The BFI IMAX is an IMAX cinema in the South Bank district of London, just north of Waterloo station. It since July 2012 has been operated by Odeon Cinemas; the cinema is located in the centre of a roundabout junction with Waterloo Road to the south-east, Stamford Street to the north-east, York Road to the south-west and Waterloo Bridge to the north-west. BFI IMAX was designed by Bryan Avery of Avery Associates Architects and completed in May 1999; the screen is the largest in Britain. It has a seating capacity of just under 500 and a 12,000 Watt digital surround sound system. Although the site is surrounded by traffic and has an underground line just four metres below, the architects and engineers accounted for this in their design and the entire upper structure sits on anti vibration bearings to prevent noise propagation; the cinema won several awards at the time of opening, including a Design Council Millennium Product Award in 1999 and a Civic Trust Award in 2000. In 2012, the screen was replaced and a digital IMAX projector was installed alongside the existing 70mm projector.
In July 2012, the BFI announced that Odeon Cinemas had been selected to operate it for the next five years, with the option of termination after three years. Odeon will maintain the film programmes, booking of tickets online and per telephone; this gives customers the opportunity to watch Operas on the giant screen. The BFI will retain a great deal of power over the cinema's operation however, including parts of the film schedule and the technical operation; the name will remain the same. To start this move to mainstream cinema, the BFI London IMAX theatre celebrated by having sold 66,000 pre-booked tickets for The Dark Knight Rises in just 5 weeks, giving a total sale in tickets of £1,000,000 before the premiere of the movie. London has another traditional IMAX cinema at the Science Museum in South Kensington and in December 2008 gained IMAX digital cinemas at Odeon cinemas in Greenwich and Wimbledon. In 2011, a digital IMAX screen was opened at the Odeon in Swiss Cottage. Digital IMAX screens are inferior to traditional film IMAX screens, being much smaller and not offering the same image resolution as 70mm film.
The BFI London IMAX is the largest cinema screen in Britain. It measures 26m by 20m with a total screen size of 520m². However, if showing a film with an aspect ratio of 2.39:1, only 283m² of the screen will be in use, or 365m² for a 1.85:1 film. The auditorium seats 500. Despite the cinema having the largest screen in Britain, when showing in the flagship IMAX format at an aspect ratio of 1.43, it does not offer the biggest image. That can be claimed by the Vue Manchester Printworks, which has 11m² more image area than BFI IMAX in such aspect ratio; the London IMAX is followed in size by: The Vue Manchester Printworks IMAX. 26.3m by 18.8m with a total screen size of 495m². Seats 377; the Glasgow Science Centre IMAX. 25m by 18.9m with a total screen size of 472m². Seats 382; the Empire, Leicester Square IMAX, London. 26.5m by 15.6m with a total screen size of 413m².. Seats 728, it is the widest cinema screen in Britain. This screen sits back-to-back with the Superscreen, 20.5m by 11m with a total screen size of 225.5m² The London Science Museum IMAX.
24.3m by 16.8m with a total screen size of 408m². The Cineworld IMAX, Leeds. 24m by 14m with a total screen size of 336m² The National Science and Media Museum, Bradford. 20m by 16.5m with a total screen size of 330m². Seats 270. Pepsi IMAX Cinema at the London Trocadero 19.8m by 15.8m with a total screen size of 313m². Seated 300; the Giant Screen at Millennium Point, Birmingham. 21.3m by 12.6 with a total screen size of 268m². Seats 385; the Cineworld IMAX, Sheffield. 21.3m x 12m, total screen size of 255.6m². Seats 691; the Superscreen at the Cineworld O2, London. 22m by 9.2m with a total screen size of 202m². Seats 776; the Odeon IMAX, Milton Keynes Stadium. 18.5m by 10.32m with a total screen size of 191m². Seats 387 The VueXtreme screen at Vue Westfield London, 18m by 10m with a total screen size of 180m²; the Rheged Centre, Penrith Cumbria. 18m by 14.63m with a total screen size of 263.34 m2. Seats 262 The Liverpool One Odeon IMAX, Liverpool. 17.99m x 9.76m for a total screen size of 176m². Seats 288 Nottingham.
18.9m x 9.1m, total screen size of 172m². Seats 425; the Odeon IMAX, Cardiff. 16.8m by 7.9m for a total screen size of 133m². Seats 209; the Odeon IMAX, Kingston. 15.2m wide x 7.23m with a total screen size of 110m² Seats 428. Cardboard City List of IMAX venues Official website Odeon London IMAX website Avery Associates Architects IMAX Corporation
The Venice Biennale refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization presents. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is now called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation and other exhibitions the Foundation organizes; the Art Biennale, a contemporary visual art exhibition and so called because it is held biennially, is the original biennale on which others in the world have been modeled. The Biennale Foundation has a continuous existence supporting the arts as well as organizing the following separate events: On April 19, 1893 the Venetian City Council passed a resolution to set up an biennial exhibition of Italian Art to celebrate the silver anniversary of King Umberto I and Margherita of Savoy. A year the council decreed "to adopt a'by invitation' system; the first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors. The event became international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries installed national pavilions at the exhibition, with the first being from Belgium.
In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a one-man show for Renoir, a retrospective of Courbet. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public. By 1914 seven pavilions had been established: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain and Russia. During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled. In 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split; the new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art, notably Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. 1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there. In 1928 the Istituto Storico d'Arte Contemporanea opened, the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art. In 1930, the Biennale was transformed into an Ente Autonomo by Royal Decree with law no. 33 of 13-1-1930.
Subsequently, the control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government under Benito Mussolini. This brought on a restructuring, an associated financial boost, as well as a new president, Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata. Three new events were established, including the Biennale Musica in 1930 referred to as International Festival of Contemporary Music. In 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section. During World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted: 1942 saw the last edition of the events; the Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, the Art Exhibition in 1948. The Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature; the Secretary General, art historian Rodolfo Pallucchini, started with the Impressionists and many protagonists of contemporary art including Chagall, Braque, Delvaux and Magritte, as well as a retrospective of Picasso's work.
Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her collection to be permanently housed at Ca' Venier dei Leoni. 1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and worldwide—movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe. 1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Ray's Aparajito. 1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, Pietro Consagra. The 1964 Art Exhibition introduced continental Europe to Pop Art.
The American Robert Rauschenberg was the first American artist to win the Gran Premio, the youngest to date. The student protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale. Student protests hindered the opening of the Biennale. A resulting period of institutional changes opened and ending with a new Statute in 1973. In 1969, following the protests, the Grand Prizes were abandoned; these resumed in 1980 in 1986 for the Art Exhibition. In 1972
Pulp were an English rock band formed in Sheffield in 1978. Their best-known line-up from their heyday consisted of Jarvis Cocker, Candida Doyle, Russell Senior, Mark Webber, Steve Mackey and Nick Banks. Throughout the 1980s, the band struggled to find success, but gained prominence in the UK in the mid-1990s with the release of the albums His'n' Hers in 1994 and Different Class in 1995, which reached the number one spot in the UK Albums Chart; the album spawned four top ten singles, including "Common People" and "Sorted for E's & Wizz", both of which reached number two in the UK Singles Chart. Pulp's musical style during this period consisted of disco influenced pop-rock coupled with references to British culture in their lyrics in the form of a "kitchen sink drama"-style. Cocker and the band became reluctant figures in the Britpop movement, were nominated for the Mercury Music Prize in 1994 for His'n' Hers. Pulp headlined the Pyramid Stage of the Glastonbury Festival twice and were regarded among the Britpop "big four", along with Oasis and Suede.
The band released We Love Life, in 2001, after which they entered an extended hiatus, having sold more than 10 million records. Pulp reunited and played live again in 2011, with dates at the Isle of Wight Festival and Leeds Festivals, Sziget Festival, Primavera Sound, the Exit festival, the Wireless Festival. A number of additional concert dates have since been added to their schedule. In January 2013 Pulp released "After You", a re-recording of a We Love Life demo track, as a digital download single, it was the band's first single release since "Bad Cover Version" in 2002. On 9 March 2014 Pulp and filmmaker Florian Habicht premiered the feature documentary Pulp: A Film about Life, Death & Supermarkets at SXSW Music and Film Festival in Austin, Texas; the film toured the international film festival circuit and was released theatrically by Oscilloscope Laboratories in the US in November 2014. It is the first film about Pulp, made in collaboration with the band. Pulp were formed in 1978 at The City School in Sheffield by Jarvis Cocker 15-years-old, Peter Dalton 14.
Cocker's original preference was to name the band after the film Pulp starring Michael Caine, though it was decided that this was too short. Instead, the two took inspiration from a copy of the Financial Times which listed the Arabicas coffee bean in its commodity index. Cocker and Dalton used this, with a slight spelling change, the band became "Arabicus". Early rehearsals took place in Cocker's house and featured Cocker and Dalton's younger brother Ian. After deciding on "Arabicus Pulp", a fixed line-up was established: Cocker and two friends of theirs, David Lockwood and Mark Swift; the band played their first public gig at Rotherham Arts Centre in July 1980. That year, Cocker met future member, Russell Senior who recognised Cocker from his charismatic sales techniques in his part-time job at the local fish market, their musical style at this time was varied described as "a cross between ABBA and The Fall". A local fanzine noted this eclecticism, describing them as sounding "as if they listen to the John Peel show every night in an endless quest for influences".
Indeed, in October 1981, they gave a demo tape to Peel. The session was a giant leap forward for the young band, who became well-known on the local music scene as a result; the tracks recorded were in the typical Sheffield sound of the time: electronic new wave and post-punk. These tracks were released in 2006 on The Peel Sessions compilation. Despite their exposure on national radio, success was not forthcoming and, apart from Cocker, most of the core line-up left for university. Soon, a new set of musicians was gathered: Simon Hinkler, David Hinkler, Wayne Furniss, Peter Boam, Gary Wilson, Cocker's sister, Saskia, they managed to get enough local backing to record a mini-album in late 1982, entitled It, released in April 1983 by Red Rhino Records. This consisted of folkish, romantic pop songs influenced by Leonard Cohen and was a change of direction from the Peel Sessions two years earlier; the album was released by Cherry Red Records. Though It failed commercially and fame was still elusive, the band continued to seek commercial success to the point of recording a single, "Everybody's Problem"/"There Was".
The single demonstrated a style shift advised by Red Rhino's Tony Perrin who had convinced Cocker that he "could write commercial songs like Wham!". This approach failed and Cocker was becoming unhappy with his chosen musical direction, he was set to break up the band and go to university himself before a practice with Russell Senior and Magnus Doyle led to the establishment of a new, more experimental and noisier direction for Pulp. They were subsequently augmented by Tim Allcard; the new incarnation of Pulp survived a number of ill-fated gigs before Allcard left to be replaced on keyboards by Magnus Doyle's sister Candida. Following her first performance with the band, they were signed to Fire Records. Soon after signing to Fire, in November 1985, Cocker fell out of a window while trying to impress a girl with a Spider-Man impression and ende
An allotment garden called an allotment, or a “community garden”, is a plot of land made available for individual, non-commercial gardening or growing food plants. Such plots are formed by subdividing a piece of land into a few or up to several hundred land parcels that are assigned to individuals or families; such parcels are cultivated individually, contrary to other community garden types where the entire area is tended collectively by a group of people. In countries that do not use the term “allotment ”, a “community garden” may refer to individual small garden plots as well as to a single, large piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people; the term “victory garden” is still sometimes used when a community garden dates back to the First or Second World War. The individual size of a parcel suits the needs of a family, the plots include a shed for tools and shelter, sometimes a hut for seasonal or weekend accommodation; the individual gardeners are organised in an allotment association, which leases or is granted the land from an owner who may be a public, private or ecclesiastical entity, who stipulates that it be only used for gardening, but not for permanent residential purposes.
The gardeners have to pay a small membership fee to the association, have to abide by the corresponding constitution and by-laws. However, the membership entitles them to certain democratic rights; the Luxembourg-based Office International du Coin de Terre et des Jardins Familiaux, representing three million European allotment gardeners since 1926, describes the socio-cultural and economic functions of allotment gardens as offering an improved quality of life, an enjoyable and profitable hobby and contact with nature. For children, gardens offer places to play and to learn about nature, while for the unemployed, they offer a feeling of doing something useful as well as low-cost food. For the elderly and disabled, gardens offer an opportunity to meet people, to share in activity with like-minded people, to experience activities like planting and harvesting; the first garden in Purkersdorf, 1905. In Vancouver, Calgary, Ottawa, these are called community gardens. Allotment gardening used to be popular in the former Czechoslovakia under the communist regime.
It gave people from suburban prefab apartment blocks - called paneláky in Czech - a chance to escape from city chaos and concrete architecture. Holiday houses and gardens served as the only permitted form of investment of savings for common middle-class citizens. In 1778 land was laid out outside the fortifications of the town of Fredericia for allotment gardens and according to an 1828 circular from the royal chancellery allotment gardens were established in several towns. Private initiative formed the first Danish allotment association in Aalborg in 1884 and in Copenhagen an association named Arbejdernes Værn founded the first allotment gardens of the Danish Capital in 1891. Since allotment gardens have spread to most Danish towns. In 1904 there were about 20,000 allotment gardens in Denmark. 6,000 of them were in Copenhagen. During the interwar years the number of allotment gardens grew rapidly. In 2001 the number of allotment gardens was estimated to be about 62,120. In 1908, twenty allotment associations in Copenhagen formed the Allotment Garden Union which in 1914 was expanded to cover all of Denmark.
The Allotment Garden Federation was founded to negotiate more favourable deals with the state and the municipalities from which the allotments associations rented the land. Today the federation represents 400 allotment associations in 75 municipalities; the Danish tradition for allotment gardens spread to the other Nordic countries: first Sweden Norway and Finland. Today most allotment gardens are on land owned by the municipality which rents the land to an allotment association; the association in turn gives each member a plot of land. To preserve allotment gardens as something, available for all kinds of people, the membership charge is set below what a market price would be. Since allotments are placed on attractive plots of land, this has led to huge waiting lists for membership in many allotment associations. Although the main purpose of the allotment is gardening, most allotment gardens have a pavilion built in them; these pavilions can range in size from an old rebuilt railway car to a small summer house.
Many people grow so fond of their allotment gardens. In most cases, members are not allowed to live there the entire year; the Federation of Finnish Allotment Gardens is a non-profit organization that supports allotment gardeners and connects them to allotments and each other. The first allotment garden was established 1916 in Tampere, today there are about 30 allotment associations all around Finland made up of 3700 allotmenteers. In many localities in France, when allotments exist, they are sited in marginal zones unsuitable for other uses; these places suffer from poor access, may not be safe, lack a water supply, are not protected from real estate transactions. The history of the allotment gardens in Germany is connected with the period of industrialization and urbanization in Europe during the 19th century when a large number of people migrated from the rural areas to the cities to find employment and a better life; these families were living under poor conditions suffering from inappropriate housing and other f
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated. Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability; the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.
The Games made use of venues that existed before the bid. The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised highly; the opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games.
Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee, nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Leipzig, Madrid, New York City and Rio de Janeiro. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Moscow, New York and Paris. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005; the Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.
Throughout the process, Paris was seen as the favourite as this was its third bid in recent years. London was seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin, its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between Paris. On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities, they did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be close. It will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore.
Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New Madrid. The final two contenders were Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to 50. Tragically, the celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement; the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005. The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure; the latter was established in April 2006. The Government Olympic Executive, a unit within the Department for Culture and Sport, was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics, it focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom.
The organisation was responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding. In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games, in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games; the IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2
Westminster is an area in central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames. Westminster's concentration of visitor attractions and historic landmarks, one of the highest in London, includes the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral; the area lay within St Margaret's parish, City & Liberty of Westminster, Middlesex. The name Westminster originated from the informal description of the abbey church and royal peculiar of St Peter's West of the City of London; the abbey was part of the royal palace, created here by Edward the Confessor. It has been the home of the permanent institutions of England's government continuously since about 1200, from 1707 the British Government — formally titled Her Majesty's Government. In a government context, Westminster refers to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, located in the UNESCO World Heritage Palace of Westminster — also known as the Houses of Parliament.
The closest tube stations are Westminster and St James's Park, on the Jubilee and District lines. The area is the centre of Her Majesty's Government, with Parliament in the Palace of Westminster and most of the major Government ministries known as Whitehall, itself the site of the royal palace that replaced that at Westminster. Within the area is Westminster School, a major public school which grew out of the Abbey, the University of Westminster, attended by over 20,000 students. Bounding Westminster to the north is Green Park, a Royal Park of London; the area has a substantial residential population. By the 20th Century Westminster has seen rising residential condominiums with wealthy inhabitants. Hotels, large Victorian homes and barracks exist near to Buckingham Palace. For a list of street name etymologies for Westminster see Street names of Westminster The name describes an area no more than 1 mile from Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster to the west of the River Thames; the settlement grew up as a service area for them.
The need for a parish church, St Margaret's Westminster for the servants of the palace and of the abbey who could not worship there indicates that it had a population as large as that of a small village. It became larger and in the Georgian period became connected through urban ribbon development with the City along the Strand, it did not become a viable local government unit created as a civil parish. Henry VIII's Reformation in the early 16th century abolished the Abbey and established a Cathedral - thus the parish ranked as a "City", although it was only a fraction of the size of the City of London and the Borough of Southwark at that time. Indeed, the Cathedral and diocesan status of the church lasted only from 1539 to 1556, but the "city" status remained for a mere parish within Middlesex; as such it is first known to have had two Members of Parliament in 1545 as a new Parliamentary Borough, centuries after the City of London and Southwark were enfranchised. The former Thorney Island, the site of Westminster Abbey, formed the historic core of Westminster.
The abbey became the traditional venue of the coronations of the kings and queens of England from that of Harold Godwinson onwards. From about 1200 the Palace of Westminster, near the abbey, became the principal royal residence, a transition marked by the transfer of royal treasury and financial records to Westminster from Winchester; the palace housed the developing Parliament and England's law courts. Thus London developed two focal points: the City of Westminster; the monarchs moved their principal residence to the Palace of Whitehall to St James's Palace in 1698, to Buckingham Palace and other palaces after 1762. The main law courts moved to the Royal Courts of Justice in the late-19th century. Charles Booth's poverty map showing Westminster in 1889 recorded the full range of income and capital brackets living in adjacent streets within the area. Westminster has shed the abject poverty with the clearance of this slum and with drainage improvement, but there is a typical Central London property distinction within the area, acute, epitomised by grandiose 21st-century developments, architectural high-point listed buildings and nearby social housing buildings of the Peabody Trust founded by philanthropist George Peabody.
The Westminster area formed part of the Liberty of Westminster in Middlesex. The ancient parish was St Margaret; the area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by — but not part of — either parish. Until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John, based at Westminster City Hall in Caxton Street from 1883; the Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses included St Martin in the Fields and several other parishes and places. Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions had jurisdiction