Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities. The field developed from comparative psychology, including the study of animal conditioning and learning, it has been influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary psychology, hence the alternative name cognitive ethology is sometimes used. Many behaviors associated with the term animal intelligence are subsumed within animal cognition. Researchers have examined animal cognition in mammals, reptiles and invertebrates. Coined by 19th-century British psychologist C. Lloyd Morgan, Morgan's Canon remains a fundamental precept of comparative psychology. In its developed form, it states that: In no case is an animal activity to be interpreted in terms of higher psychological processes if it can be interpreted in terms of processes which stand lower in the scale of psychological evolution and development. In other words, Morgan believed that anthropomorphic approaches to animal behavior were fallacious, that people should only consider behaviour as, for example, purposive or affectionate, if there is no other explanation in terms of the behaviours of more primitive life-forms to which we do not attribute those faculties.
The behavior of non-human animals has captivated human imagination from antiquity, over the centuries many writers have speculated about the animal mind, or its absence. Speculation about animal intelligence yielded to scientific study after Darwin placed humans and animals on a continuum, although Darwin's anecdotal approach to the topic would not pass scientific muster on. Unsatisfied with the anecdotal method of Darwin and his protégé J. G. Romanes, E. L. Thorndike brought animal behavior into the laboratory for objective scrutiny. Thorndike's careful observations of the escape of cats and chicks from puzzle boxes led him to conclude that what appears to the naive human observer to be intelligent behavior may be attributable to simple associations. According to Thorndike, using Morgan's Canon, the inference of animal reason, insight, or consciousness is unnecessary and misleading. At about the same time, I. P. Pavlov began his seminal studies of conditioned reflexes in dogs. Pavlov abandoned attempts to infer canine mental processes.
He was, willing to propose unseen physiological processes that might explain his observations. The work of Thorndike, Pavlov and a little of the outspoken behaviorist John B. Watson set the direction of much research on animal behavior for more than half a century. During this time there was considerable progress in understanding simple associations. Many experiments on conditioning followed; the most explicit dismissal of the idea that mental processes control behavior was the radical behaviorism of Skinner. This view seeks to explain behavior, including "private events" like mental images by reference to the environmental contingencies impinging on the human or animal. Despite the predominantly behaviorist orientation of research before 1960, the rejection of mental processes in animals was not universal during those years. Influential exceptions included, for example, Wolfgang Köhler and his insightful chimpanzees and Edward Tolman whose proposed cognitive map was a significant contribution to subsequent cognitive research in both humans and animals.
Beginning around 1960, a "cognitive revolution" in research on humans spurred a similar transformation of research with animals. Inference to processes not directly observable became acceptable and commonplace. An important proponent of this shift in thinking was Donald O. Hebb, who argued that "mind" is a name for processes in the head that control complex behavior, that it is both necessary and possible to infer those processes from behavior. Animals came to be seen as "goal seeking agents that acquire, store and internally process information at many levels of cognitive complexity"; the remainder of this article touches many areas of research that have appeared or progressed since this seminal change in thinking, many of the theoretical and empirical findings that have captured wide attention. The acceleration of research on animal cognition in the last 50 years or so has led to a rapid expansion in the variety of species studied and methods employed; the remarkable behavior of large-brained animals such as primates and cetacea has claimed special attention, but all sorts of mammals large and small, fish, ants and others have been brought into the laboratory or observed in controlled field studies.
In the laboratory, animals push levers, pull strings, dig for food, swim in water mazes, or respond to images on computer screens in discrimination, attention and categorization experiments. Careful field studies explore memory for food caches, navigation by stars, tool use, identification of conspecifics, many other matters. Studies focus on the behavior of animals in their natural environments and discuss the putative function of the behavior for the propagation and survival of the species; these develop
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it. Experimental psychologists employ human participants and animal subjects to study a great many topics, including sensation & perception, cognition, motivation, emotion. Experimental psychology emerged as a modern academic discipline in the 19th century when Wilhelm Wundt introduced a mathematical and experimental approach to the field. Wundt founded the first psychology laboratory in Germany. Other experimental psychologists, including Hermann Ebbinghaus and Edward Titchener, included introspection among their experimental methods. Charles Bell was a British physiologist, whose main contribution was research involving the nervous system, he wrote a pamphlet summarizing his research on rabbits. His research concluded that sensory nerves enter at the posterior roots of the spinal cord and motor nerves emerge from the anterior roots of the spinal cord. Eleven years a French physiologist Francois Magendie published the same findings without being aware of Bell’s research.
Due to Bell not publishing his research, the discovery was called the Bell-Magendie law. Bell's discovery disproved the belief that nerves transmitted either spirits. Weber was a German physician, credited with being one of the founders of experimental psychology, his main interests were the sense of touch and kinesthesis. His most memorable contribution is the suggestion that judgments of sensory differences are relative and not absolute; this relativity is expressed in "Weber's Law," which suggests that the just-noticeable difference, or jnd is a constant proportion of the ongoing stimulus level. Weber's Law is stated as an equation: Δ I I = k, where I is the original intensity of stimulation, Δ I is the addition to it required for the difference to be perceived, k is a constant. Thus, for k to remain constant, Δ I must rise as I increases. Weber’s law is considered the first quantitative law in the history of psychology. Fechner published in 1860 what is considered to be the first work of experimental psychology, "Elemente der Psychophysik."
Some historians date the beginning of experimental psychology from the publication of "Elemente." Weber was not a psychologist, it was Fechner who realized the importance of Weber’s research to psychology. Fechner was profoundly interested in establishing a scientific study of the mind-body relationship, which became known as psychophysics. Much of Fechner's research focused on the measurement of psychophysical thresholds and just-noticeable differences, he invented the psychophysical method of limits, the method of constant stimuli, the method of adjustment, which are still in use. Oswald Külpe is the main founder of the Würzburg School in Germany, he was a pupil of Wilhelm Wundt for about twelve years. Unlike Wundt, Külpe believed. In 1883 he wrote Grundriss der Psychologie, which had scientific facts and no mention of thought; the lack of thought in his book is odd because the Würzburg School put a lot of emphasis on mental set and imageless thought. The work of the Würzburg School was a milestone in the development of experimental psychology.
The School was founded by a group of psychologists led by Oswald Külpe, it provided an alternative to the structuralism of Edward Titchener and Wilhelm Wundt. Those in the School focused on mental operations such as mental set and imageless thought. Mental set affects problem solving without the awareness of the individual. According to Külpe, imageless thought consists of pure mental acts that do not involve mental images. An example of mental set was provided by William Bryan, an American student working in Külpe’s laboratory. Bryan presented subjects with cards; the subjects were told to attend to the syllables, in consequence they did not remember the colors of the nonsense syllables. Such results made people question the validity of introspection as a research tool, led to a decline of voluntarism and structuralism; the work of the Würzburg School influenced many Gestalt psychologists, including Max Wertheimer. Experimental psychology was introduced into the United States by George Trumbull Ladd, who founded Yale University's psychological laboratory in 1879.
In 1887, Ladd published Elements of Physiological Psychology, the first American textbook that extensively discussed experimental psychology. Between Ladd's founding of the Yale Laboratory and his textbook, the center of experimental psychology in the US shifted to Johns Hopkins University, where George Hall and Charles Sanders Peirce were extending and qualifying Wundt's work. With his student Joseph Jastrow, Charles S. Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights. Peirce's experiment inspired other researchers in psychology and education, which developed a research tradition of randomized experiments in laboratories and specialized textbooks in the 1800s; the Peirce–Jastrow experiments were conducted as part of Peirce's pragmatic program to understand human perception. While Peirce was making advance
Web of Science
Web of Science is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service produced by the Institute for Scientific Information maintained by Clarivate Analytics, that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline. A citation index is built on the fact that citations in science serve as linkages between similar research items, lead to matching or related scientific literature, such as journal articles, conference proceedings, etc. In addition, literature which shows the greatest impact in a particular field, or more than one discipline, can be located through a citation index. For example, a paper's influence can be determined by linking to all the papers. In this way, current trends and emerging fields of research can be assessed. Eugene Garfield, the "father of citation indexing of academic literature," who launched the Science Citation Index, which in turn led to the Web of Science, wrote: Citations are the formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common.
A citation index is built around these linkages. It identifies the sources of the citations. Anyone conducting a literature search can find from one to dozens of additional papers on a subject just by knowing one, cited, and every paper, found provides a list of new citations with which to continue the search. The simplicity of citation indexing is one of its main strengths. Web of Science is described as a unifying research tool which enables the user to acquire and disseminate database information in a timely manner; this is accomplished because of the creation of a common vocabulary, called ontology, for varied search terms and varied data. Moreover, search terms generate related information across categories. Acceptable content for Web of Science is determined by an evaluation and selection process based on the following criteria: impact, timeliness, peer review, geographic representation. Web of Science employs various analysis capabilities. First, citation indexing is employed, enhanced by the capability to search for results across disciplines.
The influence, impact and methodology of an idea can be followed from its first instance, notice, or referral to the present day. This technology points to a deficiency with the keyword-only method of searching. Second, subtle trends and patterns relevant to the literature or research of interest, become apparent. Broad trends indicate significant topics of the day, as well as the history relevant to both the work at hand, particular areas of study. Third, trends can be graphically represented. Expanding the coverage of Web of Science, in November 2009 Thomson Reuters introduced Century of Social Sciences; this service contains files which trace social science research back to the beginning of the 20th century, Web of Science now has indexing coverage from the year 1900 to the present. As of 3 September 2014, the multidisciplinary coverage of the Web of Science encompasses over 50,000 scholarly books, 12,000 journals and 160,000 conference proceedings; the selection is made on the basis of impact evaluations and comprise open-access journals, spanning multiple academic disciplines.
The coverage includes: the sciences, social sciences and humanities, goes across disciplines. However, Web of Science does not index all journals. There is a positive correlation between Impact Factor and CiteScore. However, analysis by Elsevier has identified 216 journals from 70 publishers to be in the top 10 percent of the most-cited journals in their subject category based on the CiteScore while they did not have Impact Factor, it appears that Impact Factor does not provide a comprehensive and an unbiased coverage of high quality journals. Similar results can be observed by comparing Impact Factor with SCImago Journal Rank. Furthermore, as of September 3, 2014 the total file count of the Web of Science was 90 million records, which included over a billion cited references; this citation service on average indexes around 65 million items per year, it is described as the largest accessible citation database. Titles of foreign-language publications are translated into English and so cannot be found by searches in the original language.
The Web of Science Core Collection consists of six online databases: Science Citation Index Expanded covers more than 8,500 notable journals encompassing 150 disciplines. Coverage is from the year 1900 to the present day. Social Sciences Citation Index covers more than 3,000 journals in social science disciplines. Range of coverage is from the year 1900 to the present day. Arts & Humanities Citation Index covers more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals starting from 1975. In addition, 250 major scientific and social sciences journals are covered. Emerging Sources Citation Index covers over 5,000 journals in the sciences, social science, humanities. Book Citation Index covers more than 60,000 editorially selected books starting from 2005. Conference Proceedings Citation Index covers more than 160,000 conference titles in the Sciences starting from 1990 to the present day Since 2008, the Web of Science hosts a number of regional citation indices; the Chinese Science Citation Database, produced in partnership with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was the first one in a language other than English.
It was followed in 2013 by the SciELO Citation Index, covering Brazil, Portugal, the Cari
Wolfson College, Oxford
Wolfson College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Located in north Oxford along the River Cherwell, Wolfson is an all-graduate college with over sixty governing body fellows, in addition to both research and junior research fellows, it caters from the humanities to the social and natural sciences. Like the majority of Oxford's newer colleges, it has been coeducational since its foundation in 1965; the liberal philosopher Sir Isaiah Berlin was the college's first president, was instrumental not only in its founding, but establishing its tradition of academic excellence and egalitarianism. The college houses the annual Isaiah Berlin Lecture; the current president of Wolfson College is Tim Hitchens. As of 2006, the college had a financial endowment of £33.5 million. Wolfson's first president Sir Isaiah Berlin, the influential political philosopher and historian of ideas, was instrumental in the college's founding in 1965; the college began its existence with the name Iffley College, which offered a new community for graduate students at Oxford in natural and social sciences.
Twelve other colleges of the university provided grants to make the establishment of Iffley possible. As of 1965, the college had a building. Berlin set out to change this securing support from the Wolfson Foundation and Ford Foundation in 1966 to establish a separate site for the college, which included'Cherwell', the former residence of J. S. Haldane and his family, as well as new buildings built around it. Isaac Wolfson generously contributed to the foundation of the college. In recognition of his contribution the college's name was changed to Wolfson College, but Berlin's work as the president of the college was far from over. Formally taking over the reins of the college in 1967, he envisioned Wolfson to be a centre of academic excellence but, unlike many other colleges at Oxford bound it to a strong egalitarian and democratic ethos. In Berlin's words, the college would be'new and unpyramided'. If Berlin was the inspiration and beacon for this most modern of academic institutions, its birth and early shape would not have happened without the tireless backroom work of Berlin's Vice-President, Michael Brock of Corpus Christi College.
They were a formidable team and ensured Berlin's ideals were achieved. Wolfson is the most egalitarian college at Oxford, with few barriers between students and fellows. There is no high table, only one common room for all the members of the college, gowns are worn only on special occasions. Graduate students participate in General Meetings. Berlin's reputation and presence in the early years helped shape the intellectual character of the college, attracting many distinguished fellows like Niko Tinbergen, who won a Nobel Prize for his studies in animal behaviour in 1973. Berlin's own prominence in the humanities helped attract many graduate students like Henry Hardy, interested in political philosophy and the history of ideas; the main building of the college, designed by Powell and Moya Architects and completed in 1974, is one of the most modern main buildings of all the Oxford colleges. It has three quadrangles: the central quadrangle named the Berlin Quad after Isaiah Berlin, the Tree Quad built around established trees, the River Quad into which the River Cherwell has been diverted to form a punt harbour.
The main building and footbridge across the river were grade II listed in June 2011. The college has student accommodation in the main college building, in three child-friendly courtyards surrounded by family housing, has similar accommodation in a scattering of purpose-built blocks, including the Robin Gandy Buildings, in existing houses on Linton Road, Chadlington Road and Garford Road; the college owns the adjacent house and orchard, occupied by the Bishop of Oxford. The college library, which occupies both the floors of one wing of the college's main building, is open to members of the college; the main library is on the first floor, approachable from the side of the dining hall and the lodge, two other collections, called the Floersheimer Room and the Hornik Memorial Room are on the ground floor. A mezzanine floor in the main library has books as well as carrels for individual use of graduate students of the college; the library has emerged as an extensive collection of books and journals.
The college has one common room for fellows and graduate students. The common room has two floors: the upper common room, with an attached terrace overlooking the punting harbour, which has a bar and a coffee counter, the lower common room, which has magazines and newspapers; the college's hall is one of the few in the university to have common table. The'Haldane Room', a hall adjacent to the dining hall proper, is where formal meals the convocation lunch, are held; the college owns grounds on both sides of the river, including two meadows on the opposite side, towards Marston. It has a small but well maintained garden with mature trees behind its main building, beside the river; the garden is landscaped well on the river-bank, with a flight of steps leading up to a green-house and a sundial. The college has a smaller garden beside the Robin Gandy building, which stands on the banks of the river; the college has its own squash court and croquet lawn, takes part in many university sporting events, including cricket and the yearly rowing competition.
It is one of the few in Oxford with its own punting harbour, with a fleet of punts for use by all members of the college. The Wolfson College Boat Club is on the ground floor of'C' Block. In 2008, Wolfson had 61
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. It is one of the most recognizable scientific journals in the world, was ranked the world's most cited scientific journal by the Science Edition of the 2010 Journal Citation Reports and is ascribed an impact factor of 40.137, making it one of the world's top academic journals. It is one of the few remaining academic journals that publishes original research across a wide range of scientific fields. Research scientists are the primary audience for the journal, but summaries and accompanying articles are intended to make many of the most important papers understandable to scientists in other fields and the educated public. Towards the front of each issue are editorials and feature articles on issues of general interest to scientists, including current affairs, science funding, scientific ethics and research breakthroughs. There are sections on books and short science fiction stories; the remainder of the journal consists of research papers, which are dense and technical.
Because of strict limits on the length of papers the printed text is a summary of the work in question with many details relegated to accompanying supplementary material on the journal's website. There are many fields of research in which important new advances and original research are published as either articles or letters in Nature; the papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards. Fewer than 8% of submitted papers are accepted for publication. In 2007 Nature received the Prince of Asturias Award for Humanity; the enormous progress in science and mathematics during the 19th century was recorded in journals written in German or French, as well as in English. Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances in the latter half of the 19th century. In English the most respected scientific journals of this time were the refereed journals of the Royal Society, which had published many of the great works from Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday through to early works from Charles Darwin.
In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the 1850s to the 1860s. According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as "organs of science", in essence, a means of connecting the public to the scientific world. Nature, first created in 1869, was not the first magazine of its kind in Britain. One journal to precede Nature was Recreative Science: A Record and Remembrancer of Intellectual Observation, created in 1859, began as a natural history magazine and progressed to include more physical observational science and technical subjects and less natural history; the journal's name changed from its original title to Intellectual Observer: A Review of Natural History, Microscopic Research, Recreative Science and later to the Student and Intellectual Observer of Science and Art. While Recreative Science had attempted to include more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology, the Intellectual Observer broadened itself further to include literature and art as well.
Similar to Recreative Science was the scientific journal Popular Science Review, created in 1862, which covered different fields of science by creating subsections titled "Scientific Summary" or "Quarterly Retrospect", with book reviews and commentary on the latest scientific works and publications. Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, established in 1864 and 1868, respectively; the journal most related to Nature in its editorship and format was The Reader, created in 1864. These similar journals all failed; the Popular Science Review survived longest, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in 1881. The Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in 1885; the Reader terminated in 1867, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, until June 1870. Not long after the conclusion of The Reader, a former editor, Norman Lockyer, decided to create a new scientific journal titled Nature, taking its name from a line by William Wordsworth: "To the solid ground of nature trusts the Mind that builds for aye".
First owned and published by Alexander Macmillan, Nature was similar to its predecessors in its attempt to "provide cultivated readers with an accessible forum for reading about advances in scientific knowledge." Janet Browne has proposed that "far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived and raised to serve polemic purpose." Many of the early editions of Nature consisted of articles written by members of a group that called itself the X Club, a group of scientists known for having liberal and somewhat controversial scientific beliefs relative to the time period. Initiated by Thomas Henry Huxley, the group consisted of such important scientists as Joseph Dalton Hooker, Herbert Spencer, John Tyndall, along with another five scientists and mathematicians, it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasti
University College, Oxford
University College, is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It has a claim to being the oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1249 by William of Durham; as of 2018, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £132.7m. The college is associated with a number of influential people. Notable alumni include Clement Attlee, Harold Wilson, Bill Clinton, Neil Gorsuch, Stephen Hawking, C. S. Lewis, V. S. Naipaul and Percy Bysshe Shelley. A legend arose in the 14th century that the college was founded by King Alfred in 872; this explains why the college arms are those attributed to King Alfred, why the Visitor is always the reigning monarch, why the college celebrated its millennium in 1872. Most agree, he bequeathed money to support ten or twelve masters of arts studying divinity, a property which became known as Aula Universitatis was bought in 1253. This date still allows the claim that Univ is the oldest of the Oxford colleges, although this is contested by Balliol College and Merton College.
Univ was only open to fellows studying theology until the 16th century. The college acquired four properties on its current site south of the High Street in 1332 and 1336 and built a quadrangle in the 15th century; as it grew in size and wealth, its medieval buildings were replaced with the current Main Quadrangle in the 17th century. Although the foundation stone was placed on 17 April 1634, the disruption of the English Civil War meant it was not completed until sometime in 1676. Radcliffe Quad followed more by 1719, the library was built in 1861. Like many of Oxford's colleges, University College accepted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, having been an institution for men only; the main entrance to the college is on the High Street and its grounds are bounded by Merton Street and Magpie Lane. The college is divided by Logic Lane, owned by the college and runs through the centre; the western side of the college is occupied by the library, the hall, the chapel and the two quadrangles which house both student accommodation and college offices.
The eastern side of the college is devoted to student accommodation in rooms above the High Street shops, on Merton Street or in the separate Goodhart Building. This building is named after former master of the college Arthur Lehman Goodhart. A specially constructed building in the college, the Shelley Memorial, houses a statue by Edward Onslow Ford of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley — a former member of the college, sent down for writing The Necessity of Atheism, along with his friend T. J. Hogg. Shelley is depicted lying dead on the Italian seashore; the college annexe on Staverton Road in North Oxford houses students after their second year. The college owns the University College Boathouse and a sports ground, located nearby on Abingdon Road; the Alternative Prospectus is produced by current students for prospective applicants. The publication was awarded a HELOA Innovation and Best Practice Award in 2011; the Univ Alternative Prospectus offers student written advice and guidance to potential Oxford applicants.
The award recognises the engagement of the college community, unique newspaper format, forward-thinking use of social media and the collaborative working between staff and students. University has the longest grace of any Oxford college, it is read before every Formal Hall, held Tuesday and Sunday at Univ. The reading is performed by a Scholar of the college and whoever is sitting at the head of High Table; the Scholar does not need to know it by heart, it is unusual for people to do so. Gratiarum actio in collegio magnae aulae universitatis quotidie ante mensam dicenda. SCHOLAR — Benedictus sit Deus in donis suis. RESPONSE — Et sanctus in omnibus operibus suis. SCHOLAR — Adiutorium nostrum in Nomine Domini. RESPONSE — Qui fecit coelum et terram. SCHOLAR — Sit Nomen Domini benedictum. RESPONSE — Ab hoc tempore usque in saecula. SCHOLAR — Domine Deus, Resurrectio et Vita credentium, Qui semper es laudandus tam in viventibus quam in defunctis, gratias Tibi agimus pro omnibus Fundatoribus caeterisque Benefactoribus nostris, quorum beneficiis hic ad pietatem et ad studia literarum alimur: Te rogantes ut nos, hisce Tuis donis ad Tuam gloriam recte utentes, una cum iis ad vitam immortalem perducamur.
Per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. SCHOLAR — Deus det vivis gratiam, defunctis requiem: Ecclesiae, Regnoque nostro, pacem et concordiam: et nobis peccatoribus vitam aeternam. Amen; the Grace that must be said every day before dinner in University College. SCHOLAR — Blessed be God in his gifts. RESPONSE — And holy in all his works. SCHOLAR — Our help is in the name of the Lord. RESPONSE — Who has made heaven and earth. SCHOLAR — May the name of the Lord be blessed. RESPONSE — From this time and for evermore. SCHOLAR — Lord God, the Resurrection and Life of those who believe, You are always to be praised as much among the living as among the departed. We give You thanks for all our founders and our other benefactors, by whose benefactions we are nourished here for piety and for the study of letters, and we ask you that we, rightly using these Your gifts to Your glory, may be brought with them to immortal life. Through Jesus Christ our Lord, Amen. SCHOLAR — May God give grace to the living, rest to the departed.
Amen.. Many influential politicians are associ