Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, Indo-Scythian empires. Arachosia was centred on the Arghandab valley in modern-day southern Afghanistan, although its influence extended east to as far as the Indus River; the main river of Arachosia was called Arachōtós, now known as the Arghandab River, a tributary of the Helmand River. The Greek term "Arachosia" corresponds to the Aryan land of Harauti, around modern-day Helmand; the Arachosian capital or metropolis was called Alexandria Arachosia or Alexandropolis and lay in what is today Kandahar in Afghanistan. Arachosia was a part of the region of ancient Ariana. "Arachosia" is the Latinized form of Greek Ἀραχωσία - Arachōsíā. "The same region appears in the Avestan Vidēvdāt under the indigenous dialect form Haraxvaitī-." In Old Persian inscriptions, the region is referred to written h-r-u-v-t-i. This form is the "etymological equivalent" of Vedic Sanskrit Sarasvatī-, the name of a river meaning "rich in waters/lakes" and derived from sáras- "lake, pond.".
"Arachosia" was named after the name of a river that runs through it, in Greek Arachōtós, today known as the Arghandab, a left bank tributary of the Helmand. Arachosia bordered Drangiana to the west, Paropamisadae to the north, a part of ancient present day Pakistan to the east, Gedrosia to the south. Isidore and Ptolemy each provide a list of cities in Arachosia, among them Alexandria, which lay on the river Arachotus; this city is mis-identified with present-day Kandahar in Afghanistan, the name of, thought to be derived from "Alexandria", reflecting a connection to Alexander the Great's visit to the city on his campaign towards India. But a recent discovery of an inscription on a clay tablet has provided proof that'Kandahar' was a city that traded with Persia well before Alexander's time. Isidore and Pliny refer to the city as "metropolis of Arachosia." In his list, Ptolemy refers to a city named Arachotus or Arachoti, the earlier capital of the land. Pliny the Elder and Stephen of Byzantium mention.
Hsuan Tsang refers to the name as Kaofu. This city is identified today with Arghandab; the inhabitants of Arachosia were Iranian peoples, referred to as Arachoti. It is assumed that they were called Paktyans by ethnicity, that name may have been in reference to the ethnic Paṣtun tribes. Isidorus of Charax in his 1st century CE "Parthian stations" itinerary described an "Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia", which he said was still Greek at such a late time: "Beyond is Arachosia, and the Parthians call this White India. As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians." Ptolemy mentions several tribes of Arachosia by name, the Pargyetae, and, to the south, the Sidri and Eoritae. Despite attempts to connect the Eoritae with the "Arattas" of the Mahabharata or with present-day Aroras, who populated this land and migrated to India after partition, the identity of these tribes is unknown, Ptolemy's orthography is disputed; the region is first referred to in the Achaemenid-era Elamite Persepolis fortification tablets.
It appears again in the Old Persian and Aramaic inscriptions of Darius I and Xerxes I among lists of subject peoples and countries. It is subsequently identified as the source of the ivory used in Darius' palace at Susa. In the Behistun inscription, the King recounts that a Persian was thrice defeated by the Achaemenid governor of Arachosia, who so ensured that the province remained under Darius' control, it has been suggested that this "strategically unintelligible engagement" was ventured by the rebel because "there were close relations between Persia and Arachosia concerning the Zoroastrian faith." The chronologically next reference to Arachosia comes from the Greeks and Romans, who record that under Darius III the Arachosians and Drangians were under the command of a governor who, together with the army of the Bactrian governor, contrived a plot of the Arachosians against Alexander. Following Alexander's conquest of the Achaemenids, the Macedonian appointed his generals as governors. Following the Partition of Babylon, the region became part of the Seleucid Empire, which traded it to the Mauryan Empire in 305 BCE as part of an alliance.
The Shunga dynasty overthrew the Mauryans in 185 BC, but shortly afterwards lost Arachosia to the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. It became part of the break-away Indo-Greek Kingdom in the mid 2nd century BCE. Indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BCE, but lost the region to the Arsacids and Indo-Parthians. At what time Parthian rule over Arachosia was reestablished cannot be determined with any authenticity. From Isidore 19 it is certain that a part of the region was under Arsacid rule in the 1st century CE, that the Parthians called it Indikē Leukē, "White India."The Kush
Lysias Anicetus was an Indo-Greek king. According to numismatist Bopearachchi, Lysias was a close successor to Menander I and Zoilos I, therefore may have ruled around 130–120 BCE. R. C. Senior suggests a similar date. Bopearachchi suggests that Lysias' territory covered the areas of the Paropamisade and Arachosia, but his coins have been found in the Punjab and it is possible that Lysias ruled most of the Indo-Greek territory for a period, though in cooperation with Antialcidas, with whom he shared most of his monograms. Lysias claimed to be a descendant of Demetrius, using a similar reverse of Heracles crowning himself, Demetrius' epithet Invincible, sometimes the elephant crown always worn by this king. A similar reverse was used by Zoilus I, who may have ruled some decades earlier and was an enemy of Menander. Lysias' rule seems to have begun after the murder of Menander's infant son Thrason, since his coins do not resemble Menander's it seems as though he, just as Zoilus, belonged to a competing line.
Despite his magnificent coinage, his policies were rather defensive. The Bactrian kingdom had fallen to invading nomads and though the Indo-Greeks managed to avoid the same fate, they became isolated from the Hellenistic world. Lysias issued a number of bilingual Indian coins. On his silver portrait types he appears either diademed or dressed in various types of head-gear worn by earlier kings: the elephant scalp of Demetrios I, a bull's horns helmet or Corinthian helmet with scales, the Greek flat hat "kausia", he appeared throwing a spear. The reverse is always Herakles crowning himself, holding his club, with the new addition of a palm to signify victory, he issued a series of Attic tetradrachms, smaller denominations for circulation in Bactria. His Indian type square bronzes show a bust of Herakles/elephant. There is a bronze which features the reverse of Antialcidas; this was interpreted by Tarn and other earlier scholars as though the two kings might have forged some kind of alliance, but a bronze with the opposite arrangement was found.
The modern view is that these coins were "mules"--in other words, an improperly overstruck issue of one of the pertinent rulers. While not signs of an alliance, they still suggest that Lysias' and Antialcidas' reigns were adjacent. Indo-Greek Kingdom Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press Coins of Lysias More coins of Lysias Catalog of the coins of Lysias
A mudra is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism. While some mudras involve the entire body, most are performed with the fingers. A mudrā is a spiritual gesture and an energetic seal of authenticity employed in the iconography and spiritual practice of Indian religions. In hatha yoga, mudras are used in conjunction with pranayama while in a seated posture, to stimulate different parts of the body involved with breathing and to affect the flow of prana, boddhicitta, amrita or consciousness in the body. Unlike older tantric mudras, hatha yogic mudras are internal actions, involving the pelvic floor, throat, tongue, genitals and other parts of the body. Examples of this diversity of mudras are Mula Bandha, Viparita Karani, Khecarī mudrā, Vajroli mudra; these expanded in number from 3 in the Amritasiddhi, to 25 in the Gheranda Samhita, with a classical set of ten arising in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Chinese translation is yinxiang. Both these Chinese words appear as loanwords in Japanese and Korean.
Two other Chinese-based compounds, 印契 and 密印, are used. In Japanese, the former compound may be used with the order of the characters reversed. Mudra is used in the iconography of Hindu and Buddhist art of the Indian subcontinent and described in the scriptures, such as Nātyaśāstra, which lists 24 asaṁyuta and 13 saṁyuta mudras. Mudra positions are formed by both the hand and the fingers. Along with āsanas, they are employed statically in the meditation and dynamically in the Nāṭya practice of Hinduism. Hindu and Buddhist iconography share some mudras. In some regions, for example in Laos and Thailand, these are distinct but share related iconographic conventions. According to Jamgotn Kongtrul in his commentary on the Hevajra Tantra, the ornaments of wrathful deities and witches made of human bones are known as mudra "seals". In Indian classical dance, the term "Hasta Mudra" is used; the Natya Shastra describes 24 mudras, while the Abhinaya Darpana of Nandikeshvara gives 28. In all their forms of Indian classical dance, the mudras are similar, though the names and uses vary.
There are 24 in Kathakali and 20 in Odissi. These root mudras are combined in different ways, like one hand, two hands, arm movements and facial expressions. In Kathakali, which has the greatest number of combinations, the vocabulary adds up to c. 900. Sanyukta mudras use both hands and asanyukta mudras use one hand; the classical sources for the mudras in yoga are the Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika states the importance of mudras in yoga practice: "Therefore the goddess sleeping at the entrance of Brahma's door should be aroused with all effort, by performing mudra thoroughly." In the 20th and 21st centuries, the yoga teacher Satyananda Saraswati, founder of the Bihar School of Yoga, continued to emphasize the importance of mudras in his instructional text Asana, Mudrā, Bandha. The yoga mudras are diverse in the parts of the body involved and in the procedures required, as in Mula Bandha, Viparita Karani, Khecarī mudrā, Vajroli mudra. Mula Bandha, the Root Lock, consists of pressing one heel into the anus in a cross-legged seated asana, contracting the perineum, forcing the prana to enter the central sushumna channel.
Mahamudra, the Great Seal has one heel pressed into the perineum. Viparita Karani, the Inverter, is a posture with the head down and the feet up, using gravity to retain the prana; the time spent in the posture is increased until it can be held for "three hours". The practice is claimed by the Dattatreyayogashastra to destroy all diseases and to banish grey hair and wrinkles. Khecarī mudrā, the Khechari Seal, consists of turning back the tongue "into the hollow of the skull", sealing in the bindu fluid so that it stops dripping down from the head and being lost when the yogi "embraces a passionate woman". To make the tongue long and flexible enough to be folded back in this way, the Khecharividya exhorts the yogi to make a cut a hair's breadth deep in the frenulum of the tongue once a week. Six months of this treatment destroys the frenulum. After six years of practice, which cannot be hurried, the tongue is said to become able to close the top end of the sushumna channel. Vajroli mudra, the Vajroli Seal, requires the yogi to preserve the semen, either by learning not to release it, or if released by drawing it up through the urethra from the vagina of "a woman devoted to the practice of yoga".
The Abhayamudra "gesture of fearlessness" represents protection, peace and the dispelling of fear. In Theravada Buddhism it is made while standing with the right arm bent and raised to shoulder hei
Anthimachus I Theos was one of the Greco-Bactrian kings dated from around 185 BC to 170 BC. William Woodthorpe Tarn and numismatist Robert Senior place Antimachus as a member of the Euthydemid dynasty and as a son of Euthydemus and brother of Demetrius. Other historians, like A. K. Narain, mark him as independent of Euthydemid authority, a scion of some relation to the Diodotid dynasty, he was king of an area covering parts of Bactria and also Arachosia in southern Afghanistan. Antimachus I was either defeated during his resistance to the usurper Eucratides, or his main territory was absorbed by the latter upon his death. Adding to the argument against direct Euthydemid familial connections is a unique tax-receipt that states: "In the reign of Antimachos Theos and Eumenes and Antimachos... the fourth year, month of Olous, in Asangorna, the guardian of the law being... The tax collector Menodotus, in the presence of..., sent out by Demonax, the former... and of Simus who was... by the agency of Diodorus, controller of revenues, acknowledges receipt from... the son of Dataes from the priests... the dues relating to the purchase."
That Antimachus would list his own associate kings argues against the suggestion that he was appointed as a Northern associate ruler of Euthydemus and Demetrius, an idea that anyway is more or less unprecedented among Hellenistic kings. Eumenes and Antimachus could be his heirs. While Eumenes never issued any coins, a king named Antimachus II Nikephoros appeared in India, it seems plausible that the Indian Antimachus was the son of Antimachus I, but it is unclear whether his reign in India overlapped with his father's reign in Bactria. Antimachus I issued numerous silver coins on the Attic standard, with his own image in a flat Macedonian kausia hat, on the reverse Poseidon with his trident. Poseidon was the god of the ocean and great rivers - some scholars have here seen a reference to the provinces around the Indus River, where Antimachus I may have been a governor - but the protector of horses, a more important function in the hinterland of Bactria. On his coinage, Antimachus called himself a first in the Hellenistic world.
Just like his colleague Agathocles, he issued commemorative coinage, in his case silver tetradrachms honouring Euthydemus I called "The God", Diodotus I, called "The Saviour". This indicates. Antimachus I issued round bronzes depicting an elephant on the obverse, with a reverse showing the Greek goddess of victory Nike holding out a wreath; the elephant could be a Buddhist symbol. These coins are reminiscent of those of Demetrius I, as well as Apollodotus I. Other bronzes and rather crude portray a walking elephant, but with a reverse of a thunderbolt; these have been attributed by Bopearachchi to Arachosia. They are Indian in their design; the Greek in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press The Decline of the Indo-Greeks, R. C. Senior and D. MacDonald, Hellenistic Numismatic Society The Indo-Greeks, A. K. Narain, B. R. Publications Media related to Antimachus I at Wikimedia Commons Coins of Antimachus More coins of Antimachus
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
The Yuezhi were an ancient Indo-European people first described in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC. After a major defeat by the Xiongnu in 176 BC, the Yuezhi split into two groups migrating in different directions: the Greater Yuezhi and Lesser Yuezhi; the Greater Yuezhi migrated northwest into the Ili Valley, where they displaced elements of the Sakas. They were driven from the Ili Valley by the Wusun and migrated southward to Sogdia and settled in Bactria, where they defeated the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom; the Greater Yuezhi have often been identified with Bactrian peoples mentioned in classical European sources, like the Tókharioi and Asii. During the 1st century BC, one of the five major Greater Yuezhi tribes in Bactria, the Kushanas, began to subsume the other tribes and neighbouring peoples; the subsequent Kushan Empire, at its peak in the 3rd century CE, stretched from Turfan in the Tarim Basin, in the north to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain of India in the south.
The Kushanas played an important role in the development of trade on the Silk Road and the introduction of Buddhism to China. The Lesser Yuezhi migrated southward to the edge of the Tibetan Plateau; some are reported to have settled among the Qiang people in Qinghai, to have been involved in the Liangzhou Rebellion. Others are said to have founded the city state of Cumuḍa in the eastern Tarim. A fourth group of Lesser Yuezhi may have become part of the Jie people of Shanxi, who established the 4th century AD Later Zhao state. Although some scholars have associated the Yuezhi with artifacts of extinct cultures in the Tarim Basin, such as the Tarim mummies and texts recording the Tocharian languages, the evidence for any such link is purely circumstantial. Three pre-Han texts mention peoples who appear to be the Yuezhi, albeit under different names; the philosophical tract Guanzi mentions nomadic pastoralists known as the Yúzhī 禺氏 or Niúzhī 牛氏, who supplied jade to the Chinese. The export of jade from the Tarim Basin, since at least the late 2nd millennium BC, is well-documented archaeologically.
For example, hundreds of jade pieces found in the Tomb of Fu Hao originated from the Khotan area, on the southern rim of the Tarim Basin. According to the Guanzi, the Yúzhī/Niúzhī, unlike the neighbouring Xiongnu, did not engage in conflict with nearby Chinese states; the epic novel Tale of King Mu, Son of Heaven mentions a plain of Yúzhī 禺知 to the northwest of the Zhou lands. Chapter 59 of the Yi Zhou Shu refers to a Yúzhī 禺氏 people living to the northwest of the Zhou domain and offering horses as tribute. A late supplement contains the name Yuèdī 月氐, which may be a misspelling of the name Yuèzhī 月氏 found in texts. In the 1st century BC, Sima Qian – regarded as the founder of Chinese historiography – describes how the Qin dynasty bought jade and valued military horses from a people that Sima Qian called the Wūzhī 烏氏, led by a man named as Luo; the Wūzhī traded these goods for Chinese silk, which they sold on to other neighbours. This is the first reference to the Yuezhi as a lynchpin in trade on the Silk Road, which in the 3rd century BC began to link Chinese states to Central Asia and the Middle East, the Mediterranean and Europe.
The earliest detailed account of the Yuezhi is found in chapter 123 of the Records of the Great Historian by Sima Qian, describing a mission of Zhang Qian in the late 2nd century BC. The same text appears in chapter 61 of the Book of Han, though Sima Qian has added occasional words and phrases to clarify the meaning. Both texts use the name Yuèzhī 月氏, composed of characters meaning "moon" and "clan" respectively. Several different romanizations of this Chinese-language name have appeared in print; the Iranologist H. W. Bailey preferred Üe-ṭşi. Another modern Chinese pronunciation of the name is Ròuzhī, based on the theory that the character 月 in the name is a scribal error for 肉; the account begins with the Yuezhi occupying the grasslands to the northwest of China at the beginning of the 2nd century BC: The Great Yuezhi was a nomadic horde. They moved about following their cattle, had the same customs as those of the Xiongnu; as their soldiers numbered more than hundred thousand, they were strong and despised the Xiongnu.
In the past, they lived in the region between Qilian. The area between the Qilian Mountains and Dunhuang lies in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, but no archaeological remains of the Yuezhi have yet been found in this area; some scholars have argued that "Dunhuang" should be Dunhong, a mountain in the Tian Shan, that Qilian should be interpreted as a name for the Tian Shan. They have thus placed the original homeland of the Yuezhi 1,000 km further northwest in the grasslands to the north of the Tian Shan. Other authors sugge
Mathura is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 50 kilometres north of Agra, 145 kilometres south-east of Delhi, it is the administrative centre of Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh. In ancient times, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes; the 2011 Census of India estimated the population of Mathura at 441,894. In Hinduism, Mathura is believed to be the birthplace of Krishna, located at the Krishna Janmasthan Temple Complex, it is one of the Sapta Puri, the seven cities considered holy by Hindus. The Kesava Deo Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's birthplace. Mathura was the capital of the kingdom of Surasena, ruled by the maternal uncle of Krishna. Mathura has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for the Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Mathura has an ancient history and believed to be the homeland and birthplace of Krishna, born in Yadu dynasty. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana.
In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded Madhupura and Mathura. Archaeological excavations at Mathura show the gradual growth of a village into an important city; the earliest period belonged to the Painted Grey Ware culture, followed by the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. Mathura derived its importance as a center of trade due to its location where the northern trade route of the Indo-Gangetic Plain met with the routes to Malwa and the west coast. By the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena Kingdom; the city was ruled by the Maurya empire. Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BCE, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα, it seems it never was under the direct control of the following Shunga dynasty as not a single archaeological remain of a Shunga presence were found in Mathura. The Indo-Greeks may have taken control, direct or indirect, of Mathura some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, remained so as late as 70 BCE according to the Yavanarajya inscription, found in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres from Mathura.
The opening of the 3 line text of this inscription in Brahmi script translates as: "In the 116th year of the Yavana kingdom..." or'"In the 116th year of Yavana hegemony" However, this corresponds to the presence of the native Mitra dynasty of local rulers in Mathura, in the same time frame pointing to a vassalage relationship with the Indo-Greeks. After a period of local rule, Mathura was conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the first 1st century BCE; the Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. However, Indo-Scythian control proved to be short lived, following the reign of the Indo-Scythian Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, c. 10–25 CE. The Kushan Empire took control of Mathura some time after Rajuvula, although several of his successors ruled as Kushans vassals, such as the Indo-Scythian "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, both of whom paid allegiance to the Kushans in an inscription at Sarnath, dating to the 3rd year of the reign of the Kushan emperor Kanishka c. 130 CE.
Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of its capitals. The preceding capitals of the Kushans included Kapisa and Takshasila/Sirsukh/. Faxian mentions the city as a centre of Buddhism about 400 CE while his successor Xuanzang, who visited the city in 634 CE, mentions it as Mot'ulo, recording that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Hindu temples, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and Mathura, on the Yamuna river. The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 CE and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517 CE. Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of'Butt Shikan', the'Destroyer of Hindu deities'; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the Shahi-Eidgah Mosque during his rule, adjacent to Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi believed to be over a Hindu temple.
Mathura is a holy city for the world's third-largest religion. There are many places of religious importance in Mathura and its neighbouring towns; the twin-city to Mathura is Vrindavan. As the home of Krishna in his youth, the small town is host to a multitude of temples belonging to various sects of Hinduism proclaiming Krishna in various forms and avatars; some notable religious sites in and around Mathura are: Keshav Dev Temple Dwarkadheesh temple Mathura Vishram Ghat Krishna Balaram Mandir Prem Mandir, Vrindavan Kusum Sarovar, Govardhan Baldeo Shri Siddh Shani Mandir, Mundesi Lohwan Mata Mandir Shri Ratneshwar Mahadev Gopinath Maharaj Mandir Shri Jagannath Temple Bhuteshwar Mathura Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir, Vrindavan Mathura Museum Birla Mandir Madan Mohan Temple, Vrindavan Naam yog Sadhna Mandir Banke Bihari Temple Radha Raman