SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nickel (United States coin)

A nickel, in American usage, is a five-cent coin struck by the United States Mint. Composed of 75% copper and 25% nickel, the piece has been issued since 1866, its diameter is.835 inches and its thickness is.077 inches. Due to inflation, the purchasing power of the nickel continues to drop and the coin represents less than 1% of the federal hourly minimum wage. In 2018, over 1.26 billion nickels were produced at the Denver mints. The silver half dime, equal to five cents, had been issued since the 1790s; the American Civil War caused economic hardship, driving silver from circulation. In 1865, Congress abolished the five-cent fractional currency note after Spencer M. Clark, head of the Currency Bureau, placed his own portrait on the denomination. After the successful introduction of two-cent and three-cent pieces without precious metal, Congress authorized a five-cent piece consisting of base metal; the initial design of the Shield nickel was struck from 1866 until 1883 was replaced by the Liberty Head nickel.

The Buffalo nickel was introduced in 1913 as part of a drive to increase the beauty of American coinage. In 2004 and 2005, special designs in honor of the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were issued. In 2006, the Mint reverted to using Jefferson nickel designer Felix Schlag's original reverse, although a new obverse, by Jamie Franki, was substituted; as of the end of FY 2013, it cost more than nine cents to produce a nickel. The silver half disme was one of the denominations prescribed by the Mint Act of 1792; the first pieces under federal authority were half dimes, struck in 1792 in the cellar of John Harper, a saw maker. The dies were engraved by Adam Eckfeldt, who a half-century recalled that the silver for the half dimes was supplied by President George Washington, that the 1,500 coins struck from the bullion were given to Washington's Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, for distribution to important people, both in the US and overseas. By legend, President Washington supplied silverware from his home, Mount Vernon, to provide bullion for the coins.

In his annual message to Congress in late 1792, Washington noted the ongoing construction of a mint building and stated: "There has been a small beginning in the coinage of half dimes, the want of small coins in circulation calling the first attention to them."In 1793, the newly established Philadelphia Mint began striking cents and half cents. Coinage of precious metal was delayed. In 1794, Congress lowered the chief coiner's bond to $5,000, the assayer's to $1,000. Subsequently, silver coinage began that year; the half dime was struck from 1794 until 1805, though none were dated 1798, 1799, or 1804. By 1804, silver US coins were exported, as they could be exchanged at par in the West Indies with heavier Spanish coins, which were imported as bullion and deposited at the Mint for melting and restriking. In response, in 1804 the US stopped striking silver dollars. In 1807, mint Director Robert Patterson in a letter explained to Jefferson "nearly the whole of our Silver Bullion come through the Banks, it is seldom that they will consent to take any coin less than half dollars."Beginning in 1829, the silver five-cent piece was again struck.

In 1837, the half dime's obverse design changed from one by William Kneass, depicting a bust of Liberty, to one that featured a seated Liberty by Christian Gobrecht. In 1851, it ceased to be the smallest US silver coin; the Civil War caused most American coins to vanish from circulation, with the gap filled by such means as merchant tokens, encased postage stamps, United States fractional currency, issued in denominations as low as three cents. Although specie was hoarded or exported, the copper-nickel cent the only base metal denomination being struck vanished. In 1864, Congress began the process of restoring coins to circulation by abolishing the three-cent note and authorizing bronze cents and two-cent pieces, with low intrinsic values, to be struck; these new coins proved popular, though the two-cent piece soon faded from circulation. On March 3, 1865, Congress passed legislation authorizing the Mint to strike three-cent pieces of 75% copper and 25% nickel. In 1864, Congress authorized a third series of fractional currency notes.

The five-cent note was to bear a depiction of "Clark", but Congress was appalled when the issue came out not with a portrait of William Clark, the explorer, but Spencer M. Clark, head of the Currency Bureau. According to numismatic historian Walter Breen, Congress's "immediate infuriated response was to pass a law retiring the five-cent denomination, another to forbid portrayal of any living person on federal coins or currency." Clark kep

Wanderer W22

The Wanderer W22 was an upper-middle-class six-cylinder sedan introduced by Auto Union under the Wanderer brand in 1933. It replaced. Two years after introduction, in 1935, the car was renamed as the Wanderer W240, in 1936 it was renamed again as the Wanderer W40; the engine and principal mechanical components remained little changed throughout, however, as did the wheelbase and other principal chassis measurements. The car therefore was, still is, regarded as a single model despite the name changes. At launch the W22 differed from its predecessor most notably on account of its swing rear axle, supported by lateral leaf springing, adopting a pattern established by Ferdinand Porsche during his time with the Austrian Steyr company. Another new feature in the W22 was the hydraulic braking system; the car was powered by a six-cylinder four-stroke ohv engine of 1950 cc driving the rear wheels via a four-speed gearbox. This was the same engine, installed in the innovative Audi Front, launched at the same time.

As on the Audi, claimed maximum power output was 40 PS at 3,500 rpm. However, whereas the Audi received the larger engine from the new Wanderer 245 in 1935, the Wanderer W22/W240/W40 retained the same 1950 cc engine throughout its life; the car was offered as a “six-light” four-door saloon and as a two-door cabriolet. Additional configurations were offered a year including a commodious six-seat “Pullman-limousine”; the 1935 name change from W22 to W240 coincided with the introduction of a four-door saloon with just two principal side windows on each side. With this body the Wanderer W240 appeared streamlined beside the conservatively styled contemporary Mercedes-Benz sedans, it more resembled a chunkier version of the Citroën Traction introduced in France late in 1933. At the same time the cabriolet version was modified, losing its rear side windows in favour of a more extensive hood; the “Pullman-limousine” continued to be offered. There were no significant changes to the car accompanying the 1936 name change to Wanderer W40.

The Wanderer W22/W240/W40 shared its 3,000-millimetre wheelbase with the six-cylinder 1690 cc W21/W235/W35 and, after 1935, the six-cylinder 2257 cc W245/W250/W45/W50 models. Taking all the 3-metre wheelbase models together, 29,111 of these six-cylinder Wanderers were produced between 1933 and 1938. Auto Union did not directly replace their W22/W240/W40. However, the larger-engined six-cylinder models were replaced by the Wanderer W23, which appeared in 1937

Santi Aldama

Santiago "Santi" Aldama Toledo is a Spanish college basketball player for the Loyola Greyhounds of the Patriot League. He was named most valuable player of the 2019 FIBA U18 European Championship. Aldama was brought up in Gran Canaria, Spain, he started playing basketball at age three because his father and uncle played the sport professionally. Aldama grew up idolizing basketball players Pau Gasol, Juan Carlos Navarro, Kobe Bryant. Since his introduction to basketball, Aldama played for Canterbury Basketball Academy in Las Palmas and chose to remain there, despite receiving offers from bigger clubs like FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, Gran Canaria. At the 2017 Spanish Under-16 Championship, he averaged 18.9 points, 5.1 rebounds, 3.6 assists per game, playing for Canterbury alongside Oumar Ballo. He helped his team to a surprising third-place finish behind Real Madrid. In 2018, Aldama played on loan for the FC Barcelona under-18 team at Ciutat de L'Hospitalet qualifiers in the Adidas Next Generation Tournament.

On 5 August 2019, Aldama committed to move to the United States and play college basketball for Loyola–Maryland, a mid-major program that competes in the Patriot League. He was drawn to the school because his father knew assistant coach Ivo Simović and due to Aldama's hopes of an eventual business career, he felt comfortable when he visited the school in June. Considered a four-star recruit and a high-major talent, Aldama's decision to play for a mid-major program took many analysts by surprise. Evan Daniels of 247Sports called him "one of the biggest college-bound international steals in quite a while." Aldama missed the first three months of his freshman season with a knee injury that required surgery. He made his collegiate debut for Loyola–Maryland on February 1, 2020, scoring 11 points in 17 minutes in a 79–73 win over Navy. Aldama was named Patriot League Rookie of the Week three times in the span of four weeks. At the end of the regular season, he was named to the Patriot League All-Rookie Team.

On March 3, he scored a season-high 23 points in a 78–75 loss to Lehigh in the first round of the Patriot League Tournament. Aldama made his national team debut for Spain at the 2017 FIBA U16 European Championship in Podgorica, averaging nine points and 5.4 rebounds per game. He led his team to a gold medal at the 2019 FIBA U18 European Championship in Volos, averaging 18 points, 7.6 rebounds, 2.6 assists, 2.3 blocks, 1.9 steals per game. Aldama was named tournament most valuable player and joined his teammate Usman Garuba on the All-Star Five. Aldama's father, Santiago Aldama, played professional basketball in Spain and Portugal and joined the Spanish national team at the 1992 Summer Olympics, his uncle Santiago Toledo played professional basketball in Spain and Portugal. Loyola Greyhounds bio