Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value, his initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, to do so by the end of the 20th century. This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free, he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution.
By the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort. All of the text was entered manually until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more available, which made book scanning more feasible. Hart came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenberg's finances; as the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the project's day-to-day operations that Hart had run. Starting in 2004, an improved online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse and hyperlink. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role, the Project web pages won a number of awards being featured in "best of the Web" listings, contributing to the project's popularity.
Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois at the age of 64. In 2000, a non-profit corporation, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, Inc. was chartered in Mississippi, United States to handle the project's legal needs. Donations to it are tax-deductible. Long-time Project Gutenberg volunteer Gregory Newby became the foundation's first CEO. In 2000, Charles Franks founded Distributed Proofreaders, which allowed the proofreading of scanned texts to be distributed among many volunteers over the Internet; this effort increased the number and variety of texts being added to Project Gutenberg, as well as making it easier for new volunteers to start contributing. DP became affiliated with Project Gutenberg in 2002; as of 2018, the 36,000+ DP-contributed books comprised two-thirds of the nearly 57,000 books in Project Gutenberg. In August 2003, Project Gutenberg created a CD containing 600 of the "best" e-books from the collection; the CD is available for download as an ISO image.
When users are unable to download the CD, they can request to have a copy sent to them, free of charge. In December 2003, a DVD was created containing nearly 10,000 items. At the time, this represented the entire collection. In early 2004, the DVD became available by mail. In July 2007, a new edition of the DVD was released containing over 17,000 books, in April 2010, a dual-layer DVD was released, containing nearly 30,000 items; the majority of the DVDs, all of the CDs mailed by the project, were recorded on recordable media by volunteers. However, the new dual layer DVDs were manufactured, as it proved more economical than having volunteers burn them; as of October 2010, the project has mailed 40,000 discs. As of 2017, the delivery of free CDs has been discontinued, though the ISO image is still available for download; as of August 2015, Project Gutenberg claimed over 57,000 items in its collection, with an average of over 50 new e-books being added each week. These are works of literature from the Western cultural tradition.
In addition to literature such as novels, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg has cookbooks, reference works and issues of periodicals. The Project Gutenberg collection has a few non-text items such as audio files and music-notation files. Most releases are in English, but there are significant numbers in many other languages; as of April 2016, the non-English languages most represented are: Fren
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Religious music is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. Ritual music is music, sacred or not, composed for or as ritual. According to some scholars, the earliest music in the Christian Church came from Jewish worship music, with some additional Syriac influence, it is believed that this music lay somewhere between singing and speaking, or speaking with an understood ritual cadence. However, there is another opinion that the roots of early Christian music come from the early ascetic monastic orders. Christian music has diversified over the time, reflecting both its centuries old roots as well as more contemporary musical styles. Thousands of traditionally-styled songs of praise or worship, called "hymns", were written over hundreds of years; these songs were compiled into books called "hymnals," from which pastors and congregants would read during Christian services - a practice that continues in many churches today. Prior to the eighteenth century, Christian hymnals were published as standalone texts without accompanying musical scores.
The first American hymnal with both text and song was published in 1831. In Europe, the Church of England did not allow hymns to be sung until 1820. Hymns were sung by "lining out" the lyrics, the pastor would sing a line and the congregation would repeat it; this was done because, at that time, books were expensive, so it was economical to provide the pastor of a church with one copy from which everyone could sing. Modern methods of publication have made hymnals much more accessible to the public today than previously; the practice of "lining out" the lyrics of hymns has therefore fallen away, although it continues to be practiced in some traditional churches. In the twentieth century, Christian music has developed to reflect the emergence of a diverse array of musical genres including rock, pop, contemporary, spiritual, country and gospel; the use of specific genres and styles of music in church services today varies across denominations and according to the personal preference of pastors and church members.
As of the late twentieth century, there has been a widespread preference in less traditional churches towards using contemporary music as well as gospel and spiritual music. Islamic "songs" come in the form of prayers; these prayers are conducted by facing Mecca and having both knees to the ground bowing and reciting these prayers and are recitations of the Islamic Holy word the Quran. These prayers occur of the day and connect the Muslim people through a series of melodic prayers that become amplified through the city. In Islam the implication of prayer and in this case the Salah is for ritual since it is believed to be the direct word of God that shall be performed as a collective, as well as individually. "What shall I say of their prayer? For they pray with such concentration and devotion that I was astonished when I was able to see it and observe it with my own eyes.”. The origin of the art of prayer in all Abrahamic religions is to glorify God and the same goes for Islam; the Al Salat is the most used word to mean institutionalized prayer and is one of the oldest forms of prayer in Islam.
Islamic prayer and ideals had influence from these Abrahamic religions. The time of origination of Salah came from the Muslim prophet Muhammad in a cave as he began to worship Allah, it is believed that through this act of worship Mohammad interacted with the Abrahamic prophet Moses. Now these "prayers" come in the form of recitations of the Quran and poems written by prophets of the faith. Besides the spread of Islam through Arabia by prophets it spread through trade routes like the Silk Road and through conflict of war. Through the Silk road traders and members of the early Muslim faith were able to go to countries such as China and create mosques around 627 C. E; as men from the Middle East came to China they would get married to these Asian women, which led to a spreading of the faith and traditions of Islam in multiplicities. The Crusades in the 9th and 10th century encouraged the spread of Islam through the invasions of Latin Christian soldiers and Muslim soldiers into each other's land.
The whole conflict began on the premises of a Holy Land and which group of people owned these lands that led to these foes invading their respective lands. As the religion itself spread so did its implications such as prayer; the earliest synagogal music was based on the same system as that in the Temple in Jerusalem. According to the Talmud, Joshua ben Hananiah, who had served in the sanctuary Levitical choir, told how the choristers went to the synagogue from the orchestra by the altar, so participated in both services. Shintō music is ceremonial music for Shinto, the native religion of Japan. Buddhist music is music for Buddhist meditation. Zoroastrian music is a genre of music that accompanies Zoroastrian rites. Church music Gospel music Liturgical music Music and politics Secular music Spiritual World Sacred Music Festival Conomos, Dimitri. "Early Christian and Byzantine Music: History and Performance". Monachos.net. Reprinted Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music: Greek Orthodox Archdioces of America, 15 November 2012.
Foley, Edward. From Age to Age: How Christians Have Celebrated the Eucha