Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
The Veils are a London-based indie/alternative band fronted by lead singer and songwriter Finn Andrews. Head of Rough Trade Records Geoff Travis has referred to Finn as "a young but maturing real artist in the vein of Nick Cave and David Bowie". Finn Andrews spent his teenage years at high school in Auckland, New Zealand. Disinterested in school, Finn was playing in many bands and writing the songs that would comprise The Veils debut album The Runaway Found; when he was 16, a set of demos he sent to record companies created a stir and led to invitations for him to return to London and make a record. The Veils were signed immediately to Blanco y Negro, an indie/major hybrid imprint led by Rough Trade's boss Geoff Travis. On 19 August 2002 the band released a promo only single "Death & Co.", while a proper commercial single release came three months on 18 November, for "More Heat Than Light" followed by "The Leavers Dance", distributed at gigs. By increasing contractual disparities and artistic differences between the head of Warner and Geoff Travis delayed plans for a debut album.
The Blanco Y Negro label was disbanded and the dispute turned into a court battle, with The Veils regaining ownership of their master recordings from Warner Music. By mid-2003 Geoff Travis had signed them to Rough Trade Records; the Veils recorded four more songs with producer Bernard Butler, the band released its first Rough Trade single, "Guiding Light" on 28 July 2003. Single releases of "Lavinia" and "The Wild Son" led to The Runaway Found hitting the shelves on 16 February 2004. Though rapturously received by the critics, by the time of its release Andrews felt unhappy with the direction the band had taken and following altercations between him and other members, The Veils' first incarnation split mid-2004, just 2 months after their debut album's release. Andrews left the UK early 2005 and embarked on a solo tour of America and Japan returning home to New Zealand where he found a new direction for the band, he spent the summer there rehearsing with high-school friends Liam Gerrard and Sophia Burn in Liam's bedroom, soon amassing an album's worth of material.
When the trio returned to London they were joined by Dan Raishbrook and Henning Dietz, who completed the new line-up. They began recording sessions with producer Nick Launay in Los Angeles in early 2006; the resulting album'Nux Vomica' had a darker, far heavier and more complex sound, augmented by string arrangements by ex Lounge Lizard Jane Scarpantoni, but a newly found animalistic energy. Lead singer Finn Andrews shows "rougher" and more experimental vocals on many of the songs such as'Not Yet' and'Jesus for the Jugular'. Two singles were released from the album: "Advice for Young Mothers to Be" and "One Night on Earth". Nux Vomica featured on 16 English and American critics' best of the year lists in 2006. In the 16 months following the release of Nux Vomica The Veils played over 250 shows across 15 countries, during the U. S. leg of the tour it was announced that keyboardist Liam Gerrard would leave the band to return home to New Zealand due to personal reasons. The Veils carried on as a four-piece and, whilst living out of a classic car garage in Oklahoma City, started recording new demos at The Flaming Lips studio between playing shows on the east and west coasts of the America.
By mid-2008 they were back to London to begin work on their third album with producer Graham Sutton. The recording sessions at West Point Studios lasted only three weeks, at the end of the summer the album was done and ready to be mixed. Sun Gangs was released on 6 April 2009 and was featured in many websites top albums of 2009; the band spent the summer of 2010 working on new material. On 6 December it was announced that a new 7-song EP entitled Troubles of the Brain was set to be released on 24 January, that the band had left Rough Trade after 9 years and started their own label, Pitch Beast Records; the EP is produced by Finn Andrews and Bernard Butler and was recorded at Finn's home studio in London. In March 2011 The Veils headlined a benefit concert for the NZ Red Cross in London, playing a selection of songs from the EP; the Veils' fourth album was recorded in Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles and was released on April 2013. In January the band recorded a 5-song live session at Abbey Road Studios, turned into a short film and released as exclusive content with the new record.
Following their album's release The Veils embarked on a 150-date world tour with shows selling out all across North America and New Zealand. Once the tour finished Finn Andrews revealed in an interview for NME that the band had moved into their own studio in east London and had begun work on a new record due for release in 2016. Finn revealed he had been commissioned to write an orchestral piece to commemorate the antipodean dead of World War One to be performed in Belgium in spring 2016. In June The Veils announced their fifth album'Total Depravity' was to be released on August 26, 2016; the album was recorded in Los Angeles, New York and Porto and features production by El-P, Adam Greenspan and Dean Hurley. During the same month David Lynch announced Finn Andrews would appear in the new series of Twin Peaks; the album cover features artwork by Italian artist Nicola Samori. The video for Axolotl was filmed on Bethells Beach in Auckland, New Zealand and features a Charles Darwin-like figure in the midst of a surreal exorcism in the Des
Denis Blackham is an English music mastering engineer. He began his audio mastering work in 1969 at IBC Studios in London, worked for Polygram, RCA, The Master Room, Nimbus Records, Tape One and Porky's. In 1996 he set up his own studio at his home in Surrey and when he moved to the Isle of Skye in 2002, he changed the name of his studio to Skye Mastering. Denis has mastered recordings by: The Unthanks, Charlie Dore, Antony & the Johnsons, Brian Eno & David Byrne, Wilson Pickett, Otis Redding, O'Hooley & Tidow, Status Quo, Black Sabbath, Ryoji Ikeda, Cocteau Twins, Robert Plant, David Crosby & Graham Nash, Steve Jones, Marc Bolan, Elaine Paige, Rab Noakes, Gary Numan, Chris Watson, Troy Donockley, OMD, Generation X, Eyeless in Gaza, The Who, Roy Harper, Brett Anderson, Bee Gees, Barbara Dickson, Steve Harley, Mika Vainio, Pan Sonic, Davy Graham, Current 93, Jonathan Richman & The Modern Lovers, Rod Stewart, David Knopfler, Charged GBH, Elvis Costello, Dolly Parton, Linda McCartney, Jethro Tull, Cabaret Voltaire, Alien Sex Fiend, Talk Talk, William Orbit, Zoviet France, Philip Jeck, New Model Army, Tears for Fears, Dr Feelgood, Toy Dolls, Mike Oldfield, Samantha Fox, Death in June, Slade, Cliff Richard, Ride, Stiff Little Fingers, Bing Crosby, T. Rex, Jean Michel Jarre, Uriah Heep, Jimi Hendrix, Sons of Noel and Adrian, Andy Fairweather Low, Nick Heyward, Cats original vinyl releases, many more in his 45 plus years of music mastering.
Denis semi-retired on 5 May 2014. Denis's courtship of his wife Rose is the subject of a song by Charlie Dore on her 2017 album Dark Matter. Skye Mastering
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Gang of Four (band)
Gang of Four are an English post-punk group, formed in 1976 in Leeds. The original members were singer Jon King, guitarist Andy Gill, bass guitarist Dave Allen and drummer Hugo Burnham. There have been many different line-ups including, among other notable musicians, Sara Lee, Mark Heaney and Gail Ann Dorsey. After a brief lull in the 1980s, different constellations of the band recorded two studio albums in the 1990s. Between 2004 and 2006 the original line-up was reunited; the band plays a stripped-down mix of punk rock and dub, with a lyrical emphasis on the social and political ills of society. Gang of Four are considered one of the leading bands of the late 1970s/early 1980s post-punk movement, their debut album, Entertainment!, was ranked as fifth greatest punk album of all time and at Number 483 in Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The album was listed by Pitchfork Media as the 8th best album of the 1970s, their early 80s albums found them softening some of their more jarring qualities, drifting towards dance-punk and disco.
David Fricke of Rolling Stone described Gang of Four as "probably the best politically motivated band in rock & roll." Gang of Four's music brought together an eclectic array of influences, ranging from the neo-Marxist Frankfurt School of social criticism to the clear trans-Atlantic punk consensus. Gang of Four was named by a member of the Mekons while driving around with Gill and King when he came upon a newspaper article on the intra-Party coup against China's "Gang of Four"; the Gang's debut single, "Damaged Goods" backed with " Anthrax" and "Armalite Rifle", was recorded in June 1978 and released on 10 December 1978, on Edinburgh's Fast Product label. It was produced by Tim Inman, it was John Peel radio show favourite. This led to two Peel radio sessions, with their incendiary live performances, propelled the band to international attention and sold-out shows across Europe and North America, they were signed by EMI records. The group's debut single with this label, "At Home He's a Tourist", charted in 1979.
Invited to appear on top rated BBC music program Top of the Pops, the band walked off the show when the BBC told them to sing "rubbish" in the place of the original lyric "rubbers", as the original line was considered too risque. The single was banned by BBC Radio and TV, which lost the band support at EMI, who began to push another band, Duran Duran, instead. King's lyrics were always controversial and a single, "I Love a Man in a Uniform", was banned by the BBC during the Falklands War in 1982. Critic Stewart Mason has called "Anthrax" not only the group's "most notorious song" but "one of the most unique and interesting songs of its time". It's a good example of Gang of Four's social perspective: after a minute-long, feedback-laced guitar intro, the rhythm section sets up a funky, churning beat, the guitar drops out entirely. In one stereo channel, King sings a "post-punk anti-love song", comparing himself to a beetle trapped on its back and equating love with "a case of anthrax, that's some thing I don't want to catch."
Meanwhile, in the other stereo channel, Gill reads a detailed account of the technical resources used on the song, which on the re-recorded album version is replaced by a deadpan monologue about public perception of love and the prevalence of love songs in popular music: "Love crops up quite a lot as something to sing about,'cause most groups make most of their songs about falling in love, or how happy they are to be in love, you wonder why these groups do sing about it all the time." Although the two sets of lyrics tell independent stories they synchronise for emphasis. According to critic Paul Morley, "The Gang spliced the ferocious precision of Dr. Feelgood's working-class blues with the testing avant-garde intrigue of Henry Cow. Wilfully avoiding structural obviousness, melodic prettiness and harmonic corniness, the Gang's music was studded with awkward holes and sharp corners." At the time, the band was recognised to be doing something different from other white guitar acts. Ken Tucker, in Rolling Stone, 1980, wrote: "...rarely have the radical edges of black and white music come closer to overlapping... the Gang of Four utilize their bass guitar every bit as prominently and starkly as the curt bass figures that prod the spoken verses in "The Breaks."
In 1981 the band released Solid Gold. Like Entertainment!, the album was uncompromising and analytical. Van Gosse, in a Village Voice review said: "Gang of Four embody a new category in pop, which illuminates all the others, because the motor of their aesthetic is not a'personal creative vision.'" Dave Allen had left in 1981, had been replaced by Busta "Cherry" Jones, a sometime player with Parliament, Brian Eno, Talking Heads. After working with the Gang to complete their North American tour obligations, Jones left and was replaced by Sara Lee, Robert Fripp's bassist in the League of Gentlemen. Lee was as good a singer as bassist, she helped give the band's third studio album, Songs of the Free, a more commercially accessible element. Although "I Love a Man in a Uniform" from the album was the band's most radio-friendly song, it was banned in the UK shortly after its release because B
INXS were an Australian rock band, formed as The Farriss Brothers in 1977 in Sydney, New South Wales. The band's founding members were bassist Garry Gary Beers, main composer and keyboardist Andrew Farriss, drummer Jon Farriss, guitarist Tim Farriss, lead singer and main lyricist Michael Hutchence, guitarist and saxophonist Kirk Pengilly. For twenty years, INXS was fronted by Hutchence, whose "sultry good looks" and magnetic stage presence made him the focal point of the band. Known for their new wave/pop style, the band developed a harder pub rock style that included funk and dance elements. In 1984, INXS scored their first number-one hit in Australia with "Original Sin"; the band would achieve international success in the mid-to-late 1980s and early 1990s with the hit albums Listen Like Thieves, X, as well as the singles "What You Need", "Need You Tonight", "Devil Inside", "Never Tear Us Apart", "Suicide Blonde" and "New Sensation". Following Hutchence's death from suicide in November 1997, INXS made appearances with several guest singers and toured and recorded with Jon Stevens as lead singer beginning in 2002.
In 2005, members of INXS participated in Rock Star: INXS, a reality television series that culminated in the selection of Canadian J. D. Fortune as their new lead singer. Irish singer-songwriter Ciaran Gribbin replaced Fortune as lead singer in 2011. During a November 11, 2012 concert, INXS stated that the performance would be their last, though they did not announce a permanent band retirement. INXS won six Australian Recording Industry Association awards, including three for "Best Group" in 1987, 1989 and 1992. INXS has sold over 60 million records worldwide; the origins of the band began with Andrew Farriss convincing his fellow Davidson High School classmate, Michael Hutchence, to join his band, Doctor Dolphin. The band contained two further classmates, Kent Kerny and Neil Sanders, as well as Garry Beers and Geoff Kennely, both from a nearby high school, Forest High School. In 1977, Tim Farriss, Andrew's older brother, invited Andrew and Beers to join him and his schoolmate Kirk Pengilly. Tim and Pengilly had been playing together since 1971 as either an acoustic duo and Tim, or as a four-piece band called Guinness.
Together with younger brother Jon Farriss they formed the Farriss Brothers, who consisted of Garry Beers on bass guitar, Andrew Farriss on keyboards, Jon Farriss on drums, Tim Farriss on lead guitar, Michael Hutchence on lead vocals and Kirk Pengilly on guitar and saxophone. The band made their debut on 16 August 1977 at Whale Beach, 40 km north of Sydney; the parents of the Farriss boys relocated to Perth, Western Australia in 1978, taking Jon to continue his schooling and, as soon as Hutchence and Andrew finished school, the rest of the band followed. They performed as The Vegetables, singing "We Are the Vegetables", before returning to Sydney ten months where they recorded a set of demos. At a chance meeting in the car park of the Narrabeen Antler, a pub in Narrabeen on the Northern Beaches of Sydney, New South Wales, Tim was approached by Gary Morris, the manager of Midnight Oil; the band began to support Midnight Oil and other local bands. Morris advised that a member of the Oils crew had come up with a new name and suggested they change it to INXS.
The name INXS was inspired by English band XTC and Australian jam makers IXL. Pengilly explained that Morris was interested in turning the group into a Christian band, which the band considered before rejecting the idea; the band's first performance as INXS was on 1 September 1979 at the Ocean Beach Hotel in Umina on the Central Coast of New South Wales and by the end of 1979, after passing on the Christian band image, they hired Chris "CM" Murphy as their manager and continued taking on the Oz pub circuit. Murphy was an adept business manager and negotiator and by early 1980 the band had signed a five-album record deal with a Sydney independent label, Deluxe Records, run by Michael Browning, a former manager of AC/DC. INXS released their first single, "Simple Simon"/"We Are the Vegetables", in Australia and France in May 1980; the single had its debut TV performance on Simon Townsend's Wonder World. Their self-titled debut album, INXS, was recorded at Trafalgar Studios in Annandale, Sydney, it was co-produced by the band and Duncan McGuire, with all songs attributed to the entire band, at the insistence of Murphy.
Deluxe gave them a budget of $10,000 to record the album, so to keep within the budget they had to record from midnight to dawn after doing one or more performances earlier that night. The album was released in October 1980, it featured "Just Keep Walking", their first Australian Top 40 single, with the album peaking in the Top 30 of the Kent Music Report for Australian albums. The album went gold but it took a number of years to do so; these early records demonstrated their new wave/ska/pop style, were followed by near constant touring with 300 shows during 1981 as the band developed their status as a live act. In 1981, they signed Gary Grant as their tour manager, who became co-manager a year later. Between touring commitments, the band released their third single in May 1981, "The Loved One", a cover of a 1966 song by Australian group The Loved Ones; the song was recorded at Studios 301 in Sydney, produced by Richard Clapton, peaked in the Top 20. The success of the single led to Clapton and the band returning to Studios 301 between July and August 1981 to create an album.
In October 1981, their second album Undern
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, television and video games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, sports games and corporate events. Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or signal processing. Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering.
They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers. Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, training in science or engineering topics, which allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses give you a good knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studio and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow you to get a job in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.
Audio engineers in research and development possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy. Alternatively they might work in audio companies, or other industries that need audio expertise, or carry out research in a university; some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems; the listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision. Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals; these can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding. Alternatively, the algorithms might carry out echo cancellation on Skype, or identify and categorize audio tracks through Music Information Retrieval. Architectural acoustics is the engineering of achieving a good sound within a room.
For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio. Musical acoustics is concerned with describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive; the production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering.
Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; such terms can refer to a person working in music production.