Gottorf Castle is a castle and estate in the city of Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the home of the Holstein-Gottorp branch of the House of Oldenburg. It is situated on an island in the Schlei, about 40 km from the Baltic Sea and it was first settled as an estate in 1161 as the residence of Bishop Occo of Schleswig when his former residence was destroyed. The Danish Duke of Schleswig acquired it through a purchase in 1268, the manor later, through maternal inheritance, became the possession of Christian I of Denmark, the first Danish monarch from the House of Oldenburg, in 1459. Both the island and the structure were extended through the years, Frederick I, younger son of Christian I, made it his primary residence. In 1544 the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were divided in three parts, Fredericks third son Adolf received one of these parts and made his residence at Gottorp and this state became known as the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. The estate became a European cultural centre in the reign of Frederick III, the castle was built by the famous Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger.
After the ducal lineage of Gottorp were forced to out in 1702. Pieces of furniture and other interior were gradually moved out of the palace, during World War II, the estate was used as a displaced persons camp. Since 1947, the palace has been renovated and restored through a series of efforts, the restoration was considered complete in 1996. The palace is now owned by a foundation of the State of Schleswig-Holstein and houses the State Art and Cultural History Museum, globe of Gottorf Foundation for state museums for Schleswig-Holstein at Gottorf Palace
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Charles XI of Sweden
Charles XI, was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire. Charles was the son of King Charles X Gustav of Sweden. His father died when he was five years old, so Charles was educated by his governors until his coronation at the age of seventeen, soon after, he was forced out on military expeditions to secure the recently acquired dominions from Danish troops in the Scanian War. Changes in finance, national maritime and land armaments, judicial procedure, church government, Charles XI was succeeded by his only son Charles XII, who made use of the well-trained army in battles throughout Europe. The fact that Charles was crowned as Charles XI does not mean that he was the 11th king of Sweden who had the name Charles. His fathers name was due to his great-grandfather, King Charles IX of Sweden and this descendant was actually the 5th King Charles. The numbering tradition thus begun still continues, with the present king of Sweden being Carl XVI Gustaf, Charles was born in the Stockholm Palace Tre Kronor in November 1655.
His father, Charles X of Sweden, left Sweden in July to fight in the war against Poland, after several years of warfare, the king returned in the winter of 1659 and gathered his family and the Riksdag of the Estates in Gothenburg. In mid-January 1660 he fell ill and one month he wrote his last will, per Brahe was one member of the council. In addition, Charles X Gustav left command of the army and these provisions among others led to the remainder of the council immediately challenging the will. February 14, the day after King Charles Xs death, Hedwig Eleonora sent a message to the council stating that she knew that they contested the will and that she demanded that it should be respected. The council answered that the will must first be discussed with the parliament, and at the council in Stockholm on May 13. The parliament questioned whether it would be good for her health or suitable for a widow to attend council, and her reply that the council would be allowed to meet without her and only inform her when they considered it necessary was met with satisfaction from the council.
Hedwig Eleonoras ostensible indifference to politics came as a relief to the lords of the guardian government. His mother, Queen Hedvig Eleonora, remained the regent until Charles XI attained his majority on 18 December 1672. During his first appearances in parliament, Charles spoke to the government through her and he would whisper the questions he had in her ear, and she would ask them aloud and clearly for him. As an adolescent, Charles devoted himself to sports, exercise and he appeared ignorant of the very rudiments of statecraft and almost illiterate. His main difficulties are now seen as evident signs of dyslexia, according to many contemporary sources, the king was considered poorly educated and therefore not qualified to conduct himself effectively in foreign affairs
The Swedish nobility has historically been a legally and/or socially privileged class in Sweden, and part of the so-called frälse. The archaic term for nobility, frälse, included the clergy, today the nobility does not maintain its former privileges although family names and coats of arms are still protected. The Swedish nobility consists of introduced and unintroduced nobility, where the latter has not been formally introduced at the House of Nobility. The House of Nobility still maintains a fee for members over the age of 18 for upkeep on pertinent buildings in Stockholm. Belonging to the nobility in present-day Sweden may still carry some informal social privileges, Sweden has, long been a modern democratic society and meritocratic practices are supposed to govern all appointments to state offices by law. However, this role is today, according to the instrument of government, from 1974 the monarch can not confer nobility. Until 2003 the nobility was regulated by a government statute but in year the statute was lifted.
The House of Nobility is now an institution, run as any private corporation under civil commercial law. The two last classes contains the so-called untitled nobility, the division into classes has roots in the Middle Ages when the nobility frälse was divided into lords in the Privy Council and esquires. Until 1719 the three classes voted separately, but in the Age of Liberty all classes were voting together with one vote for each family head and this made the vast majority of the untitled nobility in power, for example officers and civil servants were represented. In 1778 Gustav III restored the classes and class voting and at the time he reformed the Class of Knights. Originally this class only contained family descendants of Privy Councillors and was the smallest class of the three classes. No more commander families were introduced in the House of Knights after 1809, and thereafter the voting was abolished. A Swedish duke has almost always been of royal status and counted as such, an exception in medieval times was Benedict, Duke of Halland.
Two men were created princes in the 18th century, Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein and Vilhelm Putbus. In 1866 the Nobility was formally separated from government and incorporated as a separate institution and this last link to the government and state was abolished in 2003. The Palace of the Nobility served as official representation for the nobility and was regulated by the Swedish government, the membership roster is published every three years. The archaic Swedish term for nobility, frälse, included the clergy with respect to their exemption from tax, the nobility grew from wealthier or more powerful members of the peasantry, those who were capable of assigning work or wealth to provide the requisite cavalrymen
Carl Gustaf Tessin
Carl Gustaf Tessin was a Swedish Count and politician and son of architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock. He was one of the most brilliant personages of his day, and he was a fine orator. Tessins art collection became the core of the collection of Swedens Nationalmuseum. Carl Gustaf Tessin was born in Stockholm and his fathers family were burghers, while his mother came from the nobility, one of his maternal great-great-grandmothers had been born a princess-duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg. This genealogy led some to him as trash and a social climber compared to real aristocracy. On the other hand, members of his line had shown high talent artistically and aesthetically, architects. He married Ulrika Sparre in 1727 and he began his public career in 1723, at which time he was a member of the Holstein faction, which promoted the claims of the young Duke Carl Frederick of Holstein to the Swedish throne. In 1725 Tessin was appointed ambassador at Vienna, and in that capacity counteracted the plans of the Swedish chancellor, Count Arvid Horn, from 1735 to 1736 he was again Swedish ambassador at Vienna.
During the riksdag of 1738 he was elected marshal of the Riksdag of the Estates and his political ability, was by no means commensurate with his splendid social qualities. He gained his seat in the senate as a reward for his services on this occasion, in 1743 Tessin attempted to reconcile the long outstanding differences between Sweden and Denmark in a special mission to Copenhagen. As överhovmarskalk of the court, Tessin speedily captivated the royal pair. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1741, from 1746 to 1752 Tessin was president of the chancellery, as the Swedish prime minister was called in those days. His system aimed at a rapprochement with Denmark with the view of counterbalancing the influence of Russia in the north. As, moreover, on the accession of Adolphus Frederick in 1751, Tessin refused to countenance any extension of the royal prerogative and he was given the L’Ordre de l’Harmonie. Carl Gustaf Tessin was an art collector, during his mission in Paris he bought a lot of paintings and drawings, including 2000 drawing from the famous 1741 auction of the Pierre Crozat former collection.
Being heavily in debt on his return to Sweden, he was obliged to part of his collection to the King Fredrik I. Part of his art collection is now exhibited in the Swedish Nationalmuseum, the collection was on display in New York at the Morgan Library & Museum, Treasures from the Nationalmuseum of Sweden, The Collections of Count Tessin. Tessin och Tessiniana, autobiographical extracts from Tessins voluminous manuscript Memoirs in 29 volumes, K. G. Tessins Dagbok, further extracts from the same
Steninge Palace is a Baroque palace overlooking Lake Mälaren near Märsta outside of Stockholm, Sweden. Steninge Palace was completed in 1705, the estate has a history dating back to the 13th century and has seen many owners, but two families have strongly influenced the premises, those of Carl Gyllenstierna and Axel von Fersen. Today the palace is owned by a company which keeps it accessible for visitors. In the end of 1200 the first known settlement was established at Steninge, in 1667 Carl Gyllenstierna inherited the Steninge Estate. 1680-81 the well known Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin was commissioned to design the palace, in 1705 Steninge Palace was completed. In 1706 Carl Gyllenstierna married and gave Steninge Palace as a gift to his bride. In 1735 the Fersen family bought Steninge, in 1747 Steninge was made a trust. In 1810 Axel von Fersen was murdered, a monument of Fersen was erected at Steninge in 1813. In 1873 Baron von Otter bought Steninge and a barn was built west of the palace.
Holm bought Steninge and employs the architect I. G, clason to carry out a restoration work. In 1923 Mrs Hanna Lindmark buys Steninge Palace, in 1932 Steninge Palace is bought by Wolfgang Thomas, son of the US ambassador in Sweden. In 1969 Steninge Palace was declared a listed building, in 1976 a family with the common name Andersson bought Steninge. In 1979 the large barn was declared a listed building. In 1997 Linn and Atle Brynestad bought Steninge, in 1999 the Steninge Palace Cultural centre opened. In 2009 Steninge Palace and the barn were bought by Gelba fastigheter. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010. It is the capital of Blekinge County, Karlskrona is known as Swedens only baroque city and is host to Swedens only remaining naval base and the headquarters of the Swedish Coast Guard. The city of Karlskrona is spread over 30 islands in the part of Blekinge archipelago. Other populated mentionable islands are Saltö, Sturkö, Hästö, Långö, the islet of Stumholmen was formerly property of the Navy and today it houses the National Naval Museum. Outside the city lies the archipelago of Karlskrona, the most southern of the Swedish archipelagos, several islands are connected to the city by ferries. The city was founded in 1680 when the Royal Swedish Navy was relocated from the Stockholm area to the Trossö island which had up until been used chiefly for farming and grazing. The Swedish fleet tended to get stuck in the ice during winter while located close to Stockholm and was moved south.
The island had a strategic position with short sailing distances to the German. The city name means Karls Crown in honour of King Karl XI of Sweden, the city grew quickly and by 1750 Karlskrona had about 10,000 inhabitants. It was one of the biggest cities in the country, most of the baroque buildings from this era are still standing, which is why the city centre is architecturally uniform. The shipyard in Karlskrona was established almost at the time as the city. It was a necessity because of the losses the Swedish navy had suffered in 1659. In 1711, the shipyard was Swedens largest industrial employer with 1,100 workers, the oldest dock, the Polhem dock, is cut in the cliff itself and is still in use. It got its name from Christopher Polhem, there is a historical rope making factory, that is now open for guided tour. The city has kept its street structure since its foundation, since the streets all follow a grid pattern the winds can blow freely from the sea right into the heart of the city.
Parts of the city have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, in October 1981 the Whiskey-class Soviet submarine S-363 ran aground in the archipelago near Sturkö just outside Karlskrona. The media characterized it as the Whiskey on the Rocks affair, the incident caused a temporary rise in tensions between Sweden and the Soviet Union. While the submarines grounding was inadvertent, and likely the result of inebriation among the crew, the most important day in Karlskrona is the day before midsummers eve
Carlo Fontana was an Italian architect originating from todays Canton Ticino, who was in part responsible for the classicizing direction taken by Late Baroque Roman architecture. There seems to be no proof that he belonged to the family of architects of the same name. Born in Brusato, near Como, Fontana went to Rome before 1655 and he became a draughtsman for the architectural plans of Pietro da Cortona, Carlo Rainaldi, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini employed him for nearly a decade in diverse projects and his first independent project may be the church of San Biagio in Campitelli, completed by 1665. His façade at San Marcello al Corso is described as one of his most successful works. Among his other works were the designs for a Jesuit complex in Azpeitia, Spain, in the village of Loyola where Saint Ignatius of Loyola. This grandiose basilica was an influence upon baroque architecture of the New World. Fontana was an able artist and a designer, but lacked the innovation that characterized early Baroque architects like Cortona.
In addition, he was successful as an architect than as a writer. By order of Innocent XI he wrote a historical description of the Templum Vaticanum. Fontana made a calculation of the expense of St. Peters from the beginning to 1694. He published works on the Colosseum, the Aqueducts, the inundation of the Tiber, twenty seven manuscript volumes of his writings and sketches are preserved in the Royal Library at Windsor. Fontana was principe of the Accademia di San Luca in 1686, fontanas studio was one of the most prolific in Europe, its designs for fountains and altars were often imitated or reproduced abroad. Other Fontana pupils include Giovan Battista Contini and Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri and refurbishing, with Francesco Borromini and others Palazzo Montecitorio, the headquarters of the Camera dei Deputati of the Italian government since 1871. Façade of the church of San Marcello al Corso, the conventional scrolls that ordinarily flank the upper central section are appropriately replaced with the martyrs palms.
Church of Santa Maria dei Miracoli, in collaboration with Gian Lorenzo Bernini, church of San Biagio in Campitelli. Interior of Basilica dei Santi Apostoli, the fountain in the left of the Piazza San Pietro. The fountain in front of Santa Maria in Trastevere, one of the oldest fountains of Rome, was restored by Fontana The Cybo Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo, sistine Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore
Stockholm Palace or The Royal Palace is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch. Stockholm Palace is located on Stadsholmen, in Gamla stan in the capital, the offices of the King, the other members of the Swedish Royal Family, and the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden are located here. The palace is used for representative purposes by the King whilst performing his duties as the head of state. This royal residence has been in the location by Norrström in the northern part of the Gamla stan in Stockholm since the middle of the 13th century when the Tre Kronor Castle was built. In modern times the name relates to the building called Kungliga Slottet, the palace was designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and erected on the same place as the medieval Tre Kronor Castle which was destroyed in a fire on 7 May 1697. Due to the costly Great Northern War which started in 1700, construction of the palace was halted in 1709, when Tessin the Younger died in 1728, the palace was completed by Carl Hårleman who designed a large part of its Rococo interior.
The palace was not ready to use until 1754, when King Adolf Frederick and Queen Louisa Ulrika moved in, as of 2009 the interior of the palace consists of 1,430 rooms of which 660 have windows. The palace contains apartments for the Royal families and festivities such as the State Apartments, the Guest Apartments, the National Library of Sweden was housed in the northeast wing, the Biblioteksflygeln, until 1878. As of 2014 it houses the Bernadotte Library, the Slottsarkivet is housed in the Chancery Wing. In the palace are the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden, the Royal Guards has guarded the palace and the Royal Family since 1523. A comprehensive renovation of the began in 2011, to repair weather damaged parts made from sandstone. The repairs are estimated to cost approx,500 million crowns during a period of 22 years. The first building on site was a fortress with a core tower built in the 13th century by Birger Jarl to defend Lake Mälaren. The fortress grew to a castle, eventually named Tre Kronor for the towers spire top decorated with three crowns.
At the beginning of the 17th century, King Gustavus Adolphus made plans for a new royal palace, contemporaneous copperplates from 1654 shows de la Vallée’s idea of a more visible castle on a raised plateau with a connecting bridge over the Norrström. Queen Christina remodelled and embellished the castle extensively, but no new castle was built during her reign. In 1661, he presented the first draft for a conversion of the row which his son, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, would rework. A map of the Stadsholmen from the 1650s, illustrates de la Vallées suggestion for the conversion of the old castle, the project brought about an adjustment of the Slottsbacken, making it partially enclosed by buildings
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder was an important Swedish architect. Nicodemus Tessin was born in Stralsund in Pomerania and came to Sweden as a young man, there he met and worked with the architect Simon de la Vallée. Back in Sweden he rebuilt Borgholm Castle, built Skokloster Castle and his most important work was Drottningholm Palace, now a world heritage site. Upon his death his son Nicodemus Tessin the Younger continued his projects, Borgholm Castle Drottningholm Palace Bonde Palace Skokloster Castle Strömsholm Palace Näsby castle Stenbock Palace Wrangel Palace Bååt Palace Kalmar Cathedral K. Neville, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. Architecture in Sweden in the Age of Greatness, Brepols Publishers,2009, ISBN 978-2-503-52826-7 Halltorps
Pomerania is a region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning by the sea, Pomerania stretches roughly from the Recknitz river in the west to the Vistula river in the east. The largest Pomeranian islands are Rügen, Usedom/Uznam and Wolin, the largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with lakes, forests. The region was affected by post–World War I and II border and population shifts. Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz in the west and Vistula in the east and it formerly reached perhaps as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north. Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the North European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District.
The soil is rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy. The western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas and islands enclosing numerous bays, Łebsko and several other lakes were formerly bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel peninsula, the Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions, Hither Pomerania in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz river to the Oder–Neisse line. This region is part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The southernmost part of historical Vorpommern is now in Brandenburg, while its eastern parts are now in Poland. Vorpommern comprises the regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians, otherwise the Principality of Rügen. The West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, the Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza river to the Vistula delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk.
The northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land, the bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995, the Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, and Scania in Sweden. Pomerania was first mentioned in a document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum. Pomerania is mentioned repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen, the term West Pomerania is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania or to the West Pomeranian Voivodeship