Göttingen is a university city in Lower Saxony, the capital of the eponymous district. It is run through by River Leine. At the start of 2017, the population was 134,212; the origins of Göttingen lay in a village called Gutingi, first mentioned in a document in 953 AD. The city was founded northwest of this village, between 1150 and 1200 AD, adopted its name. In medieval times the city was a member of hence a wealthy town. Today, Göttingen is famous for its old university, founded in 1734 and became the most visited university of Europe. In 1837, seven professors protested against the absolute sovereignty of the kings of Hanover, its alumni include some well-known historical figures: the Brothers Grimm, Heinrich Ewald, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Georg Gervinus. German Chancellors Otto von Bismarck and Gerhard Schröder attended law school at the Göttingen University. Karl Barth held his first professorship here; some of the most famous mathematicians in history, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Bernhard Riemann and David Hilbert, were professors at Göttingen.
Like other university towns, Göttingen has developed its own quaint traditions. On the day they are awarded their doctorate degrees, students are drawn in handcarts from the Great Hall to the Gänseliesel-Fountain in front of the Old Town Hall. There they have to kiss the statue of the Gänseliesel; this practice is forbidden, but the law is not enforced. She is considered the most kissed girl in the world. Nearly untouched by Allied bombing in World War II, the inner city of Göttingen is now an attractive place to live with many shops and bars. For this reason, many university students give Göttingen a youthful feel. In 2003, 45 % of the inner city population was only between 30 years of age. Commercially, Göttingen is noted for its production of optical and precision-engineered machinery, being the seat of the light microscopy division of Carl Zeiss, Inc. and a main site for Sartorius AG which specialises in bio-technology and measurement equipment—the region around Göttingen advertises itself as "Measurement Valley".
Unemployment in Göttingen was 12.6% in 2003 and is now 7%. The city's railway station to the west of the city centre is on Germany's main north-south railway. Göttingen has two professional basketball teams. For the 2007-08 season, both teams will play in the 1st division; the origins of Göttingen can be traced back to a village named Gutingi to the immediate south-east of the eventual city. The name of the village derives from a small stream, called the Gote, that once flowed through it. Since the ending -ing denoted "living by", the name can be understood as "along the Gote". Archaeological evidence points towards a settlement as early as the 7th century, it is first mentioned in a document by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I in 953 AD, in which the emperor gives some of his belongings in the village to the Moritz monastery in Magdeburg. Archaeological findings point to extensive commercial relations with other regions and a developed craftsmanship in this early period. In its early days, Gutingi was overshadowed by Grona documented from the year 915 AD as a newly built fortress, lying opposite Gutingi on a hill west of the River Leine.
It was subsequently used as an Ottonian imperial palace, with 18 visits of kings and emperors documented between 941 and 1025 AD. The last Holy Roman Emperor to use the fortress of Grona, Heinrich II had a church built in the neighbouring Gutingi, dedicated to Saint Alban; the current church building that occupies this site, the St. Albani Church, was built in 1423; the fortress lost its function as a palace in 1025, after Heinrich II died there, having retreated to it in ill health. It was subsequently used by the lords of Grone; the fortress was destroyed by the citizens of Göttingen between 1323 and 1329, razed to the ground by Duke Otto I during his feuds with the city of Göttingen in 1387. With time, a trading settlement started to form at the river crossing of the Leine to the west of the village, from which it took its name, it is this settlement, given city rights. The original village remained recognisable as a separate entity until about 1360, at which time it was incorporated within the town's fortification.
It is the present city was founded between 1150 and 1180, although the exact circumstances are not known. It is presumed that Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, founded the city; the configuration of the streets in the oldest part of the town is in the shape of a pentagon, it has been proposed that the inception of the town followed a planned design. At this time, the town was known by the name Gudingin or Gotingen, its inhabitants obeyed welfish ownership and ruling rights, the first Göttingen burghers are mentioned, indicating that Göttingen was organised as a true city. It was not, however, a Free Imperial City, but subject to the Welf dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Henry the Elder of Brunswick, eldest son of Henry the Lion and brother of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, is given as the lord over Göttingen between 1201 and 1208; the original Welf residency in the town consisted of a farm building and the stables of the Welf dukes, which occupied the oldest part of the city's fortifications built prior to 1250.
In its early days, Göttingen became involved in the conflicts of t
Maida Vale is an affluent residential district comprising the northern part of Paddington in west London, west of St John's Wood and south of Kilburn. It is part of the City of Westminster; the name is derived from the pub called The Maida. The pub used to be on Edgware Road where Edgware Road becomes Maida Vale, near the Regent's Canal; the pub was there until about 2000. The pub was named after General Sir John Stuart, made Count of Maida by King Ferdinand IV of Naples and III of Sicily, after the victory at the Battle of Maida in 1806. In recent years, a different pub, has been renamed The Hero of Maida, but is in a different location; the area is residential, affluent, with many large late Victorian and Edwardian blocks of mansion flats. It is home to the BBC Maida Vale Studios; the area is bounded by Maida Avenue and the Regent's Canal to the south, Maida Vale Road to the north east, Kilburn Park Road to the north west, Shirland Road and Blomfield Road to the south west: an area of around 1 square kilometre.
It makes up most of the W9 postal district. The southern part of Maida Vale, at the junction of Paddington Basin with Regent's Canal with many houseboats, is known as Little Venice; the area to the south-west of Maida Vale, at the western end of Elgin Avenue, was known as "Maida Hill", was a recognised postal district bounded by the Avenues on the west, the Regent's Canal to the south, Maida Vale to the east and Kilburn Lane to the north. Parts of Maida Vale were included within this; the name of "Maida Hill" had since fallen out of use, although it has been resurrected since the mid-2000s, through the 414 bus route and a new street market on the Piazza at the junction of Elgin Avenue and Harrow Road. Just to the east of Maida Vale is Lord's Cricket Ground. Developed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in the early 19th century as middle class housing, Maida Vale took its name from a public house named after John Stuart, Count of Maida, which opened on Edgware Road soon after the Battle of Maida, 1806.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Maida Vale was a predominantly Sephardic Jewish district. The 1896 Spanish & Portuguese Synagogue, a Grade II listed building and headquarters of the British Sephardi community, is on Lauderdale Road; the actor Alec Guinness was born on this road. The first Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben-Gurion, lived within sight of this synagogue on Warrington Crescent; the pioneer of modern computing, Alan Turing, was born at what is now the Colonnade Hotel in Warrington Crescent. Maida Vale tube station was opened on 6 June 1915, on the Bakerloo line, Warwick Avenue tube station, on the same line, was opened a few months earlier. Maida Vale is home to some of BBC network radio's broadcast studios; the building on Delaware Road is one of the BBC's earliest premises, pre-dating Broadcasting House, was the centre of the BBC radio news service during World War II. The building houses a total of seven music and radio drama studios, most famously was home to John Peel's BBC Radio 1 Peel Sessions and the BBC Radiophonic Workshop.
In 2018 the BBC announced plans to close the Maida Vale studios and relocate the functions to East London. Little Venice is a comparatively recent name for parts of Maida Vale and Paddington in the City of Westminster, it consists of the area surrounding its canals. It is known for and defined by its Regency style white stucco buildings and its canals and moored boats. Maida Avenue, Warwick Crescent and Blomfield Road, the streets in the south of Maida Vale overlooking Browning's Pool including the section of Randolph Avenue south of Warrington Crescent, are known as Little Venice. According to one story, the poet Robert Browning, who lived in the area from 1862 to 1887, coined the name. However, this was disputed by London Canals. Both assert that Lord Byron humorously coined the name, which now applies more loosely to a longer reach of the canal system. Browning's Pool is named after the poet, is the junction of Regent's Canal and the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal. South Maida Vale, one of London's prime residential areas has a reputation for its shops and restaurants, as well as for the Canal Cafe Theatre, the Puppet Theatre Barge, the Waterside Café and the Warwick Castle pub.
A regular waterbus service operates from Little Venice eastwards around Regent's Park, calling at London Zoo and on towards Camden Town. Since 1983, the Inland Waterways Association has hosted the Canalway Cavalcade in Little Venice. Maida Vale is noted for its wide tree-lined avenues, large communal gardens and red-brick mansion blocks from the late Victorian and Edwardian eras; the first mansion blocks were completed in 1897, with the arrival of the identically-designed Lauderdale Mansions South, Lauderdale Mansions West and Lauderdale Mansions East in Lauderdale Road. Others followed in neighbouring streets: Elgin Mansions and Leith Mansions in 1900, Ashworth Mansions and Castellain Mansions in 1902, Elgin Court and Carlton Mansions in 1902, Delaware Mansions and Biddulph Mansions in 1907 and Randolph Court in 1910. Among the buildings of architectural interest was th
Joseph Octave Delepierre
Joseph Octave Delepierre was a Belgian lawyer, diplomat and antiquary. He spent his life in the United Kingdom, is best known for his studies of macaronic language and literature, he was born at Bruges in Belgium, 12 March 1802. His father was Joseph Delepierre, for many years receveur-général of the province of West Flanders. Illiterate at age 12, he qualified for the University of Ghent. Having obtained the degree of doctor of laws, he became an avocat, was appointed archivist of West Flanders, in Bruges. A collector of books and works of art, Delepierre's reputation as a local antiquary attracted visitors from abroad; when Albert, Prince Consort was in Bruges in 1839, Delepierre was his guide. But he became dissatisfied with his official position, after an application for promotion was disregarded, he had made the acquaintance of Sylvain Van de Weyer, who induced him in 1843 to come to London, in August 1849 appointed him a secretary of legation, obtained for him the post of Belgian consul. He made his way in society, held Sunday evening receptions.
Delepierre was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, a member of other English and French societies. He was decorated with several orders of knighthood. For over 35 years he acted as Belgian secretary of legation, until 1877, when he resigned, he was consul-general for Belgium in London. Delepierre died 18 August 1879, aged 77, at the house of his son-in-law, Nicholas Trübner, 29 Upper Hamilton Terrace and was buried in Highgate cemetery on 22 August. Living in England, Delepierre wrote an account in 1849 of a collection of early French farces and morality plays in the British Museum. In 1852 he produced Macaronéana, followed by Macaronéana Andra in 1862; these publications formed an encyclopædia of information on macaronic literature. When the Duc d'Aumale, Van de Weyer, Richard Monckton Milnes, others founded the Philobiblon Society in 1853, Delepierre was appointed one of the honorary secretaries, he contributed 22 papers to its printed Miscellanies, among them being contributions on centos, on the literary history of lunatics, on parody, on visions of hell.
His major writings were produced during his residence in England. He printed a history of Flemish literature in 1860, he contributed to the Annales de la Société d'Emulation de Bruges, Messager des Sciences Historiques, Le Bibliophile Belge, St. James's Magazine, other journals; the following is a complete list of Delepierre's works before he moved to the United Kingdom: Heures de loisir, essais poétiques, Ghent, 1829. Histoire du règne de Charles-le-Bon, précédée d'un résumé de l'histoire des Flandres, et suivie d'un appendice, Brussels, 1831. Translation of a contemporary life of Charles-le-Bon, by Gualbert of Bruges, with a continuation to the end of the fourteenth century. Chroniques, traditions et légendes de l'ancienne histoire des Flamands, Lille, 1834. Old legends were retold, with a slight addition of fiction. Précis des annales de Bruges, depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'au commencement du XVIIe siècle, augmenté d'une notice sur l'Hôtel-de-Ville, Bruges, 1835. Aventures de Tiel Ulenspiegel, de ses bons mots, finesses, et amusantes inventions: nouvelle édition, dediée aux Bibliophiles Belges, augmentée de rapprochemens littéraires et d'une notice des principales éditions, Bruges, 1835.
Editions of Tiel Eulenspiegel, claiming a Flemish origin. Aperçu historique et raisonné des découvertes, inventions et perfectionnements en Belgique depuis les Romains, Bruges, 1836. Vision de Tondalus. Translation of the Visio Tnugdali. Description des tableaux, statues, et autres objets d'art de la ville de Bruges, et abrégé de son histoire et de ses institutions, Bruges. Album pittoresque de Bruges, ou collection des plus belles vues et des principaux monuments de cette ville, accompagnés d'un texte historique, Bruges, 1837, 2 parts. Guide dans Bruges, Bruges, 1837. 1840,. Le Roman du Renard, traduit pour la première fois d'après un texte flamand du XIIe siècle, édité par J. F. Willems, augmenté d'une analyse de ce que l'on a écrit au sujet des romans français du Renard, Paris, 1837. Edition of Reynard the Fox, for which he claimed a Flemish origin, Translation from the English of Thomas Colley Grattan's novel under the title of L'héritière de Bruges, Brussels, 1837, 3 vols. Chronique des faits et gestes admirables de Maximilien I durant son mariage avec Marie de Bourgogne, translatée du flamand en français pour la première fois et augmentée d'éclaircissements et de documents inédits, Brussels, 1839.
Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-André, traduite pour la première fois, suivie de mélanges, Bruges, 1839. De l'origine du Flamand, avec une esquisse de la littérature flamande et hollandaise d'après l'anglais du Rev. T. Bosworth, avec des additions et annotations, Tournay, 1840. Translation from Joseph Bosworth. Galerie d'artistes Brugeois, ou biographie des peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs célèbres de Bruges, Bruges, 1840, (with portraits after P. de Vla
William Hepworth Dixon
William Hepworth Dixon was an English historian and traveller. He was active in organizing London's Great Exhibition of 1851, he was born on 30 June 1821, at Great Ancoats in Manchester. His father was Abner Dixon of Holmfirth and Kirkburton in the West Riding of Yorkshire, his mother Mary Cryer, his uncle was manufacturer Elijah Dixon. His boyhood was passed in the hill country of Over Darwen, under the tuition of his grand-uncle, Michael Beswick; as a lad he became clerk to a merchant named Thompson at Manchester. Early in 1846 Dixon decided on a literary career, he was for two months editor of the Cheltenham Journal. While at Cheltenham he won two principal essay prizes in Madden's Prize Essay Magazine. In the summer of 1846, on the recommendation of Douglas Jerrold, he moved to London, he entered the Inner Temple, but was not called to the bar until 1 May 1854. He never practised as a barrister. About 1850 Dixon was appointed a deputy-commissioner of the Great Exhibition of 1851, he helped to start more than one hundred out of three hundred committees formed.
After a long tour in Europe Dixon became, in January 1853, editor of The Athenaeum, to which he had been a contributor for some years. In 1861 Dixon travelled in Portugal and Morocco. In 1863 he travelled in the East, on his return helped to found the Palestine Exploration Fund. In 1866 he travelled through the United States. During this tour he discovered a collection of state papers Irish, in the Public Library at Philadelphia, they had been missing since the time of James II, on Dixon's suggestion were given to the British government. In autumn 1867 Dixon travelled through the Baltic provinces. In the latter part of 1869 he travelled for some months in Russia. During 1871 he was in Switzerland. Shortly afterwards he was sent to Spain on a financial mission by a council of foreign bondholders. On 4 October 1872 he was created a knight commander of the Crown by Kaiser Wilhelm I. In the September 1874 he travelled through the United States. At the general election of 1868 Dixon declined an invitation to stand for Marylebone, though he addressed political meetings.
In August 1869 he resigned the editorship of the Athenæum. Soon afterwards he was appointed justice of the peace for Westminster. Dixon took a leading part in establishing the Shaftesbury Park Estate and other centres of improved dwellings for the labouring classes, he was a member of the first School Board for London. During the first three years of the School Board's existence Dixon's labours were extensive. In direct opposition to Lord Sandon he succeeded in carrying a resolution which thenceforth established military drill in all rate-paid schools in the metropolis. About 1873 Dixon began a movement for opening the Tower of London free of charge to the public. To this proposal the prime minister Benjamin Disraeli assented, on public holidays Dixon conducted crowds of working men through the building. Dixon lost most of his savings, invested in Turkish stock. On 2 October 1874 his house near Regent's Park, 6 St. James's Terrace, was wrecked by an explosion of gunpowder on Regent's Canal, he lost his eldest daughter, his eldest son, William Jerrold Dixon, to a sudden death in Dublin, on 20 October 1879.
However, his youngest daughter, Ella Hepworth Dixon, became a writer and novelist of some repute. Dixon was a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, of the Society of Antiquaries of London, of the Pennsylvania Society, of other learned associations. Before the close of 1878 he visited Cyprus. There a fall from his horse broke his shoulder-bone, he was left an invalid, he was revising the proof sheets of the concluding volumes of Royal Windsor and on Friday 26 December 1879, made an effort to finish the work. He died in his bed on the following morning from a seizure. On 2 January 1880 he was buried in Highgate cemetery. Before he was of age Dixon wrote a five-act tragedy, The Azamoglan, printed. In 1842 -- 3 he wrote. In December 1843 he first wrote under his own name in Douglas Jerrold's Illuminated Magazine, he became a contributor to the Daily News. Dixon was criticised for inaccuracy as an author. In the Daily News Dixon published a series of startling papers on The Literature of the Lower Orders, which may have suggested Henry Mayhew's London Labour and the London Poor.
Another series of articles, descriptive of the London Prisons, led to his work, John Howard and the Prison World of Europe, which appeared in 1849, though declined by many publishers passed through three editions. Dixon's Life of William Penn was published in 1851. Thomas Babington Macaulay never took notice of these criticisms. In 1852 Dixon published a life of Robert Blake and General at Sea, based on Family and State Papers. In 1854 he began, he had leave, through Lord Stanley and Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, to inspect the "State Papers", until jealously guarded from the general view by successive secretaries of state. He published four articles criticising John Campbell's Life of Bacon in the Athenæum for January 1860; these were enlarged and republished as The Personal History of Lord Bacon from Unpublished Papers in 1861. He published separately as a pamphlet in 1861 A Statement of the Facts in regard to Lord Bacon's Confession, a more elaborate volume called The S
Order of the White Elephant
The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant is an order of Thailand. It was established in 1861 by King Rama IV of the Kingdom of Siam. Along with the Order of the Crown of Thailand, it is awarded to government officials for each five years of service, making it Thailand's most-awarded order; the order consists of eight classes: Plaek Phibunsongkhram - Knight Grand Cordon Sultan Ibrahim of Johor - Knight Grand Cordon Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah of Kedah - Knight Grand Cordon Chavalit Yongchaiyudh - Knight Grand Cordon Alexander I of Yugoslavia - Knight Grand Cordon Albert du Roy de Blicquy Norodom of Cambodia - Knight Grand Cross Pakubuwono X - Knight Grand Cross Miklós Horthy - Knight Grand Cross The Earl Mountbatten of Burma - Knight Grand Cross Foster C. LaHue Sir Samuel Robinson, 1923. Graves B. Erskine - Knight Grand Cross Arne Skaug. Pierra Vejjabul Joseph J. Cappucci - Knight Commander David John Collins Awarded by King Rama V in 1897 Frederick William Verney - Commander Queen Victoria General William Westmoreland - Knight Grand Cross Vice Admiral Józef Unrug Major General Richard Secord Jiri Sitler - Knight Grand Cross Lieutenant Commander Saman Kunan - Knight Grand Cross White elephant § Thailand The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant, Secretariat to the Cabinet of Thailand
Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, its 746,878 inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area. Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations, it has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945.
A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and transportation, it is the site of many European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, several cloud and fintech startups and other institutes. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe, it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013, its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.
Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe; the Römer area was rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for eve
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.