A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Odeon is the name for several ancient Greek and Roman buildings built for music: singing exercises, musical shows, poetry competitions, the like. The word comes from the Ancient Greek ᾨδεῖον, Ōideion "singing place", or "building for musical competitions". In a general way the construction of an odeon was similar to that of an ancient Greek theatre, but it was only a quarter of the size and was provided with a roof for acoustic purposes, a characteristic difference; the prototype odeon was the Odeon of Pericles, a wooden building by the southern slope of the Acropolis of Athens. It was described by Plutarch as'many-seated and many-columned' and may have been square, though excavations have suggested a different shape, 208 x 62 feet, it was said to be decorated with the spars of ships captured from the Persians. It was rebuilt by king Ariobarzanes I of Cappadocia after destruction by fire in the First Mithridatic War in 87–86 BC; the oldest known odeon in Greece was the Skias at Sparta, so called from its resemblance to the top of an umbrella, said to have been erected by Theodorus of Samos.
This is the building which, according to Aristophanes, was used for judicial purposes, for the distribution of corn, for the billeting of soldiers. The most magnificent odeon was the Odeon of Herodes Atticus on the southwest cliff of the Acropolis at Athens, it was built in about 160 A. D. by the wealthy sophist and rhetorician Herodes Atticus in memory of his wife, considerable remains of the odeon still exist. It had accommodation for 4500/5500 persons, the ceiling was constructed of beautifully carved beams of cedar wood with an open space in the centre to admit the light, it was profusely decorated with pictures and other works of art. Similar buildings existed in other parts of Greece; the first odeon in Rome was built by a second by Trajan. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Odeum". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sear, Frank. Roman Theatres: An Architectural Survey. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814469-4
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
James J. Jeffries
James Jackson Jeffries was an American professional boxer and World Heavyweight Champion. He was known for his enormous stamina. Using a technique taught to him by his trainer, former Welterweight and Middleweight Champion Tommy Ryan, Jeffries fought out of a crouch with his left arm extended forward, he was able to absorb tremendous punishment while wearing his opponents down. A natural left-hander, he possessed one-punch knockout power in his left hook, brawled his way to the top of the rankings, he is most famous for being America's "Great White Hope", since the nation expected him to come out of his retirement to beat the African-American boxer Jack Johnson, at the time the Heavyweight Champion. Jeffries weighed 225 pounds in his prime, he could run 100 yards in just over ten seconds, could high jump over 6 feet. In 1891, Jeffries' father moved his family from their Ohio farm to California. James worked for a while as a boilermaker before going into boxing. In life, "The Boilermaker" was one of his professional nicknames.
As a powerfully built and athletic teenager, Jeffries boxed as an amateur until age 20, when he started fighting professionally. In his third fight, Jeffries knocked out the regarded boxer Hank Griffin in the fourteenth round. Jack Johnson would subsequently fight Griffin on three separate occasions. Jeffries fought Gus Ruhlin, to a draw. Ruhlin was knocked down with a brutal punch at the end of the final round and was saved by the bell from being counted out; the decision was met with unfavorable reactions from the audience. On his way to the title in 1898, Jeffries knocked out Peter Jackson, the great boxer whom John L. Sullivan had refused to fight, in three rounds; this had been only the second defeat in Jackson's entire career. Jackson retired shortly afterward. Jeffries defeated the formidable Mexican Pete Everett by knockout in only the third round on April 22, 1898, his next fight was against the Irishman Tom Sharkey. The fight went Sharkey was knocked down in the eleventh round. Jeffries won the decision.
After defeating the big, fast-moving, sharp-jabbing, Bob Armstrong, Jeffries had earned the right to challenge for the World Heavyweight Championship. On June 9, 1899 in Brooklyn, New York he defeated Bob Fitzsimmons by KO in the eleventh round to win the Heavyweight Championship of the World; that August, he embarked on a tour of Europe. Jeffries was involved in several motion pictures recreating portions of his championship fights. Filmed portions of his other bouts and of some of his exhibition matches survive to this day. In his first title defense, he won a twenty-five-round decision in a rematch over Tom Sharkey. Jeffries set the record for the quickest KO in a Heavyweight title fight, 55 seconds against Jack Finnegan in his second title defense, his next defense was against the former Heavyweight Champion and legendary technician, James J. Corbett. Corbett could have arguably won had the fight gone the distance. However, Corbett was knocked out cold from a left to the jaw in the twenty-third round of the scheduled twenty-five round fight.
Jeffries got the chance to avenge his controversial draw with Gus Ruhlin when he defended his title against him on November 15, 1901. Claims that Ruhlin quit during the fifth round are incorrect. All of the local next-day San Francisco sources agree that Ruhlin's manager, Billy Madden, threw in the towel to retire Gus during the one-minute interval between the fifth and sixth rounds. An example of Jeffries' ability to absorb punishment and recover from a severe battering to win a bout came in his rematch for the title with Fitzsimmons, regarded as one of the hardest punchers in boxing history; the rematch with Jeffries occurred on July 1902 in San Francisco. To train for the bout Jeffries' daily training included a 14-mile run, 2 hours of skipping rope, medicine ball training, 20 minutes sparring on the heavy bag, at least 12 rounds of sparring in the ring, he trained in wrestling. For nearly eight rounds Fitzsimmons subjected Jeffries to a vicious battering. Jeffries suffered a broken nose, both his cheeks were cut to the bone, gashes were opened over both eyes.
It appeared that the fight would have to be stopped, as blood flowed into Jeffries' eyes. In the eighth round, Jeffries lashed out with a terrific right to the stomach, followed by a left hook to the jaw which knocked Fitzsimmons unconscious. Jeffries and Corbett met one last time in the ring on August 14, 1903; this time Jeffries was in total control for all ten rounds of the scheduled twenty round bout. Tommy Ryan, Corbett's chief second, threw a large palm-leaf fan into the ring to alert Referee Graney that he should stop the fight. Jeffries had his seventh and final title defense against Canadian Jack Munroe, whom he stopped in only two rounds. Jeffries broke the ribs of three opponents in title fights: Gus Ruhlin and Tom Sharkey. Jeffries retired undefeated in May 1905, he served as a referee for the next few years, including the bout in which Marvin Hart defeated Jack Root to stake a claim at Jeffries' vacated title. Jeffries had never been knocked down in his prime. Jeffries had fought many more bouts than twenty-two at this time.
Many of his fights were lost in history. Jeffries, had never been defeated before his original retirement. Over five years after retiring, Jeffries made a comeback on July 4, 1910 at Reno, Nevada in a match
Louis B. Mayer
Louis Burt Mayer was an American film producer and co-founder of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios in 1924. Under Mayer's management, MGM became the film industry's most prestigious movie studio, accumulating the largest concentration of leading writers and stars in Hollywood. Mayer grew up poor in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, he quit school at 12 to support his family and moved to Boston and purchased a small vaudeville theater in Haverhill, Massachusetts called the "Garlic Box" as it catered to poorer Italian immigrants. He renovated and expanded several other theaters in the Boston area catering to higher end audiences. After expanding and moving to Los Angeles, he teamed with film producer Irving Thalberg, they developed hundreds of high quality story-based films, noted for their wholesome and lush entertainment. Mayer handled the business of running the studio, such as setting budgets and approving new productions, while Thalberg, still in his twenties, supervised all MGM productions. During his long reign at MGM, Mayer acquired many enemies as well as admirers.
Some stars did not appreciate his attempts to control their private lives, while others saw him as a solicitous father figure. He believed in wholesome entertainment and went to great lengths to discover new actors and develop them into major stars. Mayer was forced to resign as MGM's vice president in 1951, when the studio's parent company, Loew's, Inc. wanted to improve declining profits. Mayer was a staunch conservative, at one time the chairman of California's Republican party. In 1927 he was one of the founders of famous for its annual Academy Awards. Mayer was born Lazar Meir to a Jewish family in Mir, Minsk Governorate, Russian Empire. According to his personal details in the U. S. immigration documents, the date was 4 July 1885. In addition he gave his birth year as 1882 in his marriage certificate while the April 1910 census states his age as 26, his parents were Jacob Meir and Sarah Meltzer, he had two sisters—Yetta, born in c. 1878, Ida, born in c. 1883. Mayer first moved with his family to Long Island, where they lived from 1887 to 1892 and where his two brothers were born—Rubin, in April 1888, Jeremiah, in April 1891.
They moved to Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada where Mayer attended school. His father started J. Mayer & Son. An immigrant unskilled in any trade, he struggled to earn a living. Young Louis quit school at age twelve to help support his family, he roamed the streets with a cart that said "Junk Dealer", collected any scrap metal he came across. When the owner of a tin business, John Wilson, saw him with his cart, he began giving him copper trimmings which were of no use, Mayer considered Wilson to be his first partner and his best friend. Wilson remembered. Whenever Mayer visited Saint John in years, he placed flowers on Wilson's grave, just as he did on his mother's. "It was a crappy childhood", said Mayer's nephew Gerald. His family was poor, Mayer's father spoke little English and had no valuable skills, it thereby became young Mayer's drive which supported the family. With his family speaking Yiddish at home, his goal of self-education when he quit school was made more difficult. In his spare time, he hung around the York theater, sometimes paying to watch the live vaudeville shows.
He became enamored with the entertainment business. In 1904 the 20-year-old Mayer left Saint John for Boston, where he continued for a time in the scrap metal business, got married, took a variety of odd jobs to support his new family when his junk business lagged. Mayer renovated the Gem Theater, a rundown, 600 seat burlesque house in Haverhill, which he reopened on November 28, 1907 as the Orpheum, his first movie theater. To overcome an unfavorable reputation that the building had, Mayer opened with a religious film at his new Orpheum, From the Manger to the Cross, in 1912. Within a few years, he owned all five of Haverhill's theaters, with Nathan H. Gordon, created the Gordon-Mayer partnership that controlled the largest theater chain in New England. During his years in Haverhill, Mayer lived on 16 Middlesex St. in the city's Bradford section, closer to city center on Temple Street and at 2 1/2 Merrimac St. Mayer lived in a house he built at 27 Hamilton Ave. In 1914, the partners organized their own film distribution agency in Boston.
Mayer paid D. W. Griffith $25,000 for the exclusive rights to show The Birth of a Nation in New England. Although Mayer made the bid on a film that one of his scouts had seen, but he had not, his decision netted him over $100,000. Mayer partnered with Richard A. Rowland in 1916 to create Metro Pictures Corporation, a talent booking agency, in New York City. Two years Mayer moved to Los Angeles and formed his own production company, Louis B. Mayer Pictures Corporation; the first production was 1918's Virtuous Wives. A partnership was set up with B. P. Schulberg to make the Mayer-Schulberg Studio. Mayer's big breakthrough, was in April 1924 when Marcus Loew, owner of the Loew's chain, merged Metro Pictures, Samuel Goldwyn's Goldwyn Pictures Corporation, Mayer Pictures into Metro-Goldwyn. Loew had bought Metro and Goldwyn some months before, but could not find anyone to oversee his new holdings on the West Coast. Mayer, with his proven success as a producer, was an obvious choice, he was named head of studio operations and a Loew's vice president, based in Los Angeles, reporting to Loew's longt
Lower East Side
The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan located between the Bowery and the East River, Canal Street and Houston Street. Traditionally an immigrant, working class neighborhood, it began rapid gentrification in the mid-2000s, prompting the National Trust for Historic Preservation to place the neighborhood on their list of America's Most Endangered Places; the Lower East Side is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Code is 10002. It is patrolled by the 7th Precinct of the New York City Police Department; the Lower East Side is bounded by the Bowery to the west, East Houston Street to the north, the FDR Drive to the east and Canal Street to the south. The western boundary below Grand Street veers east off of the Bowery to Essex Street; the neighborhood is bordered in the south and west by Chinatown – which extends north to Grand Street, in the west by Nolita and in the north by the East Village.
The "Lower East Side" referred to the area alongside the East River from about the Manhattan Bridge and Canal Street up to 14th Street, bounded on the west by Broadway. It included areas known today as East Village, Alphabet City, Bowery, Little Italy, NoLIta. Parts of the East Village are still known as Loisaida, a Latino pronunciation of "Lower East Side". Politically, the neighborhood is located in 12th congressional districts, it is in 74th district. As was all of Manhattan Island, the area now known as the Lower East Side was occupied by members of the Lenape tribe, who were organized in bands which moved from place to place according to the seasons, fishing on the rivers in the summer, moving inland in the fall and winter to gather crops and hunt for food, their main trail took the route of Broadway. One encampment in the Lower East Side area, near Corlears Hook was called Naghtogack; the population of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was located below the current Fulton Street, while north of it were a number of small plantations and large farms called bouwerij at the time.
Around these farms were a number of enclaves of free or "half-free" Africans, which served as a buffer between the Dutch and the Native Americans. One of the largest of these was located along the modern Bowery between Prince Street and Astor Place; these black farmers were some of the earliest settlers of the area. During the 17th century, there was an overall consolidation of the boweries and farms into larger parcels, much of the Lower East side was part of the Delancy farm. James Delancey's pre-Revolutionary farm east of post road leading from the city survives in the names Delancey Street and Orchard Street. On the modern map of Manhattan, the Delancey farm is represented in the grid of streets from Division Street north to Houston Street. In response to the pressures of a growing city, Delancey began to survey streets in the southern part of the "West Farm" in the 1760s. A spacious projected Delancey Square—intended to cover the area within today's Eldridge, Essex and Broome Streets—was eliminated when the loyalist Delancey family's property was confiscated after the American Revolution.
The city Commissioners of Forfeiture eliminated the aristocratic planned square for a grid, effacing Delancey's vision of a New York laid out like the West End of London. The point of land on the East River now called Corlears Hook was called Corlaers Hook under Dutch and British rule, Crown Point during British occupation in the Revolution, it was named after the schoolmaster Jacobus van Corlaer, who settled on this "plantation" that in 1638 was called by a Europeanized version of its Lenape name, Nechtans or Nechtanc. Corlaer sold the plantation to Wilhelmus Hendrickse Beekman, founder of the Beekman family of New York. On February 25, 1643, volunteers from the New Amsterdam colony killed thirty Wiechquaesgecks at their encampment at Corlears Hook, as part of Kieft's War, in retaliation for ongoing conflicts between the colonists and the natives of the area, including their unwillingness to pay tribute, their refusal to turn over the killer of a colonist; the projection into the East River that retained Corlaer's name was an important landmark for navigators for 300 years.
On older maps and documents it is spelled Corlaers Hook, but since the early 19th century the spelling has been anglicized to Corlears. The rough unplanned settlement that developed at Corlaer's Hook under the British occupation of New York during the Revolution was separated from the densely populated city by rough hills of glacial till: "this region lay beyond the city proper, from which it was separated by high and rough hills", observers recalled in 1843; as early as 1816, Corlears Hook was notorious for streetwalkers, "a resort for the lewd and abandoned of both sexes", in 1821 its "streets abounding every night with preconcerted groups of thieves and prostitutes" were noted by the "Christian Herald". In the course of the 19th century they came to be called hookers. In the summer of cholera in New York, 1832, a two-storey wooden workshop was commandeered to serve as a makeshift cholera hospital. In 1833, Corlear's Hook was the location of some of the first tenements built in New York C