South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
Sidewise Award for Alternate History
The Sidewise Awards for Alternate History were established in 1995 to recognize the best alternative history stories and novels of the year. The awards take their name from the 1934 short story "Sidewise in Time" by Murray Leinster, in which a strange storm causes portions of Earth to swap places with their analogs from other timelines; the awards were created by Steven H Silver, Evelyn C. Leeper, Robert B. Schmunk. Over the years, the number of judges has fluctuated between three and eight, including judges in the UK and South Africa; each year, two awards are presented at the World Science Fiction Convention. The Short-Form award is presented to a work under 60,000 words in length; the Long-Form award may be presented to a work longer than 60,000 words, including both novels and complete series. At their discretion, the judges may elect to recognize an individual or work with a Special Achievement Award in recognition of works that were published prior to the award's inception. 1995 – Paul J. McAuley, Pasquale's Angel 1996 – Stephen Baxter, Voyage 1997 – Harry Turtledove, How Few Remain 1998 – Stephen Fry, Making History 1999 – Brendan DuBois, Resurrection Day 2000 – Mary Gentle, Ash: A Secret History 2001 – J. N. Stroyar, The Children's War 2002 –: Martin J. Gidron, The Severed Wing & Harry Turtledove, Ruled Britannia 2003 – Murray Davies, Collaborator 2004 – Philip Roth, The Plot Against America 2005 – Ian R. MacLeod, The Summer Isles 2006 – Charles Stross, The Family Trade, The Hidden Family, The Clan Corporate 2007 – Michael Chabon, The Yiddish Policemen's Union 2008 – Chris Roberson, The Dragon's Nine Sons 2009 – Robert Conroy, 1942 2010 – Eric G. Swedin, When Angels Wept: A What-If History of the Cuban Missile Crisis 2011 – Ian R. MacLeod, Wake Up and Dream 2012 – C. J. Sansom, Dominion 2013 – D.
J. Taylor, The Windsor Faction & Bryce Zabel, Surrounded by Enemies: What If Kennedy Survived Dallas? 2014 – Kristine Kathryn Rusch, The Enemy Within 2015 – Julie Mayhew, The Big Lie 2016 – Ben H. Winters, Underground Airlines 2017 – Bryce Zabel, Once There Was a Way 1995 – Stephen Baxter, "Brigantia's Angels" 1996 – Walter Jon Williams, "Foreign Devils" 1997 – William Sanders, "The Undiscovered" 1998 – Ian R. MacLeod, "The Summer Isles" 1999 – Alain Bergeron, "The Eighth Register" 2000 – Ted Chiang, "Seventy-two Letters" 2001 – Ken MacLeod, "The Human Front" 2002 – William Sanders, "Empire" 2003 – Chris Roberson, "O One" 2004 – Warren Ellis, The Ministry of Space 2005 – Lois Tilton, "Pericles the Tyrant" 2006 – Gardner Dozois, "Counterfactual" 2007 –: Michael Flynn, "Quaestiones Super Caelo Et Mundo" & Kristine Kathryn Rusch, "Recovering Apollo 8" 2008 – Mary Rosenblum, "Sacrifice" 2009 – Alastair Reynolds, "The Fixation" 2010 – Alan Smale, "A Clash of Eagles" 2011 – Lisa Goldstein, "Paradise Is a Walled Garden" 2012 – Rick Wilber, "Something Real" 2013 – Vylar Kaftan, "The Weight of the Sunrise" 2014 – Ken Liu, "The Long Haul: From the Annals of Transportation, The Pacific Monthly, May 2009" 2015 – Bill Crider, "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" 2016 –: Daniel M. Bensen, "Treasure Fleet" & Adam Rovner, "What If the Jewish State Had Been Established in East Africa" 2017 – Harry Turtledove, "Zigeuner" 1995 – L. Sprague de Camp, lifetime achievement 1997 – Robert Sobel: For Want of a Nail 1999 – Randall Garrett: The Lord Darcy Series The Sidewise Award website
Solaris Books is an imprint which focuses on publishing science fiction and dark fantasy novels and anthologies. The range includes titles by both new authors; the range is owned by Rebellion Developments and distributed to the UK and US booktrade via local divisions of Simon & Schuster. Solaris Books was founded in February 2007 by BL Publishing, to trade alongside their existing licence-based imprint the Black Library, the then-existing Black Flame imprint; when asked why BLP had started the new imprint, Consulting Editor George Mann stated that "...between... the major corporate publishers... and... the small and independent press... There seems to be little or no room left for the midlist," and that Solaris would provide a mass-market platform for up-and-coming writers, or established writers with smaller readerships. In September 2009, it was announced that Solaris Books had been bought by Rebellion Developments, who publish comics and graphic novels under 2000 AD imprint and genre fiction under the Abaddon Books imprint, for an undisclosed sum.
The imprint came under the leadership of Abaddon editor Jonathan Oliver, who ran both imprints side by side as Editor-in-Chief, along with editors David Moore and Jenni Hill. The new team continues to publish books in the Solaris tradition, maintaining existing relationships with authors such as Brian Lumley, Andy Remic and Juliet McKenna and discovering new voices in the SF and fantasy genres; as of August 2010, Solaris had published seventy-three titles by twenty-nine authors, including anthologies and new editions of out-of-print titles. Natasha Rhodes Brian Lumley Gail Z. Martin Andy Remic James Lovegrove Weston Ochse Juliet McKenna Eric Brown Gareth L. Powell James Goss Ed Greenwood Paul Kearney James Maxey Emily Gee Tim Akers George Mann Simon R. Green Ian Whates Keith Brooke Chris Roberson Adam Roberts Ben Jeapes Silvia Moreno-Garcia The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction, Volume Two The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction, Volume Three The Summoner Deadstock Dante's Girl The Touch Thief With No Shadow Helix: Bitterwood Infinity Plus Set the Seas on Fire Splinter The Solaris Book of New Fantasy Dark Lord Arch Wizard House of Fear Anthology edited by Jonathan Oliver ISBN 978-1-907992-06-3 Phoenicia's Worlds Mary Robinette Kowal's story "Evil Robot Monkey", from The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction: Volume Two, was nominated for the 2009 Hugo Award for Best Short Story.
Paul Cornell's story "One of Our Bastards is Missing", from The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction: Volume Three, was nominated for the 2010 Hugo Award for Best Novelette. Ellen Datlow's Poe Anthology won the 2010 Black Quill Award for Best Dark Genre Anthology, the 2010 Shirley Jackson Award for an Edited Anthology, was nominated for the 2010 Bram Stoker Award for Superior Achievement in an Anthology. Alastair Reynolds' story "The Fixation", from The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction: Volume Three, won the 2009 Sidewise Award for Alternate History. Chris Roberson's The Dragon's Nine Sons won the 2008 Sidewise Award for Alternate History. Stephen Baxter's story "Last Contact", from The Solaris Book of New Science Fiction, was a finalist in the 2008 Locus Award for Short Story and a nominee for the 2008 Hugo Award for Short Story. Mary Rosenblum's story "Sacrifice", from Sideways in Crime, won the 2008 Sidewise Award for Alternate History. Tobias Buckell's story "The People's Machine", Kristine Kathryn Rusch's story "G-Men", both from Sideways in Crime, were nominated in the same category.
Abaddon Books, another Rebellion imprint releasing speculative fiction novels in a number of themed lines 2000 AD, a comics anthology, publishing fiction featuring characters such as Judge Dredd and, through their sister comics magazine Judge Dredd Megazine, Tank Girl Black Flame, another BL Publishing imprint focused on licensed franchises Official website
Postscripts is a quarterly British magazine of science fiction, fantasy and crime fiction, first published in June 2004. It is published by PS Publishing and the editor-in-chief is Peter Crowther; each issue is published in two editions: a regular newsstand-type edition and a signed, numbered, 200-copy hardcover edition. From issue 18, the magazine was transformed to a quarterly anthology, before becoming biannual, producing two double-sized issues a year starting with issue 20/21. Postscripts has won the 2006 and 2008 International Horror Guild awards for best periodical and the 2009 British Fantasy Award for Best Magazine. Notable award-winning stories include Joe Hill's Best New Horror, which won the British Fantasy Award for Best Short Fiction in 2006. In the Porches of My Ears by Norman Prentiss won the 2009 Bram Stoker Award for Superior Achievement in Short Fiction. Official website Issue 1 review List of published stories
DAW Books is an American science fiction and fantasy publisher, founded by Donald A. Wollheim following his departure from Ace Books in 1971; the company claims to be "the first publishing company devoted to science fiction and fantasy." The first DAW Book published was the 1972 short story collection Spell of the Witch World, by Andre Norton. In its early years under the leadership of Wollheim and his wife Elsie, DAW gained a reputation of publishing popular, though not always critically acclaimed, works of science fiction and fantasy. In the 1970s the company published numerous books by award-winning authors such as Marion Zimmer Bradley, Fritz Leiber, Edward Llewellyn, Jerry Pournelle, Roger Zelazny, many others. In 1982, C. J. Cherryh's Downbelow Station was the first DAW book to win the Hugo Award for best novel, gaining the publishing house increased respect within the industry; until June 1984, all DAW books were characterized by yellow spines, a prominent yellow cover box containing the company's logo as well as a chronological publication number.
When the design was changed, the chronological number was retained, but moved to the copyright page and renamed the DAW Collectors' Book Number. As of October 2010, the company had published more than 1,500 titles during its 38-year history. Although it has a distribution relationship with Penguin Group and is headquartered in Penguin USA's offices, DAW is editorially independent and held by its current publishers, Betsy Wollheim and Sheila E. Gilbert; the company's offices are in New York City. Official website Fan listing of DAW Books Internet Speculative Fiction Database listing of DAW Books