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Nichols radiometer

A Nichols radiometer was the apparatus used by Ernest Fox Nichols and Gordon Ferrie Hull in 1901 for the measurement of radiation pressure. It consisted of a pair of small silvered glass mirrors suspended in the manner of a torsion balance by a fine quartz fibre within an enclosure in which the air pressure could be regulated; the torsion head to which the fiber was attached could be turned from the outside using a magnet. A beam of light was directed first on one mirror and on the other, the opposite deflections observed with mirror and scale. By turning the mirror system around to receive the light on the unsilvered side, the influence of the air in the enclosure could be ascertained; this influence was found to be of negligible value at an air pressure of about 16 mmHg. The radiant energy of the incident beam was deduced from its heating effect upon a small blackened silver disk, found to be more reliable than the bolometer when it was first used. With this apparatus, the experimenters were able to obtain an agreement between observed and computed radiation pressures within about 0.6%.

The original apparatus is at the Smithsonian Institution. This apparatus is sometimes confused with the Crookes radiometer of 1873. Solar sail Radiation pressure proven experimentally by Russian physicist Pyotr Lebedev in 1900 Lebedew, Peter. "Untersuchungen über die Druckkräfte des Lichtes". Annalen der Physik. Wiley. 311: 433–458. Doi:10.1002/andp.19013111102. ISSN 0003-3804. Retrieved July 28, 2019. Nichols, E. F.. "A Preliminary Communication on the Pressure of Heat and Light Radiation". Physical Review. Series I. American Physical Society. 13: 307–320. Doi:10.1103/physrevseriesi.13.307. ISSN 1536-6065. E. F. Nichols and G. F. Hull, The Pressure due to Radiation, The Astrophysical Journal,Vol.17 No.5, p. 315-351 Measuring the Pressure of Light - Dartmouth Science History 1903 Nichols and Hull's experiments, 1933 Bell and Green's experiment

List of Entoloma species

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V U W X Y Z This is an incomplete list of species in the genus Entoloma. According to a standard reference book, the genus contains about 1000 species. Many species classified in the genera Rhodocybe, Clitopilus and Rhodogaster were formally transferred to Entoloma as a result of molecular analysis published in 2009. Entoloma abbreviatipes Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma aberrans E. Horak Entoloma abnorme Noordel. Entoloma abortivum Donk Entoloma accline Sacc. Entoloma accola Sacc. Entoloma aciculocystis Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma acidophilum Arnolds & Noordel. Entoloma acuferum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma acidophilum Arnolds & Noordel. Entoloma acuticystidiosum E. Horak Entoloma acutipes Largent Entoloma acutoconicum E. Horak Entoloma acutopallidum E. Horak & Cheype Entoloma acutoumbonatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma acutum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma adalbertii Romagn. Entoloma adirondackense Murrill Entoloma aeruginosum Hiroë Entoloma aethiops G. Stev. Entoloma afrum Noordel.

& Co-David Entoloma alabamense Hesler Entoloma alachuanum Murrill Entoloma albatum Hesler Entoloma albellum Singer Entoloma albidiforme Murrill Entoloma albidocoeruleum G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma albidoquadratum Manim. & Noordel. Entoloma albidosimulans G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma albidum Murrill Entoloma albinellum Hesler Entoloma albipes Entoloma albivellum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma alboconicum Dennis Entoloma albocrenulatum E. Horak Entoloma alboflavidum Rick Entoloma albofumeum Hesler Entoloma albogracile E. Horak Entoloma albogranulosum Noordel. & Hauskn. Entoloma albogriseum Redhead Entoloma albomagnum G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma albomurinum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma alboroseum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma albosericeum Hesler Entoloma albosulcatum Corner & E. Horak Entoloma albotomentosum Noordel. & Hauskn. Entoloma alboumbonatum Hesler Entoloma album Hiroë Entoloma alcalinum Murrill Entoloma alcedicolor Arnolds & Noordel. Entoloma aliquantulum E. Horak Entoloma alium Corner & E. Horak Entoloma alliodorum Esteve-Rav.

E. Horak & A. Ortega Entoloma allochroum Noordel. Entoloma allocybesimilis Manim. & Noordel. Entoloma allosericellum Noordel. Entoloma allospermum Noordel. Entoloma alnetorum Monthoux & Röllin Entoloma alnicola Noordel. & Polemis Entoloma alnobetulae Noordel. Entoloma alpicola Noordel. Entoloma altissimum E. Horak Entoloma alutaceum Murrill Entoloma alutae E. Horak Entoloma alvarense Noordel. & Vauras Entoloma ambiguum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma ambrosium Noordel. Entoloma ameides Quél. Entoloma andersonii Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma angustisporum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma anisothrix Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma applanatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma approximatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma aprile Sacc. Entoloma arcuatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma argenteolanatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma aromaticum E. Horak Entoloma asprellopsis G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma asprellum Fayod Entoloma asterospermum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma asterosporum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma atrifucatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma atrovelutinum Noordel.

& Co-David Entoloma atroviolaceum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma atypicum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma aurantioquadratum C. K. Pradeep & K. B. Vrinda Entoloma aurantiolabes G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma austroprunicolor G. M. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma austrorhodocalyx G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma austroroseum G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma avellanicolor Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma avellaneosquamosum Hesler Entoloma avellaneum Murrill Entoloma avilanum E. Horak Entoloma azureostipes E. Horak Entoloma azureoviride E. Horak & Singer Entoloma azureum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma badissimum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma belouvense Noordel. & Hauskn. Entoloma bicoloripes Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma bisporiferum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma bituminosum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma bloxamii Sacc. Entoloma borbonicum Noordel. & Hauskn. Entoloma breivispermum G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma brunneolamellatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma brunneoloroseum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma caeruleonigrum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma caesiolimbatum Noordel.

& Co-David Entoloma caesiomurinum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma caesiopileum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma callidermoides Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma callidermum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma callithrix Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma calongei Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma camarophyllus G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma campanulatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma candicans Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma candidogranulosum Noordel. & Hauskn. Entoloma capitatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma capnoides Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma carminicolor G. Gates & Noordel. Entoloma celatum Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma cetratum M. M. Moser Entoloma changchunense Xiao Lan He & T. H. Li Entoloma chilense Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma chloroconus Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma chloroides Noordel. & Co-David Entoloma chlorospilum Noordel. & Co

Mavis Laing

Mavis Laing is an American former track and field sprinter and pentathlete. Her highest level honour was a gold medal at the 1971 Pan American Games, where she anchored the American women's 4 × 400 meters relay team to victory, alongside Cheryl Toussaint, Esther Stroy and Gwen Norman, it was the first time. Born to Laura and Clarence Laing, she attended Arcadia High School in Phoenix, Arizona and in the absence of a track program at the high school, she joined the AAU Phoenix Track Club. Under the coaching of Fred Moore, she became an outstanding high school level athlete. At the age of fifteen she competed in the pentathlon at the 1969 USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships, placing fifth overall. At the 1970 national championships, 16-year-old Laing won the 440-yard dash in an American record time of 52.9 seconds, defeating former champion Jarvis Scott. She managed third place in the pentathlon with a personal record of 4533 points; that same year she broke the Arizona state records in 440 yards and 400 meters.

A further state record followed in 1971. She placed fourth in that event at the 1971 USA Outdoor Field Championships. Laing competed in international matches for the United States, winning events against West Germany and the Soviet Union. Following her graduation from high school in 1971, she received an offer of an athletic scholarship from Tennessee A & I, where Wilma Rudolph and Wyomia Tyus had been trained. Preferring to remain in the local area and with her track club, she opted instead for Arizona State University. A bout of mononucleosis ruined her chances to make the team for the 1972 Summer Olympics and she focused on academics instead, she earned an undergraduate degree in psychology before going on to complete a master's degree in speech and language pathology at New York University. Laing worked as a teacher moved to Chicago to work in the field of speech therapy, she became vice president of regional sales at Xerox. In 2002 she was inducted into the Scottsdale Sports Hall Of Fame, her state records remained unbeaten for over 30 years.

1970 photo of Mavis Laing

Henri-Gédéon Malhiot

Henri-Gédéon Malhiot was a politician from Quebec, Canada. He was born on March 1840 in Saint-Pierre-les-Becquets, Centre-du-Quebec, he was a lawyer. He was married to Élizabeth-Eugénie Labarre in 1865 and to Louise Olivier in 1884, he ran as a Liberal candidate in the district of Nicolet in 1867 and as a Conservative candidate in the district of Trois-Rivières in an 1869 by-election. Each time he lost, he was elected in 1871. He resigned from his seat to accept a position as Minister for Crown Lands in Premier Boucher de Boucherville's Cabinet, he was re-elected in a 1875 general election. He served as the Government House Leader from 1874 to 1876, he resigned in 1876. He lost. Malhiot served as Mayor of Trois-Rivières from 1885 to 1888, he died on October 20, 1909

Mohammad Yamin

Mohammad Yamin was an Indonesian poet and national hero who played a key role in the writing of the country's 1945 constitution. Yamin was born in Talawi, Sawahlunto, in the heartland of the Minangkabau on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, he was the son of Tuanku Oesman Gelar Baginda Khatib. Oesman had five wives with whom he had sixteen children, including Mohammad Yaman Rajo Endah, the eldest, an educator. In 1937, Yamin married Siti Sundari, daughter of a nobleman from Surakarta, Central Java, by whom he had one child, a son, Dang Rahadian Sinayangish Yamin. In 1969, Dian married Gusti Raden Ayu Retno Satuti, the eldest daughter of Prince Mangkunegara VIII, one of the four native princes of the Vorstenlanden in Central Java. Yamin was a historian, poet and politician, he was educated at the Algemene Middelbare School in Yogyakarta, majoring in history and Far Eastern languages, including Malay and Sanskrit. Upon his graduation in 1927, he went on to study law at the Rechtshogeschool in Batavia, as Jakarta was known during the colonial period in Indonesia.

The Rechtshogeschool, founded in 1924, is the precursor of the Faculty of Law of what became the Universiteit van Indonesie and, after the transfer of sovereignty, changed its name in 1950 to Universitas Indonesia, the premier tertiary institution in the country. Yamin earned his doctorate in law in 1932. In the early 1930s, Yamin was active in journalist circles, joining the editorial board of the newspaper Panorama, together with Liem Koen Hian, Sanusi Pane and Amir Sjarifuddin. In mid-1936, together with his colleagues Liem and Sjarifuddin, Yamin started another newspaper, which—as with Panorama—was published by Phoa Liong Gie's Siang Po Printing Press, he worked in Jakarta until 1942 specializing in "private law". Yamin's political career started early and he was active in nationalist movements. In 1928, Yamin participated in the Second Congress of Indonesian Youth, which issued the Sumpah Pemuda. Through the organization Indonesia Muda, Yamin became an active proponent for Malay to become the national and unifying language.

It has since been renamed "Indonesian" and made the official language of the Republic of Indonesia and the principal vehicle for innovative literary expression. Yamin began his literary career as a writer in the 1920s, when Indonesian poetry was marked by an intense and reflective romanticism, he was a pioneer in that art form. Yamin started to write in Malay in the Dutch-language journal Jong Sumatra, the literary publication of the Jong Sumatranen Bond, a semi-political organization of Sumatran youth. Yamin's early works were tied to the clichés used in classical Malay, he debuted as a poet with "Tanah Air" in 1922. It was the first collection of modern Malay verse to be published. Quoted below is the first stanza of "Tanah Air", his ode to the natural beauty of the highlands in present West Sumatra: Di atas batasan Bukit Barisan Memandang beta ke bawah memandang Tampaklah hutan rimba dan ngarai lagi pun sawah, telaga nan permai: Serta gerangan lihatlah pula Langit yang hijau bertukar warna Oleh pucuk daun kelapa: Itulah tanah airku Sumatera namanya tumpah darahku.

In the above poem, one imagines Yamin standing on the hills near the town of Bukit Tinggi, the site of the prehistoric canyon now verdant with rain forest and paddy fields. Note that he refers to Sumatera the part, called the Alam Minangkabau which lies on the western part of the large island, as his land and water as well as that to which he will defend with his blood, not Indonesia as it became independent in 1945; this may reflect the early development of his concept of nationhood. The credit for the first important modern prose in Malay belongs to his fellow Minangkabau, Marah Roesli, author of the novel Sitti Nurbaya which appeared in 1922. Rusli's work enjoyed years of great popularity. Yamin's second collection, Tumpah Darahku, appeared on 28 October 1928; the date was important, because it was on that date that Yamin and his fellow nationalists recited an oath: One Country, One Nation, One Language, popularly known as the Youth's Oath. The date is celebrated as a national holiday in Indonesia.

His play, Ken Arok dan Ken Dedes, which took its subjects a pair from Java's history Pararaton, appeared in one of the 1934 issues of Poedjangga Baroe, the only literary publication that featured the use of Malay instead of Dutch. Yamin joined a short list of writers that chose to promote Malay, in a none-too-subtle rebuke to the predominantly Dutch-speaking indigenous intellectuals, his compatriots included Roestam Effendi, Sanusi Pané and Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, founders of Poedjangga Baroe. In his poetry, Yamin made much use of the sonnet form, borrowed from Dutch literature. At that time among the major writers was the national activist Abdul Muis, whose central theme was the interaction of Indonesian and European value system. In 1936 appeared Pandji Tisna's Sukreni: Gadis Bali the most original work of pre-independence fiction, which dealt with the destructive effect of contemporary commercial ethics on Balinese society. Distinctly innovative poetry had appeared in the 1910s; the European sonnet form was popular, but the influence of traditional verse forms remained strong.

Although Yamin experimented with Malay in his poetry, he upheld the classical norms of the language more than the younger generation of writers. Yamin published

Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881)

The Treaty of Saint Petersburg known as Treaty of Ili, was the treaty between the Russian Empire and the Qing dynasty, signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia, on 24 February 1881. It provided for the return to China of the eastern part of the Ili Basin region known as Zhetysu occupied by Russia in 1871 during the Dungan Revolt up to 1881. During the Russian conquest of Turkestan Russia gained control of eastern Kazakhstan up to the current Chinese border. During the Dungan Revolt China lost control of much of its western territory and power passed to various factions. In 1871 Russia occupied the Ili territory. There was talk of permanent annexation, but Saint Petersburg declared that it was occupying the territory to protect its citizens. Chinese authority in Xinjiang was reestablished by 1877. Wanyan Chonghou was sent to Russia to negotiate. In September 1879, he concluded the Treaty of Livadia. Russia would retain the Tekes valley at the southwest end of the Ili Valley and passes over the mountains to the Tarim Basin.

China would pay 5 million rubles and various trade concessions were made. In January 1880 Chonghou was greeted with indignation, he was declared to have betrayed his country, was arrested and sentenced to death. Zeng Jize, was appointed as the new ambassador. Russia refused to negotiate unless Chonghou was released and this was backed by the other powers. In August 1880 Chonghou was released and negotiations resumed; the Treaty of Saint Petersburg was ratified within six months. Two years Russia evacuated the province. There were some minor border problems and a final protocol was signed on 31 October 1883; the Russian side was represented by Nicholas de Giers, head of Asiatic Affairs department of Foreign Ministry, Eugene Bützow, Russia's Ambassador in China. According to the treaty, Russia agreed to return most of the occupied area to China; the Chinese government agreed to hold the residents of the area, regardless of their ethnicity and religion, harmless for their actions during the rebellion.

The residents of the area would be allowed to move to Russian Empire. Under Article 6 of the treaty, Chinese government would pay Russia 9,000,000 "metal rubles" to serve as a payment for the occupation costs, compensation for the claims of Russian subjects who lost their property during the rebellion, for material assistance to the families of Russian subjects killed during the rebellion. Article 7 set the new international border in the Ili Valley; the area west of the border was retained by Russia "for the settlement of the region's residents who will choose to become Russian subjects and will have to leave the lands that they have owned" east of the new border. The treaty provided for minor adjustments of the border between the two countries in the area east of Lake Zaysan. Article 10 of the treaty allowed Russia to expand its consular network in the northwestern parts of the Chinese Empire. Besides the consulates in Ili City, Tarbagatai and Urga provided for in earlier treaties, Russia would open consulates in Suzhou, Turpan.

In Kobdo, Hami and Gucheng, Russia would be allowed to establish consulates on, as demanded by the volume of trade. Article 12 affirmed the right of duty-free trade for Russian traders in Xinjiang; the treaty contained various provisions designed to facilitate activities of Russian merchants and to regulate bilateral trade. An appendix to the treaty specified; the Treaty of Saint Petersburg was perceived as a huge loss and step backward by many in Russia, as Minister of War Dmitry Milyutin and the military, as notable commander Aleksei Brusilov. Several thousands Dungan and Taranchi families made use of the treaty to move to Russian-controlled territory, i.e. to today's south-eastern Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan. While some of them soon returned to China, most stayed in Russian domains, their descendants have lived in Kazakhstan and Northern Kyrgyzstan since; the border between the two empires set by Article 7 of the treaty remains the border between Kazakhstan and China until this day.

Historians have judged the Qing dynasty's vulnerability and weakness to foreign imperialism in the 19th century to be based on its maritime naval weakness while it achieved military success against westerners on land, the historian Edward L. Dreyer said that "China’s nineteenth-century humiliations were related to her weakness and failure at sea. At the start of the Opium War, China had no unified navy and no sense of how vulnerable she was to attack from the sea. In the Arrow War, the Chinese had no way to prevent the Anglo-French expedition of 1860 from sailing into the Gulf of Zhili and landing as near as possible to Beijing. Meanwhile, new if not modern Chinese armies suppressed the midcentury rebellions, bluffed Russia into a peaceful settlement of disputed frontiers in Central Asia, defeated the French forces on land in the Sino-French War, but the defeat of the fleet, the resulti