Austin is a city in Mower County, United States. The population was 24,718 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Mower County. The town was settled along the Cedar River and has two artificial lakes, East Side Lake and Mill Pond, it was named for the first settler in the area. Hormel Foods Corporation is Austin's largest employer, the town is sometimes called "SPAM Town USA". Austin is home to Hormel's corporate headquarters, a factory that makes most of North America's SPAM tinned meat, the Spam Museum. Austin is home to the Hormel Institute, a leading cancer research institution operated by the University of Minnesota with significant support from the Mayo Clinic. Austin has been named one of the "Top 10 Affordable Small Towns Where You'd Actually Want to Live," as well as one of the "Best Small Cities in America" for 2015. Fertile land and ease of access brought first trappers and the early pioneers to this region; the rich gameland attracted Austin Nichols, a trapper who built the first log cabin in 1853.
At that time there were "about twenty families in the area." More settlers began to arrive by wagon train in 1855, by 1856, enough people were present to organize Mower County. In 1856 the settlement adopted the name Austin, in honor of its first settler; that year the first hotel opened to travelers and the first physician moved to town, Dr. Ormanzo Allen; the first newspaper, the Mower County Mirror, was started in 1858. Mills, powered by the Cedar River, were the first industries in Austin, they provided much-needed lumber for the growing village. Growth was slow during the first two decades, but the Chicago, St. Paul railroad arrived in the late 1860s, hastening economic development; the town's first schoolhouse was constructed in 1865 and the first bank opened its doors the following year. In 1891, George A. Hormel opened a small family-owned butcher shop in Austin, which grew into today's Fortune 500 company, Hormel Foods. By 1896, area doctors, with the help of local Lutheran congregations, formed the Austin Hospital Association becoming St. Olaf Hospital, part of Mayo Clinic Health System.
Austin received its first college in 1897 when the Southern Minnesota Normal College and Austin School of Commerce were opened by Charles Boostrom. The college closed in 1925 and the city was without an institution of higher education until Austin Junior College opened in 1940. A 50-acre parcel of land was made into Horace Austin State Park by the Minnesota Legislature in 1913. At the time, the land was "one of the beauty spots of Southern Minnesota, but of late years has not been cared for and in places the banks have been disfigured by dumping along the shore of the stream," according to the bill's author, Senator Charles F. Cook; the park was converted to a state "scenic wayside" in 1937 transferred to city ownership in 1949. In the 1930s, Austin Acres was built with funding from the Subsistence Homesteads Division of the Department of the Interior, the Austin Parks Board was formed in the 1940s to oversee the growing number of green spaces within the city; the Jay C. Hormel Nature Center, established in 1971, a 500-acre nature preserve including the 60 acre Hormel Arboretum, purchased from Geordie Hormel with a state grant.
In 1973, the city opened Riverside Arena, the city's first indoor ice arena, now home to a variety of ice activities including the Austin Bruins junior ice hockey team. In August 1985, 1,500 Hormel meatpackers went on strike at the Austin plant after management demanded a 23% cut in wages. A protracted battle between union employees and Hormel continued until June 1986, one of the longest labor struggles of the 1980s. In January 1986, some workers crossed the picket lines; the strike received media attention on a national level and a documentary film, American Dream, was made during the ten-month long conflict. The movie won Best Documentary Feature at the 63rd Annual Academy Awards. A song about the strike, "P-9", was written by Dave Pirner of the Minneapolis band Soul Asylum, it is on their 1989 album Clam Other Delights. Hormel never gave in to the workers' demands, when the strike ended in June 1986, 700 employees were left without work. Austin has undergone several notable developments: a new $28 million courthouse and jail were completed in 2010, a new intermediate school opened in 2013, a major redevelopment project is taking place at the site of the former Oak Park Mall.
The city is embarking on a community development project called Vision 2020. This grassroots movement was chartered in 2011 to implement ten major new community initiatives that could be completed by 2020; the projects involve a variety of projects related to economic development and wellness, tourism. A community recreation center is in progress as well as a visitor center. One goal is to make the downtown business district more of a destination, aided in part by the Spam Museum's relocation to Main Street in 2016. In 2015, the National Association of Realtors named Austin one of the "Top 10 Affordable Small Towns Where You'd Actually Want to Live." Austin has a long history of flooding. The Cedar River, along with Dobbins Creek and Turtle Creek, flow through the community, many homes and businesses were constructed in flood plains. A series of floods between 1978 and 2010 resulted in a major flood mitigation program; this involved the purchase and demolition of buildings within the flood plain, converting low-lying areas of
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
The Gear Daddies are a rock band from Austin, Minnesota. Randy Broughten, Nick Ciola, Billy Dankert, Martin Zellar played their first shows together in 1984, they released singles and albums between 1986 and 1992 and became an important part of the Twin Cities music scene. Most songs were written by Zellar, though Dankert had several of note, including crowd favorite "Time Heals". In 1991, Zellar and Broughten played "Stupid Boy" on Late Night with David Letterman. Ciola and Dankert did not play on the show because, at the time, many bands sat in with The World's Most Dangerous Band. Zellar said of the experience: "I was so nervous, it happened so quick. I couldn't tell you. I got done, I was walking back and said to Randy,'Did I sing all the words? Did I do that?' When I watched it that night in the hotel room I had no recollection of having lived it." Although their song "Zamboni" was a hidden track on their album Billy's Live Bait, it became one of their best-known songs, as it was played during intermissions at hockey games throughout North America.
It was featured in the movies D2: The Mighty Ducks and Mystery, Alaska, as well as on television program Malcolm in the Middle. After the dissolution of the band, Zellar began an active career of performing and recording with the band that became known as Martin Zellar and the Hardways, taking with him long-time friend and bassist Nick Ciola. Electric guitarist Randy Broughten is a physical education teacher in Eagan, Minnesota; as well as being a member of The Cactus Blossoms, he has been the steel guitar player for many years with Minneapolis country band Trailer Trash, who are known for their annual Christmas shows, who had a cameo in the mockumentary film Dill Scallion. Drummer James "Billy" Dankert is a professional visual artist as well as a musician; as of the present, all four members of the Gear Daddies reunite several times a year to perform throughout the Midwest. The Gear Daddies were an influence on a number of bands that emerged in the upper Midwest in the late 1980s through the 1990s, including Johnny Clueless, The Billy's, Steve's Piece, Shoot Lucy, Dazy Head Mazy and Six Mile Grove.
Albums Let's Go Scare Al Billy's Live Bait Can't Have Nothin' Nice EPs Color Of Her Eyes Miscellaneous The song "Zamboni" appeared on the soundtracks for the Disney movies: D2: The Mighty Ducks Mystery, Alaska Gear Daddies video playlist Martin Zellar website Gear Daddies on Letterman video Gear Daddies at AllMusic Star Tribune Gear Daddies Video produced by Twin Cities PBS
Caesar is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of the Roman dictator; the change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors". For political and personal reasons, Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Julius Caesar by styling himself "Imperator Caesar", without any of the other elements of his full name, his successor as emperor, his stepson Tiberius bore the name as a matter of course. The precedent was set: the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him and giving him the name "Caesar"; the fourth Emperor, was the first to assume the name "Caesar" upon accession, without having been adopted by the previous emperor. Claudius in turn adopted his stepson and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, giving him the name "Caesar" in the traditional way; the first emperor to assume the position and the name without any real claim to either was the usurper Servius Sulpicius Galba, who took the imperial throne under the name "Servius Galba Imperator Caesar" following the death of the last of the Julio-Claudians, Nero, in 68.
Galba helped solidify "Caesar" as the title of the designated heir by giving it to his own adopted heir, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus. Galba's reign did not last long and he was soon deposed by Marcus Otho. Otho did not at first use the title "Caesar" and used the title "Nero" as emperor, but adopted the title "Caesar" as well. Otho was defeated by Aulus Vitellius, who acceded with the name "Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus". Vitellius did not adopt the cognomen "Caesar" as part of his name and may have intended to replace it with "Germanicus". Caesar had become such an integral part of the imperial dignity that its place was restored by Titus Flavius Vespasianus, whose defeat of Vitellius in 69 put an end to the period of instability and began the Flavian dynasty. Vespasian's son, Titus Flavius Vespasianus became "Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus". By this point the status of "Caesar" had been regularised into that of a title given to the Emperor-designate and retained by him upon accession to the throne.
After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was Nobilissimus Caesar "Most Noble Caesar", though Caesar on its own was used. The popularity of using the title Caesar to designate heirs-apparent increased throughout the third century. Many of the soldier emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century attempted to strengthen their legitimacy by naming heirs, including Maximinus Thrax, Philip the Arab, Trebonianus Gallus and Gallienus; some of these were promoted to the rank of Augustus within their father's lifetime, for example Philippus II. The same title would be used in the Gallic Empire, which operated autonomously from the rest of the Roman Empire from 260 to 274, with the final Gallic emperor Tetricus I appointing his heir Tetricus II Caesar and his consular colleague for 274. Despite the best efforts of these emperors, the granting of this title does not seem to have made succession in this chaotic period any more stable. All Caesars would be killed before or alongside their fathers, or at best outlive them for a matter of months, as in the case of Hostilian.
The sole Caesar to obtain the rank of Augustus and rule for some time in his own right was Gordian III, he was controlled by his court. On 1 March 293, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors; the two coequal senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN. Pius Felix Invictus Augustus and were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar; the junior sub-Emperors retained the title "Caesar" upon accession to the senior position. The Tetrarchy was abandoned as a system in favour of two equal, territorial emperors, the previous system of Emperors and Emperors-designate was restored, both in the Latin-speaking West and the Greek-speaking East; the title of Caesar remained in use throughout the Constantinian period, with both Constantine I and his co-emperor and rival Licinius utilising it to mark their heirs.
In the case of Constantine, this meant that by the time he died, he had four Caesars: Constantius II, Constantine II, Constans and his nephew Dalmatius, with his eldest son Crispus having been executed in mysterious circumstances earlier in his reign. In the event, Constantine would be su
Martin Zellar is a Minnesota-based musician and songwriter. Martin Zellar is the brother of writer Brad Zellar. Zellar grew up in Minnesota. While still in high school, Zellar formed his first band, with childhood friend and bassist Nick Ciola. Zellar and Ciola have played in bands together for more than 30 years. Upon graduation, Zellar moved to the Twin Cities and in 1984 joined fellow Austin, Minnesotans Ciola, guitarist Randy Broughten, drummer and fellow songwriter James "Billy" Dankert as the Gear Daddies; the band enjoyed much regional and some national success, released three albums. They broke up in 1992, but began playing enthusiastically attended reunion shows a few years later. With the dissolution of the Gear Daddies, the songwriter began making albums and performing with a band that would become known as Martin Zellar and The Hardways, including at various times Nick Ciola, Scott Wenum, Wilson Zellar, Jesse Duke, Luke Kramer, Whelan Keenan, Dan Neale, Adam Levy, Noah Levy, Jon Duncan, Marc Retish, Patrik Tanner, Randy Broughten.
In the late'90s, Zellar began singing with a Neil Diamond tribute band that remains popular into the present. Neil! Includes musicians Ali Gray, Patrik Tanner, Scott Wenum, Nick Ciola, JJ Benson. In 2007, Zellar's song I Wanna Drive the Zamboni, which appears in various movies and television shows, is ubiquitous at hockey games, was released as a single; the song was a hidden track on the Gear Daddies album "Billy's Live Bait". On February 10, 2012 Martin Zellar and the Hardways kicked off a tour in support of new album Rooster's Crow. Pat Maske produced, it includes the talents of Kelly Willis, Lloyd Maines, Kevin McKinney, Bukka Allen, Chojo Jacques, Brian Standefer, Billy Bright, Michael Ramos, Terri Hendrix. Chris Riemenschneider of the Minneapolis StarTribune calls it "the best record of his 25-year career." 1988: Let's Go Scare Al, 1990: Billy's Live Bait 1992: Can't Have Nothin' Nice 1994: Born Under 1996: Martin Zellar and the Hardways 1998: The Many Moods of Martin Zellar and the Hardways 2000: Two Guitars Bass & Drums, recorded live 2002: Scattered 2003: Live From the Mercury Lounge 2003: They Even Use The Hooves, B-sides and other rarities 2011: Martin Lee Zellar, limited edition 2012: Rooster's Crow 2017: Fan-Selected Sampler 1998-2014 Official Website Martin Zellar at AllMusic Martin Zellar discography at Discogs Gear Daddies at AllMusic Gear Daddies discography at Discogs Martin Zellar Youtube Playlist