the action sequences he wrote for him and Nomad. He was fond of the "indigenous gimmick" technique, solving a problem by using something, ordinarily ignored in the setting, but he identified more with Mary Worth: "Mary and I have come, over the years, to think pretty much alike". As opposed to the existing action/adventure genre popular with male readers, his Mary Worth established the soap strip with its appeal to women, it in fact was singled out for praise by Eleanor Roosevelt. He inspired soap strip writers such as Nick Dallis, who started Rex Morgan, M. D. Judge Parker, Apartment 3-G, but he himself disliked the term "soap" because he saw an underlying unity in his own strips as "adventure strips" based on conflict—emotional conflict in Mary Worth, physical conflict in Steve Roper. One of his major contributions was to merge the two as Roper and Drake dealt with emotional conflicts in their personal lives and faced hard moral dilemmas.
Narrating conflicts in a range of social issues, Saunders wrote tight, fast-moving stories with plot twists and dramatic tension lightened by droll predicaments. He was known for "sophisticated scripts with literate dialogue", with twice as much said per daily strip as in the post-1979 versions, under him Nomad was a sharp, shrewd character, articulate in three languages. Saunders explored personality and motivation in the long series of people passing through his strips, they got to be "awfully real" to him, his scripts were interpreted and fleshed out by talented realist artists who made the characters and settings both attractive and believable. At the end of Saunders' autobiography, Nemo editor Rick Marschall called him a "dedicated craftsman and a flinty, memorable personality." That showed through in his 42-year output of popular dramas for his "paper actors." Born in Lebanon, Saunders enjoyed newspaper comics as a youth, he practiced drawing them. After graduating from Wabash College in 1920, he taught French there for seven years while working in the summers on his M.
A. at the University of Chicago and taking night classes at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. He drew editorial cartoons and the single-panel Miserable Moments, wrote detective fiction for magazines, worked in Chautauqua theater and wrote plays; these experiences converged in his comics career. In 1927, while on sabbatical from Wabash, he moved to Toledo, Ohio as a reporter and drama critic for the News-Bee, he stayed on with that newspaper. Eight years Elmer Woggon proposed a comic strip for Publishers Syndicate, The Great Gusto, which he would draw if Saunders did the writing, they shook on it. On November 23, 1936, it appeared in the newspapers as Big Chief Wahoo and scored a success—fortunately, as Saunders' regular job ended when the News-Bee folded in 1938. Gags gave way to adventure strips, so in 1940, he began to reshape the narrative into Steve Roper, centered on the escapades of a racket-busting photojournalist. In 1939, he was asked to write Apple Mary when its creator Martha Orr left, he developed it into Mary Worth's Family.
While the King Features Syndicate website insists that these two Marys are unrelated, Saunders' autobiography and interviews explicitly document the transition. The Depression-era apple vendor's full name was Mary Worth, Saunders explained his makeover of the character and how her deceased husband's stocks regained their value; the result was a new kind of continuity strip patterned on women's magazine stories of the time, as Mary met people with interesting lives and dispensed her advice when their problems reached a critical point. When his artist Dale Conner quit to do a strip of her own, Saunders persuaded Ken Ernst to take over the artwork in 1942, the strip became Mary Worth
Mary Worth is an American newspaper comic strip that has had an eight-decade run from 1938. Distributed by King Features Syndicate, this pioneering soap opera-style strip influenced several that followed, it was created by writer Allen Saunders and artist Dale Connor appeared under the pseudonym "Dale Allen". Ken Ernst succeeded Connor as artist in 1942. Mary Worth is associated with an older comic strip, Apple Mary, sometimes subtitled Mary Worth's Family, which dates from 1932 and featured the character "Apple Mary" Worth, as well several supporting characters who would continue into the new strip. Many reference sources state that Mary Worth was a continuation of Publishers Syndicate's Depression-era strip Apple Mary, created by Martha Orr in 1932, centering on an old woman who sold apples on the street and offered humble common sense. Though called "Apple Mary", the character's full name is given as Mary Worth in at least one 1935 strip. Apple Mary ran through 1938, at which point, writes comics historian Don Markstein, "It's thought that under a new writer and artist, it metamorphosed into Mary Worth.
As late as February 1940, the strip appeared as Apple Mary, subtitled Mary Worth's Family. King Features, which began syndicating Mary Worth in 1987, gives the debut year of Mary Worth as 1938, denies any connection between the strips, saying, "Contrary to popular belief, Mary Worth is not a continuation of the Depression-era favorite Apple Mary; the strip was created as a replacement feature offered to newspapers when Martha Orr, who created the dowdy apple peddler, retired. The only thing the new title character had in common with her predecessor was a first name."There is, significant evidence that the two comic strips share an unbroken narrative featuring identical characters. Besides the character of Mary Worth herself, Mary's grandson Dennie is featured in both comic strips appearing from 1934 to 1944, reappearing as an adult in stories published from 1955-1957, 1959, 1961, 1963. Mary's son, "Slim" Worth, is featured in stories appearing in 1936–37, 1940–41, 1961–62, 1963. Mary's friend, Bill Biff, is featured in stories appearing between 1935 and 1944.
Saunders himself recalled that Apple Mary became Mary Worth: Soon after our team took over, we changed the name of the strip to Mary Worth's Family. It took on its present title, Mary Worth. In her new role, the old street merchant was not usable. So Ken Ernst gave her a beauty treatment, some weight loss and a more appropriate wardrobe.... We put her applecart in storage, where it will remain in the event of another economic slump. By 1976, Mary Worth was being distributed by the Field Newspaper Syndicate to more than 300 newspapers worldwide. Saunders retired in 1979, Ernst died in 1985. Bill Ziegler, who did backgrounds on the strip for many years, took over the strip after Ernst's death, continuing from 1986 to 1990. In 1987, King Features Syndicate began syndicating Mary Worth. Other artists and writers who worked on the strip include Saunders' son, John Saunders, Ernst's son-in-law, Jim Armstrong. Former DC Comics artist Joe Giella took over the art in 1991 with Karen Moy writing the strip as of the death of John Saunders in 2003.
Giella said in 2010: When I first took over, the editor asked if I could take a few wrinkles off her face because the previous artist was making her look a little too old. So take a line off here, a line there, you're knocking off about 20 years, she doesn't have the bun, she has a love life, she's going out with a doctor, so I had to streamline her and take a little weight off. The L. A. Times ran a story with the headline." Giella retired from drawing the strip in 2016, with his last strip appearing July 23. June and Roy Brigman, who had begun drawing the Sunday strips in May 2016, took over full-time artistic duties upon Giella's retirement. Under Allen Saunders, the daily strips had four panels with multiple exchanges among the characters and several stories per year. Under his son, the norm became two panels, with less dialog and stories stretching as long as 18 months. Moy has sought to reverse that "glacial" pace and to show Worth as not only a "figure of common sense and compassion" but as "human" in her own flaws and experiencing "jealousy, self-doubt and anger".
Moy's handling of the strip during a 2006 plot line in which Mary was stalked by Aldo Kelrast, a man rumored to have killed his late wife, drew media attention because of perceived unintentional humor due to the character's resemblance to Captain Kangaroo. An intervention staged by Mary and her friends drove Aldo to returning to finding comfort in alcohol, which led to his death in a drunk driving accident, in which he drove off a cliff. A subsequent plot development was the arrival of Ella Byrd, another elderly dispenser of advice, who not only aroused feelings of jealousy and inadequacy in Mary, but as a psychic, alerted her to Dr. Jeff being in danger. Story lines introduced an additional foil, the alcoholic hospital administrator Jill whose anti-marriage diatribes put her into Mary's orbit when she offers to help Jeff's sister plan her wedding. Others include plot lines regarding Internet addiction, Mary's refusal to trade in her beloved PC for an iPad, a lengthy story line where Mary must confront an old flame, whose meddling with his daughter's love life led to her ex-boyfriend dying months alone and unloved.
As scripted by Saunders, each story was independent, though some po
Rex Morgan, M.D.
Rex Morgan, M. D. is an American soap opera comic strip, created in 1948 by psychiatrist Dr. Nicholas P. Dallis under the pseudonym Dal Curtis, it maintained a readership well over a half-century, in 2006 it was published in more than 300 U. S. newspapers and 14 foreign countries, according to King Features Syndicate. In 2013, Rex Morgan, M. D. celebrated its 65th year in print. The name for the strip was inspired by the real life Rex S. Morgan, Sr. the U. S. Army's a popular Philadelphia TV personality in the 1960s; the strip's look and content was influenced by the work of Allen Saunders and Ken Ernst on Mary Worth. Syndicated by Publishers Syndicate and by Field Newspaper Syndicate, Rex Morgan, M. D. is now at King Features Syndicate. The story centers on Dr. Rex Morgan, who in 1948 moves to the fictional small town of Glenwood to take over a late friend's practice. Helping him grapple with a dizzying array of medical problems is his old friend's office manager and nurse, June Gale. Morgan and Gale collaborated in resolving the medical and emotional problems of patients and friends over the years.
They married in 1995, had their first child, a daughter they named Sarah June Morgan, several years later. Their second child, Michael Dallis Morgan, was introduced on 29 November 2015, an adopted child, joined the family in 2018. Rex and June now operate their own free clinic, they have a dog named Abbey. The strip has long been praised for its blunt tackling of social issues and taboo subjects, such as drug abuse, domestic violence, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, organ transplants and sexual harassment; the story's constant realism about these issues has led groups such as the Leahy Foundation to use Rex Morgan as a teaching tool. In the case of the Leahy Foundation, the strip has been used to teach their students about epilepsy at Harvard University; some issues in the strip's early years, proved too controversial. In 1950, the Newark News refused to run one series in which a nurse tried to euthanize her sick father; the paper wrote that the sequences "dealt with an attempted mercy killing and had no place on this comic page."Dallis claimed he created the strip to inform the general public about medical issues in an entertaining manner.
For instance, one continuity from 1970 depicted the plight of an attractive young woman who experienced gaps of "missing time": Morgan swiftly diagnosed her as suffering from petit mal, an obscure but genuine form of epilepsy. In years, the story plots moved away from medical themes as Rex and June alternated in stories, confronting threats and danger from a variety of malfeasants. A popular story took place in 2006, in which longtime character Dr. Troy Gainer was revealed to be a fraud. Beginning in 2016, artist-writer Terry Beatty put Rex back in medical settings, either at his clinic or in the hospital. Dallis died in July 1991. Woody Wilson became the writer, his name appeared in September 1991. From 1948 to 1978, the strip was drawn with backgrounds by John Frank Edgington. Edgington retired in 1976, their team was succeeded from 1979 to 1981 by the Pirates assistant Frank Springer. Fernando Da Silva took over the strip in 1982 in 1983 Tony DiPreta became the main artist. In 2000, long-time DC Comics artist Graham Nolan began a 13-year stint.
On 30 December 2013, Terry Beatty made his debut as the strip's artist. In spring 2016 Wilson left and Beatty became the writer. Uncredited assistants during the 1970s included Alex Kotzky and André LeBlanc. With the changes in artists, the character have been known to change appearance. With Nolan's art first appearing in 2000, a complete overhaul of the characters' physical appearances was seen. "Parents are strange animals, Jeffrey! They keep loving us when they should be thrashing us!" —20 November 1988. "No, Mr. Roberts, things are not all right!" —24 April 2014. "June, you never mentioned your husband was so devastatingly handsome!" —3 September 2014. "You just got a car and driver, Sarah…don't push it!" —28 December 2014. Bugsy the bodyguard: "Do you carry a piece?" Wade the lawyer: "Only a smartphone... loaded with apps!" — 6 June 2015. In The Simpsons episode "Krusty Gets Kancelled", Homer Simpson is reading the funny pages and comments, "Ah, Rex Morgan, M. D. you have the prescription for the daily blues."
Cartoonist Bill Watterson drew his syndicated newspaper comic strip Calvin and Hobbes in the realistic style of Rex Morgan, M. D. when depicting six-year-olds Calvin and Susie playing "house." EC Comics' M. D. Medic Rex Morgan, M. D. at King Features Rex Morgan, M. D. at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on January 14, 2017. Rex Morgan, 67, Tv Personality During The'60s
Washington & Jefferson College
Washington & Jefferson College is a private liberal arts college in Washington, Pennsylvania. The college traces its origin to three log cabin colleges in Washington County established by three Presbyterian missionaries to the American frontier in the 1780s: John McMillan, Thaddeus Dod, Joseph Smith; these early schools grew into two competing academies, with Jefferson College located in Canonsburg and Washington College located in Washington. The two colleges merged in 1865 to form Jefferson College; the 60 acre campus has more than 40 buildings, with the oldest dating to 1793. The college's academic emphasis is on the liberal arts and the sciences, with a focus on preparing students for graduate and professional schools. Campus activities include various religious and general interest clubs, as well as academic and professional-themed organizations; the college has a strong history of competing literary societies, dating back before the union of Jefferson and Washington Colleges. Students operate a college radio station, a campus newspaper, a literary journal.
The athletic program competes in NCAA Division III. The football team has been successful over its history competing in the 1922 Rose Bowl. A large majority of students participate in intramural athletics. Nearly all students live on campus and one third are members of fraternities or sororities. A number of noteworthy alumni have attended the college or its predecessor institutions, including James G. Blaine, William Holmes McGuffey, Joseph Ruggles Wilson, the father of President Woodrow Wilson, Pete Henry. Washington & Jefferson College traces its origin to three log cabin colleges established by three frontier clergymen in the 1780s: John McMillan, Thaddeus Dod, Joseph Smith; the three men, all graduates from the College of New Jersey, came to present-day Washington County to plant churches and spread Presbyterianism to what was the American frontier beyond the Appalachian Mountains. John McMillan, the most prominent of the three founders because of his strong personality and longevity, came to the area in 1775 and built his log cabin college in 1780 near his church in Chartiers.
Thaddeus Dod, known as a keen scholar, built his log cabin college in Lower Ten Mile in 1781. Joseph Smith taught classical studies in his college, called "The Study," at Buffalo. Washington Academy was chartered by the Pennsylvania General Assembly on September 24, 1787; the first members of the board of trustees included Reverends Smith. After a difficult search for a headmaster, in which the trustees consulted Benjamin Franklin, the trustees unanimously selected Thaddeus Dod, considered to be the best scholar in western Pennsylvania. Amid financial difficulties and unrest from the Whiskey Rebellion, the Academy held no classes from 1791 to 1796. In 1792, the Academy secured four lots at Wheeling and Lincoln street from William Hoge and began construction on the stone Academy Building. During the Whiskey Rebellion, portions of David Bradford's militia camped on a hillside that would become home to the unified Washington & Jefferson College. In October 1792, after a year's delay from its official incorporation resulting from "trouble with Indians," McMillan was chosen as the headmaster and Canonsburg was chosen as the location for the "Canonsburg Academy."
At a subsequent unknown date, McMillan transferred his students from the log cabin to Canonsburg Academy. Canonsburg Academy was chartered by the General Assembly on March 11, 1794, thus placing it ahead of its sister school, Washington Academy, without a faculty, students, or facilities. On January 15, 1802, with McMillan as president of the board, the General Assembly granted a charter for "a college at Canonsburgh." In 1802, Canonsburg Academy was reconstituted as Jefferson College, with John McMillan serving as the first President of the Board of Trustees. In 1806, Matthew Brown petitioned the Pennsylvania General Assembly to grant Washington Academy a charter, allowing it to be re-christened as Washington College. At various times over the next 60 years, the various parties within the two colleges pursued unification with each other, but the question of where the unified college would be located thwarted those efforts. In 1817, a disagreement over a perceived agreement for unification erupted into "The College War" and threatened the existence of both colleges.
In the ensuing years, both colleges began to undertake risky financial moves over-selling scholarships. Thanks to the leadership of Matthew Brown, Jefferson College was in a stronger position to weather the financial storm for a longer period. Desperate for funds, Washington College accepted an offer from the Synod of Wheeling to take control of the college, a move, supposed to stabilize the finances for a period of time. However, Washington College undertook another series of risky financial moves that crippled its finances. Following the Civil War, both colleges were short on students and on funds, causing them to join together as Washington & Jefferson College in 1865; the charter provided for the college to operate at both Canonsburg and Washington, a position that caused significant difficulty for the administration trying to rescue the college amid ill feelings over the unification. Jonathan Edwards, a pastor from Baltimore, president of Hanover College, was elected the first president of the unified Washington & Jefferson College on April 4, 1866.
Edwards encountered significant challenges, including the difficulties of administering a college across two campuses, as well as old prejudices and hard feelings among those still loyal to either Jefferson College or Washing
A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes. Strips are drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist; as the name implies, comic strips can be humorous. Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s.
All are called, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name. In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement. Storytelling using a sequence of pictures has existed through history. One medieval European example in textile form is the Bayeux Tapestry. Printed examples emerged in 19th-century Germany and in 18th-century England, where some of the first satirical or humorous sequential narrative drawings were produced. William Hogarth's 18th century English cartoons include both narrative sequences, such as A Rake's Progress, single panels; the Biblia pauperum, a tradition of picture Bibles beginning in the Middle Ages, sometimes depicted Biblical events with words spoken by the figures in the miniatures written on scrolls coming out of their mouths—which makes them to some extent ancestors of the modern cartoon strips.
In China, with its traditions of block printing and of the incorporation of text with image, experiments with what became lianhuanhua date back to 1884. The first newspaper comic strips appeared in North America in the late 19th century; the Yellow Kid is credited as one of the first newspaper strips. However, the art form combining words and pictures developed and there are many examples which led up to the comic strip. Swiss author and caricature artist Rodolphe Töpffer is considered the father of the modern comic strips, his illustrated stories such as Histoire de M. Vieux Bois, first published in the USA in 1842 as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck or Histoire de Monsieur Jabot, inspired subsequent generations of German and American comic artists. In 1865, German painter and caricaturist Wilhelm Busch created the strip Max and Moritz, about two trouble-making boys, which had a direct influence on the American comic strip. Max and Moritz was a series of moralistic tales in the vein of German children's stories such as Struwwelpeter.
Max and Moritz provided an inspiration for German immigrant Rudolph Dirks, who created the Katzenjammer Kids in 1897. Familiar comic-strip iconography such as stars for pain, sawing logs for snoring, speech balloons, thought balloons originated in Dirks' strip. Hugely popular, Katzenjammer Kids occasioned one of the first comic-strip copyright ownership suits in the history of the medium; when Dirks left William Randolph Hearst for the promise of a better salary under Joseph Pulitzer, it was an unusual move, since cartoonists deserted Pulitzer for Hearst. In a unusual court decision, Hearst retained the rights to the name "Katzenjammer Kids", while creator Dirks retained the rights to the characters. Hearst promptly hired Harold Knerr to draw his own version of the strip. Dirks renamed his version Fritz. Thus, two versions distributed by rival syndicates graced the comics pages for decades. Dirks' version distributed by United Feature Syndicate, ran until 1979. In the United States, the great popularity of comics sprang from the newspaper war between Pulitzer and Hearst.
The Little Bears was the first American comic strip with recurring characters, while the first color comic supplement was published by the Chicago Inter-Ocean sometime in the latter half of 1892, followed by the New York Journal's first color Sunday comic pages in 1897. On January 31, 1912, Hearst introduced the nation's first full daily comic page in his New York Evening Journal; the history of this newspaper rivalry and the rapid appearance of comic strips in most major American newspapers is discussed by Ian Gordon. Numerous events in newspaper comic strips have reverberated throughout society at large, though few of these events occurred in recent years, owing to the declining role of the newspaper comic strip as an entertainment form; the longest-running American comic strips are: The Katzenjammer Kids Gasoline Alley Ripley's Believe It or Not! Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Thimble Theater/Popeye Blondie Bringing Up Father (1913–2000.
Steve Roper and Mike Nomad
Steve Roper and Mike Nomad was an American adventure comic strip that ran from November 23, 1936, to December 26, 2004. Distributed by Publishers Syndicate and by Field Newspaper Syndicate, it ended at King Features Syndicate. Despite the changes in title, characters and authors, the entire 68-year run formed a single evolving story, from an Indian who teamed up with an adventurous young photojournalist to two longtime friends ready to retire after their long, eventful careers. Created by Allen Saunders and Elmer Woggon, the strip was written by Saunders for more than forty years until it was taken over by his son John Saunders, who wrote it for another 24 years. Woggon illustrated the strip from its inception until the mid-1940s; the strip was proposed by Elmer Woggon as The Great Gusto, drawn by himself and written by Allen Saunders. J. Mortimer Gusto was a freeloading opportunist based on the film persona of W. C. Fields. In his autobiography, Saunders said, but the syndicate preferred his sidekick Wahoo, so the proposal was revamped to center on him, the strip debuted on November 23, 1936, as Big Chief Wahoo.
Wahoo was a short Native American in a ten-gallon hat, played for laughs but showed courage and common sense. It was whites who were the targets of the jokes, of vigorous defenses of Native Americans. Wahoo was rich due to the discovery of oil on his land back in Tepee Town, headed to New York City to find his girlfriend Minnie Ha-Cha, who had gone away to college and was now a beautiful singer in a nightclub. On the way, he was joined by Gusto, who liked Wahoo's medicine so much that he bottled it up for sale as Ka-Zowie Kure-All. Gusto continued as a support character through August 1939, was dropped; the strip revolved around humorous tales, such as stories about people trying to cheat Wahoo out of his money or fish-out-of-water tales of Wahoo in New York or Hollywood. But from the beginning, it was a continuity strip, had moved into serious adventure by 1940, when a dashing young photojournalist named Steve Roper was introduced. By World War II, Roper was the lead in war-oriented adventures, the strip was retitled Chief Wahoo and Steve Roper in 1944 Steve Roper and Wahoo in 1946, in 1947 Steve Roper, as Wahoo and Minnie were written out.
As a different kind of strip now, its artwork lost its earlier cartoonishness, ghosted by artists like Woggon's brother Bill Woggon, Don Dean, Pete Hoffman. But Woggon remained the strip's letterer and researcher until 1977, shortly before his death in 1978. After his World War II service in Navy intelligence, Roper got a job at Spotshot magazine, from on the main action was set in New York City; as good with his fists as with his cameras and typewriter, he built a reputation as a racket-busting ace reporter and editor. The strip's popularity grew: after the March 1948 birth of a son to Roper's friends Sonny and Cupcake Brawnski, there was a national write-in of suggested names from readers. In 1951, Steve got engaged to his "boss lady," Kit Karson, but when he was framed on a story in 1953 and broke jail, she abandoned him. Vindicating himself in a major crime ring bust, he was snapped up by the competition, crusty Major J. Calhoun McCoy at Tell magazine, he continued exposing crimes and frauds on routine assignments like covering rock stars or beauty pageants, but his sense of moral outrage kept landing him in fiendish criminal traps that nearly finished him — and some of the crooks he sent "up the river" to prison with his exposés came back for revenge.
Meanwhile, on the domestic side, in 1953 he took in a Korean war orphan, So-Hi Chong, as his ward, intending to adopt him. But after 1958, So-Hi was not seen again in the strip going off to live with the Brawnskis. On July 12, 1954, the artwork was taken over by William Overgard, who on June 17, 1956 introduced a character whom he had tried unsuccessfully to feature in a strip of his own. Mike Nomad had served in World War II as a U. S Marine commando. After working in oil fields, he looked up Roper to verify his Proof photo of a smuggler he thought he had killed, they solved the case together, Roper got him a job at Proof as a truck driver. In 1962, Nomad got his own room over the restaurant of Chinese wisdom-quoting Ma-Jong, she became a permanent member of the cast as his landlady. Another recurring character was Tiger Towers; the two men were different: pipe-smoking Roper was a fast-thinking, college-educated "straight arrow," the adopted son of a wealthy San Francisco family, while flat-topped Nomad was a tough, street-smart antihero, loyal to friends and family but not averse to deceiving, AWOL from work as he barged into risky situations without thinking them out.
But as McCoy pointed out, a "Nomad" was a "wanderer," and Roper was kept on the move by his career. Their friendship and interaction as men became a lasting theme of the strip. In the next 25 years