The Way of the Gun
The Way of the Gun is a 2000 American crime-thriller film written and directed by Christopher McQuarrie. His directorial debut, it stars Ryan Phillippe and Benicio del Toro, with Juliette Lewis, Taye Diggs, Nicky Katt, Scott Wilson, James Caan in supporting roles; the film was released on September 8, 2000, was a commercial disappointment, grossing $13 million against a production budget of $8.5 million. The critical reception was mixed, with some critics praising the acting and action sequences, but criticizing the limits of the script and character development; the film is now considered a cult film. Parker and Longbaugh are a pair of low-level petty criminals, living off the grid and funding their existence through unconventional and illegal means. Wanting to move past petty crime, they vow to get the proverbial "big score." While at a sperm donation clinic, the pair overhear a telephone conversation detailing a $1,000,000 payment to a surrogate mother for bearing the child of money launderer Hale Chidduck.
Parker and Longbaugh resolve to kidnap the surrogate, but their attempt escalates into a shootout with her bodyguards and Obecks. The kidnappers are able to elude the bodyguards. Jeffers and Obecks are returned to Chidduck by his right-hand man Joe Sarno; as Sarno begins coordinating Robin's rescue, Longbaugh contacts her gynecologist, Dr. Allen Painter, orders him to a truck stop to examine Robin. After the examination, Painter returns to Chidduck, it is revealed that the doctor is Chidduck's son, it is revealed that Jeffers and Chidduck's wife are romantically involved. Longbaugh demands a $15 million ransom. Jeffers and Obecks, tempted by the money, begin forming a plan to keep the money; as Longbaugh hangs up the telephone outside the motel, he is approached by Sarno, who offers to pay $1 million if they surrender Robin and walk away. Longbaugh declines the offer and returns to his room, where Robin are playing cards. Sarno returns to Chidduck's home to plan the next step. Jeffers comes to realize.
Jeffers and Painter leave to meet with the kidnappers, while Sarno departs separately with the ransom. At the motel, Parker is having second thoughts; as he confers with Longbaugh outside the motel room, Robin takes the opportunity to seize a shotgun and barricade herself inside. As sirens are heard in the distance and Longbaugh hastily escape, Robin emerges just as Mexican police arrive, followed by Jeffers and Painter; as Painter and the bodyguards try to persuade Robin to leave with them, the officers pull their guns and order everybody onto the ground. Parker and Longbaugh open fire from a nearby hilltop, the shootout leaves the two officers dead and Obecks wounded. Jeffers drives off. Parker and Longbaugh torture Obecks to learn Robin's location, while Jeffers confines Robin in a room in a Mexican brothel. Jeffers forces Painter to perform a Caesarean section to retrieve the baby, despite Robin's confession that the child is hers and Painter's and is not Chidduck's. Meanwhile, the armed Parker and Longbaugh infiltrate the brothel.
The ensuing gunfight, which leaves Parker wounded, turns into another standoff, until Painter shoots Jeffers. Outside, Sarno arrives with a group of the ransom, which they stack in the courtyard. Parker wants to kidnap Robin and Painter again, but Longbaugh, guilt-ridden after seeing her condition, responds: "She's had enough." Despite realizing that the money is bait and Longbaugh charge headlong into an ambush. All of Sarno's men are killed in the ensuing firefight. However, Sarno manages to shoot and cripple the wounded Parker and Longbaugh, calls for an ambulance. Painter emerges with the baby. Lying in a pool of blood and Longbaugh call out to Sarno, informing him that the baby is in fact Robin and Painter's, thus Sarno's grandson. Parker wonders aloud. Robin and the baby are taken away in the ambulance with Painter and the money, leaving Parker and Longbaugh to die. Days Chidduck's wife reveals that she is pregnant. Ryan Phillippe as Parker Benicio del Toro as Longbaugh Juliette Lewis as Robin James Caan as Joe Sarno Taye Diggs as Jeffers Nicky Katt as Obecks Geoffrey Lewis as Abner Mercer Dylan Kussman as Dr. Allen Painter Scott Wilson as Hale Chidduck Kristin Lehman as Francesca Chidduck Sarah Silverman as Raving Bitch After winning an Academy Award for The Usual Suspects, Christopher McQuarrie assumed that he would have no problem making his next movie "and you start to realize no one in Hollywood is interested in making your film, they're interested in making their films."
He spent years as a script doctor while trying to get financing for an epic biopic of Alexander the Great for Warner Bros. before realizing that he "had to make a film with some commercial success to be taken seriously." He approached 20th Century Fox and told them that he would be willing to write and direct a movie for any budget they would be willing to give him as long as he had complete creative control. "Fox told me to get fucked. No money. No control. No nothing, they didn't want my input, they just wanted me. For nothing."Over coffee, Benicio del Toro asked McQuarrie why he had not made another crime film. McQuarrie replied that he did not want to be typecast as "a crime guy" but realized that he had nothing to lose, "unemployed and ready to make trouble." Del Toro convinced him to write a crime film on his own terms because he would get the least amount of interference from a studio. McQuarrie was interested in making a mo
Death Proof is a 2007 American exploitation horror film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino. It stars Kurt Russell as a stuntman who murders young women in staged car accidents using his "death-proof" stunt car, it co-stars Rosario Dawson, Vanessa Ferlito, Jordan Ladd, Rose McGowan, Sydney Tamiia Poitier, Tracie Thoms and Mary Elizabeth Winstead, with stuntwoman Zoë Bell as herself. The film pays homage to the slasher and muscle car films of the 1970s. Death Proof was released theatrically in the United States as part of a double feature with Robert Rodriguez’s Planet Terror under the collective title Grindhouse, to recreate the experience of viewing exploitation film double features in a "grindhouse" theater; the films were released separately outside the United States and on DVD, with Death Proof going on sale in the U. S. on September 18, 2007. The film was in the main competition for the Palme d'Or at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival. Three friends, Arlene and radio DJ "Jungle" Julia Lucai, drive down Congress Avenue in Austin, Texas on their way to celebrate Julia's birthday.
In a bar, Julia reveals that she made a radio announcement offering a free lap dance from Arlene in return for addressing her as "Butterfly", buying her a drink, reciting a segment of the poem "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening". Aging Hollywood stunt double "Stuntman" Mike claims the lap dance. Arlene is suspicious, having seen Mike's car earlier that day, but he convinces her to give him the lap dance; the women prepare to depart with another friend. Pam, Julia's old classmate, accepts Mike's offer of a ride home. Mike takes Pam to his Hollywood stunt car rigged with a roll cage and tells her the car is "death proof", but only for the driver, he slams on the brakes, smashing Pam's skull on the dashboard, killing her. He drives into it at high speed, killing them. Mike survives with no serious injury. Sheriff McGraw believes Mike killed the women intentionally, but because Mike was sober while the women were intoxicated, he cannot be charged. Fourteen months three young women, Abernathy Ross, Kim Mathis and Lee Montgomery, are driving through Lebanon, Tennessee.
They stop at a convenience store. The women pick up their friend, stuntwoman Zoë Bell, from the airport while Mike photographs them unawares. Zoë tells them she wants to test-drive a 1970 Dodge Challenger, the same type of car from the 1971 film Vanishing Point, for sale nearby; the owner lets them test-drive it unsupervised after Abernathy tells him Lee is a porn star and will stay behind. Zoë tells Abernathy and Kim that she wants to play a game they call "Ship's Mast", whereby she rides the hood holding belts fastened to the car while Kim drives at speed. Kim agrees; the three enjoy the stunt, unaware. He rear-ends them in his car, causing Zoë to accidentally drop Abernathy's belts. After several more collisions, he T-bones them. Kim shoots Mike's left shoulder and he flees in his car. Abernathy and Kim cry over the loss of their friend; the three agree to kill him. Mike has stopped in a narrow road to treat his wound with whiskey; the women rear-end him at speed. Zoë gets out and beats him with a pipe.
After a long chase, the women push Mike's car off the road. They beat him to death. Kurt Russell as Stuntman Mike McKay Zoë Bell as Herself Rosario Dawson as Abernathy Ross Vanessa Ferlito as Arlene/Butterfly Sydney Tamiia Poitier as Jungle Julia Lucai Tracie Thoms as Kim Mathis Jordan Ladd as Shanna Rose McGowan as Pam Mary Elizabeth Winstead as Lee Montgomery Quentin Tarantino as Warren Marcy Harriell as Marcy Eli Roth as Dov Omar Doom as Nate Michael Bacall as Omar Monica Staggs as Lanna Frank Jonathan Loughran as Jasper Michael Parks as Texas Ranger Earl McGraw James Parks as Ranger Edgar McGraw Marley Shelton as Dr. Dakota Block The story for Death Proof developed from Quentin Tarantino's fascination for the way stuntmen would “death-proof” stunt cars so a driver could survive horrific, high-speed crashes and collisions; this inspired Tarantino to create a slasher film featuring a deranged stuntman who stalks and murders sexy young women with his “death-proof” car. Tarantino remembers, “I realized I couldn't do a straight slasher film, because with the exception of women-in-prison films, there is no other genre quite as rigid.
And if you break that up, you aren't doing it anymore. It's inorganic, so I realized—let me take the structure of a slasher film and just do what I do. My version is going to be fucked up and disjointed, but it uses the structure of a slasher film against you.”According to Robert Rodriguez, “ had an idea and a complete vision for it right away when he first talked about it. He started to tell me the story and said, ‘It’s got this death-proof car in it.’ I said, ‘You have to call it Death Proof.’ I helped title the movie, but that's it.” Of the car chases, Tarantino stated: “CGI for car stunts doesn't make any sense to me—how is that supposed to be impressive? I don't think there have been any good car chases since I started making films in ’92—to me, the last terrific car chase was in Terminator 2, and Final Destination 2 had a magnificent car action piece. In between that, not a lot; every time a stunt happens, there’s twelve cameras and they use every angle for Avid editing, but I don’t feel it in my stomach.
It’s just action." Death Proof marked Tarantino's first credit as a cinematographer. Tarantino attempted to cast John Travolta, Willem Dafoe, John Malkovich, Mickey Rourke, Ron Perlman, Bruce Willis, Kal Penn and
The Dark Knight (film)
The Dark Knight is a 2008 superhero film directed, co-produced, co-written by Christopher Nolan. Based on the DC Comics character Batman, the film is the second installment of Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy and a sequel to 2005's Batman Begins, starring an ensemble cast including Christian Bale, Michael Caine, Heath Ledger, Gary Oldman, Aaron Eckhart, Maggie Gyllenhaal and Morgan Freeman. In the film, Bruce Wayne / Batman, Police Lieutenant James Gordon and District Attorney Harvey Dent form an alliance to dismantle organized crime in Gotham City, but are menaced by an anarchistic mastermind known as the Joker, who seeks to undermine Batman's influence and turn the city to chaos. Nolan's inspiration for the film was the Joker's comic book debut in 1940, the 1988 graphic novel The Killing Joke, the 1996 series The Long Halloween, which retold Two-Face's origin; the "Dark Knight" nickname was first applied to Batman in Batman #1, in a story written by Bill Finger. The Dark Knight was filmed in Chicago, as well as in several other locations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong.
Nolan used IMAX 70 mm film cameras to film some sequences, including the Joker's first appearance in the film. Warner Bros. created a viral marketing campaign for The Dark Knight, developing promotional websites and trailers highlighting screenshots of Ledger as the Joker. Ledger died on January 22, 2008, some months after the completed filming and six months before the film's release from a toxic combination of prescription drugs, leading to intense attention from the press and movie-going public. A co-production of the United States and the United Kingdom, The Dark Knight was released on July 18, 2008 in the United States and on July 25, 2008 in the United Kingdom. Film critics considered it one of the best films of its decade and one of the best superhero films of all time; the Dark Knight appeared on 287 critics' top ten lists, more than any other film of 2008 with the exception of WALL-E, more critics named The Dark Knight the best film released that year. With over $1 billion in revenue worldwide, it became the highest-grossing film of 2008 and is the 38th highest-grossing film of all time, unadjusted for inflation.
The film received eight Academy Award nominations. In 2016 it was voted 33rd among 100 films considered the best of the 21st century by 117 film critics from around the world; the Dark Knight Rises, the final film in the trilogy, was released on July 20, 2012. A gang of criminals rob a Gotham City mob bank, murdering each other for a higher share of the money until only the Joker remains, who escapes with the money. Batman, District Attorney Harvey Dent and Lieutenant Jim Gordon form an alliance to rid Gotham City of organized crime. Bruce Wayne believes that with Dent as Gotham's protector, he can retire from being Batman and lead a normal life with Rachel Dawes – though she and Dent are dating. Mob bosses Sal Maroni and the Chechen hold a videoconference with their corrupt accountant, who has taken their funds for safekeeping and fled to Hong Kong; the Joker interrupts the meeting to warn them that Batman is unhindered by the law, offers to kill him in exchange for half of their money. The mob bosses disagree, Gambol places a bounty on the Joker.
The Joker kills Gambol, taking over his gang. The mob decides to take the Joker up on his offer. Batman finds Lau in Hong Kong and brings him back to Gotham to testify, allowing Dent to apprehend the entire mob; the Joker threatens to kill people unless Batman reveals his identity, starts by murdering Police Commissioner Gillian B. Loeb and the judge presiding over the mob trial; the Joker tries to kill Mayor Anthony Garcia, but Gordon sacrifices himself to stop the assassination. Dent kidnaps one of Joker’s henchmen and threatens him with a deadly game of heads or tails using Dent's lucky coin. Dent learns. Bruce decides to reveal his secret identity to prevent more deaths. Before he can, Dent falsely announces that he is Batman. Dent is taken into protective custody. Batman comes to Dent's rescue and Gordon, who faked his death, apprehends the Joker, securing a promotion to Commissioner. Rachel and Dent are escorted away by detectives on Maroni's payroll. Batman interrogates the Joker, who reveals that they have been trapped in separate locations rigged with explosives and that Batman must choose one to save.
Batman races to save Rachel. Batman realizes that the Joker has sent him to Dent's location instead. Both buildings explode, disfiguring Dent; the Joker escapes with Lau. The Joker kills Lau and the Chechen. Coleman Reese, an accountant at Wayne Enterprises, deduces that Bruce is Batman and threatens to publicize the information. Not wanting Reese's revelation to interfere with his plans, the Joker threatens to destroy a hospital unless Reese is killed within an hour. All hospitals are evacuated and Gordon travels to secure Reese; the Joker, disguised as a hospital nurse, discovers Dent's ward and hands him a gun, convincing him to
Robert Estes is an American actor. He is known for his roles as Harry Wilson on the teen drama series 90210, as Sgt. Chris Lorenzo on the crime drama series Silk Stalkings, as Kyle McBride on the primetime soap opera Melrose Place. Estes first became interested in an acting career while training to be a stunt double. One of his first acting jobs was in the soap opera Days of Our Lives playing Glenn Gallagher, he gained widespread recognition for his role as Sergeant Chris Lorenzo in Silk Stalkings, half of the "dynamic duo" alongside Mitzi Kapture. In 1993, Estes had a guest role on the prime time Fox soap opera Melrose Place. Three years the producers of the series brought him back but cast him in a different role, that of restaurateur Kyle McBride. Estes played the role from 1996 to the series' cancellation in 1999. Following Melrose Place he had guest starring roles on Providence, Suddenly Susan, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and Gilmore Girls, he performed in theatre, had roles in Same Time, Next Year and The Lake.
Estes starred in the comedy film I Do, They Don't, which premiered on ABC Family in March 2005 and starred his Melrose Place co-star and then-wife Josie Bissett. He made his return to series television playing Sean Cole in the ABC television crime drama The Evidence, he completed a recurring role on CSI: Miami as Nick Townsend, the abusive ex-husband of Natalia Boa Vista. In a January 2007 episode, he was murdered by the husband of a killer to cover up her crime. Estes portrayed Lieutenant Tom Hogan, Inspector Lindsay Boxer's ex-husband and current boss in the ABC police procedural and legal drama Women's Murder Club. In May 2008, Estes was cast as Harry Wilson in 90210 on The CW; the series, like Melrose Place before it, is a spin-off from the original 1990s series Beverly Hills, 90210, marking Estes' third appearance in the franchise. On January 20, 2010, Estes announced. "This is my final season on 90210 and I wish the show and crew nothing but the best. I am looking forward to spending time with my kids and exploring other opportunities", Estes said in a statement.
Estes attended Santa Monica High School and is a graduate of the University of Southern California where he was a member of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. On May 1, 1992, Estes married another cast member of Melrose Place. In 2005, they separated, with Estes moving out of their Seattle home at his wife's request; the couple have two children together: Maya Rose. In January 2006 the couple announced their plans to divorce. On June 15, 2010, Estes married surfer Erin Bolte, they have a son Makai Ever, born April 29, 2011. Estes resides in Orange County with his wife Erin and two sons and Makai. Http://www.coastmagazine.com/articles/0px-4060-margin-5px.html Rob Estes on IMDb
Behind the Candelabra
Behind the Candelabra is a 2013 American biographical drama film directed by Steven Soderbergh. It dramatizes the last ten years in the life of pianist Liberace and the relationship he had with Scott Thorson, it is based on Thorson's memoir, Behind the Candelabra: My Life with Liberace. Richard LaGravenese wrote the screenplay. Jerry Weintraub was the executive producer, it competed for the Palme d'Or. It aired on HBO on May 26, 2013 and was given a cinematic release in the United Kingdom on June 7, 2013; the film received critical acclaim from television critics including praise for the performances of Michael Douglas and Matt Damon. In 1977, 18-year-old Scott Thorson, who works as an animal trainer for films, meets Bob Black, a Hollywood producer, in a gay bar in Los Angeles. At Black's urging, he leaves his adopted home in search of better-paying work. Black introduces Thorson to Liberace. Liberace invites the two backstage and to his luxurious home in Las Vegas. Thorson observes that one of Liberace's beloved dogs is suffering from a temporary form of blindness, with his veterinary assistant background, informs the famous pianist that he knows how to cure the condition.
After treating the dog, Thorson becomes Liberace's "assistant" at the performer's request. Thorson becomes employed as Liberace's stage chauffeur, driving a Rolls-Royce limousine onto the stage for Liberace's grand entrances. Thorson becomes his lover. At this point, Thorson says that he is bisexual because he is attracted to women. Liberace is sympathetic, informing him that he wanted and tried to love women, but was attracted to men, he relates a story of a "divine healing" in which a "messenger" informed him that God still loved him. It becomes clear that Liberace is trying to mold Thorson into a younger version of himself, he asks his plastic surgeon, Dr. Jack Startz, to transform Scott's face to more resemble his own and makes an unsuccessful attempt to formally adopt him. Thorson soon turns to drugs as he becomes more angry and frustrated with Liberace trying to control him as well as Liberace's obsession to publicly hide their romance at any cost. By 1982, Thorson's increasing drug abuse and Liberace's interest in younger men, including dancer Cary James, creates a rift that destroys their relationship.
When Liberace begins visiting pornographic peep shows and suggests that they each see other people, Thorson becomes upset. Thorson retains an attorney to seek his financial share of the property by suing Liberace for over $100,000,000 in palimony; as a result, Liberace ends their formal partnership and involves himself with his most recent, much younger, "assistant". In 1984, Thorson's palimony lawsuit starts where he gives details about his five-year romance with the entertainer, while Liberace flatly denies any sexual relationship. Not long thereafter, in December 1986, Thorson receives a phone call from Liberace telling him that he is sick with what is revealed to be AIDS and that he would like Thorson to visit him again. Thorson agrees and drives to Liberace's retreat house in Palm Springs, where he and Liberace have one last, emotional conversation. Liberace dies a few months in February 1987. Thorson attends Liberace's funeral, in which he imagines seeing Liberace performing one last time with his traditional flamboyance, before being lifted to Heaven with a stage harness.
Michael Douglas as Liberace Matt Damon as Scott Thorson Dan Aykroyd as Seymour Heller Rob Lowe as Dr. Jack Startz Debbie Reynolds as Frances Liberace Scott Bakula as Bob Black Boyd Holbrook as Cary James Tom Papa as Ray Arnett Nicky Katt as Mr. Y Cheyenne Jackson as Billy Leatherwood Paul Reiser as Mr. Felder David Koechner as Adoption Attorney Peggy King as TV Vocalist Director Steven Soderbergh first spoke with Michael Douglas about the idea of doing a Liberace film during the production of Traffic, but had trouble figuring out an angle for it that would differentiate it from a traditional biopic. In the summer of 2008, Soderbergh contacted screenwriter Richard LaGravenese with the idea of adapting Scott Thorson's memoir Behind the Candelabra: My Life with Liberace. In September 2008, the project was announced with Matt Damon close to signing on to play Thorson and Douglas in talks to portray Liberace; the following year, Douglas signed on to play Liberace alongside Damon. The film spent several years in development while Soderbergh had difficulty securing funding, with Hollywood studios saying it was "too gay".
During this time and Damon remained adamant that they would appear in the film despite its lengthy development. The film was picked up by HBO Films and shot on a budget of $23 million over thirty days in 2012. While promoting the film, Soderbergh went on to explain that this would be his last directorial effort for the time being, it is the last film to feature a musical score by composer Marvin Hamlisch, who died on August 6, 2012. The film received critical acclaim. Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 95%, based on reviews from 99 film critics with an average score of 8.1 out of 10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Affectionate without sacrificing honesty, Behind the Candelabra couples award-worthy performances from Michael Douglas and Matt Damon with some sharp direction from Steven Soderbergh." Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, gives the film a score of 82
Batman & Robin (film)
Batman & Robin is a 1997 American superhero film based on the DC Comics characters Batman and Robin. It is the sequel to the 1995 film Batman Forever and the fourth and final installment of Warner Bros.' Initial Batman film series. The film was written by Akiva Goldsman, it stars George Clooney and Chris O'Donnell as the titular characters, alongside Arnold Schwarzenegger, Uma Thurman, Alicia Silverstone, Michael Gough, Pat Hingle, Elle Macpherson. The film tells the story of Batman and Robin as they attempt to prevent Mr. Freeze and Poison Ivy from freezing all mankind to death and repopulating the earth with mutant plants, while at the same time struggling to keep their partnership together, it is to date the only live-action film appearance of Batgirl, who helps the title characters fight the villains. Warner Bros. fast-tracked development for Batman & Robin following the box office success of Batman Forever. Schumacher and Goldsman conceived the storyline during pre-production on A Time to Kill, while Val Kilmer decided not to reprise the role over scheduling conflicts with The Saint.
Schumacher had a strong interest in casting William Baldwin in Kilmer's place before George Clooney won the role. Principal photography began in September 1996 and finished in January 1997, two weeks ahead of the shooting schedule. Batman & Robin premiered in Los Angeles on June 12, 1997, went into general release on June 20, 1997. While it performed moderately well at the box office, making $238.2 million worldwide against a production budget of $125 million, the film was a critical failure and is considered to be one of the worst films of all time. It is the lowest-grossing live-action Batman film to date. Due to the film's negative reception, Warner Bros. cancelled a sequel, Batman Unchained, rebooted the film series with Batman Begins in 2005. One of the songs recorded for the film, "The End Is the Beginning Is the End" by The Smashing Pumpkins, won a Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance at the 40th Annual Grammy Awards. In Gotham, one year after the defeat of Two-Face and the Riddler and Robin attempt to thwart Mr. Freeze from robbing diamonds from the natural history museum, but he steals one and flees.
Mr. Freeze was Dr. Victor Fries, a doctor working to develop a cure for MacGregor's syndrome to heal his terminally ill wife. Fries was forced to wear a cryogenic suit powered by diamonds after becoming unable to live at normal temperatures following a lab accident. At a Wayne Enterprises lab in Brazil, the botanist Dr. Pamela Isley is working under the deranged Dr. Jason Woodrue, experimenting with the Venom drug, she witnesses Woodrue use the formula to turn the violent, but diminutive, convicted serial murderer Antonio Diego into a hulking monstrosity dubbed "Bane". When Isley threatens to expose Woodrue's experiments, he attempts to kill her by overturning a shelf of various toxins. Despite Woodrue's efforts, Isley is resurrected, transforming into the beautiful and seductive Poison Ivy before exacting revenge, she finds that Wayne Enterprises funded Woodrue, thus she appropriates Bane as a muscle-bound thug, taking him with her to Gotham City. Meanwhile, Alfred Pennyworth's niece, Barbara Wilson, makes a surprise visit and is invited by Bruce Wayne to stay at Wayne Manor until she goes back to school.
Wayne Enterprises presents a new telescope for Gotham Observatory at a press conference interrupted by Isley. She proposes a project that could help the environment, but Bruce declines her offer, which would kill millions of people; that night, a charity event is held by Wayne Enterprises with special guests and Robin, she decides to use her abilities to seduce them. Mr. Freeze steals a diamond from the event. Although he is captured by Batman and detained in Arkham Asylum, he escapes with the help of Poison Ivy and Bane. Meanwhile, Dick discovers that Barbara has participated in drag races to raise money for Alfred, dying of MacGregor's syndrome. Batman and Robin begin to have crime fighting relationship problems because of Ivy's seductive ability with Robin, but Bruce convinces Dick to trust him. Poison Ivy is able to contact Robin once more. Meanwhile, Barbara discovers the Batcave, where an AI version of Alfred reveals he has made Barbara her own suit. Barbara becomes Batgirl. Ivy captures Robin, but he gets rescued by Batman, Batgirl arrives and subdues Ivy to get eaten by her throne plant, before revealing her identity to the pair.
Batman and Batgirl decide to go after Mr. Freeze together. By the time they get to the observatory where Mr. Freeze and Bane are, Gotham is frozen. Batgirl and Robin are attacked by Bane, but they defeat him by kicking apart his venom tubes, stopping the flow of venom to his body. Bane collapses before transforming back to his original diminutive size of Antonio Diego and is left helpless on the ground. Meanwhile Batman and Mr. Freeze begin to fight each other, with Batman defeating Mr. Freeze. Batgirl and Robin manage to unfreeze Gotham, Batman shows Freeze a recording of Poison Ivy during her fight with Batgirl, who had informed the latter that she killed Mr. Freeze's wife. However, Batman informs Mr. Freeze that she is still alive, having been restored by them in cryogenic slumber before being moved to Arkham Asylum, waiting for Mr. Freeze to finish his research. Batman proceeds to ask Mr. Freeze for the cure Mr. Freeze has created for the first stage of MacGregor's Syndrome to administer to Alfred, Mr. Freeze atones for his misunderstanding by giving him the m
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti