United States Department of War
The United States Department of War called the War Department, was the United States Cabinet department responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army bearing responsibility for naval affairs until the establishment of the Navy Department in 1798, for most land-based air forces until the creation of the Department of the Air Force on September 18, 1947. The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence; the War Department existed from August 7, 1789 until September 18, 1947, when it split into Department of the Army and Department of the Air Force and joined the Department of the Navy as part of the new joint National Military Establishment, renamed the United States Department of Defense in 1949. Shortly after the establishment of a strong government under President George Washington in 1789, Congress created the War Department as a civilian agency to administer the field army under the president and the secretary of war.
Retired senior General Henry Knox in civilian life, served as the first United States Secretary of War. Forming and organizing the department and the army fell to Secretary Knox. Direct field command of the small Regular Army by President Washington leading a column of troops west through Pennsylvania to Fort Cumberland in Maryland in 1794 to combat the incipient Whiskey Rebellion on the frontier was an occasion never since used by American Presidents; the Possibility of re-organizing a "New Army" under nominal command of retired President and Major General George Washington and his aide, former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton to deal with the rising tide of maritime incidents between American commerce ships and the new French Republic was authorized by second President John Adams in 1798 and the remote possibility of land invasion was an interesting adventure. On November 8, 1800 the War Department building with its records and files was consumed by fire. Foundation of the new military academy at West Point along the Hudson River upstream from New York City in 1802 was important to the future growth of the American army.
In August 1814 during the Burning of Washington, the United States Department of War building was burned-however the War and State Department files had been removed-all books and record had been saved. The multiple failures and fiascos of the War of 1812 convinced Washington that thorough reform of the War Department was necessary. Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun reorganized the department into a system of bureaus, whose chiefs held office for life, a commanding general in the field, although the Congress did not authorize this position. Winfield Scott became the senior general until the start of the American Civil War in 1861; the bureau chiefs acted as advisers to the Secretary of War while commanding their own troops and field installations. The bureaus conflicted among themselves, but in disputes with the commanding general, the Secretary of War supported the bureaus. Congress regulated the affairs of the bureaus in detail, their chiefs looked to that body for support. Calhoun set up the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1824, the main agency within the War Department for dealing with Native Americans until 1849, when the Congress transferred it to the newly founded Department of the Interior.
During the American Civil War, the War Department responsibilities expanded. It handled the recruiting, supply, medical care and pay of two million soldiers, comprising both the regular army and the much larger temporary volunteer army. A separate command structure took charge of military operations. In the late stages of the war, the Department took charge of refugees and freedmen in the American South through the Bureau of Refugees and Abandoned Lands. During Reconstruction, this bureau played a major role in supporting the new Republican governments in the southern states; when military Reconstruction ended in 1877, the U. S. Army removed the last troops from military occupation of the American South, the last Republican state governments in the region ended; the Army comprised hundreds of small detachments in forts around the West, dealing with Indians, in coastal artillery units in port cities, dealing with the threat of a naval attack. The United States Army, with 39,000 men in 1890 was the smallest and least powerful army of any major power in the late 19th century.
By contrast, France had an army of 542,000. Temporary volunteers and state militia units fought the Spanish–American War of 1898; this conflict demonstrated the need for more effective control over its bureaus. Secretary of War Elihu Root sought to appoint a chief of staff as general manager and a European-type general staff for planning, aiming to achieve this goal in a businesslike manner, but General Nelson A. Miles stymied his efforts. Root enlarged the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and established the United States Army War College and the General Staff, he changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line. Concerned about the new territories acquired after the Spanish–American War, Root worked out the procedures for turning Cuba over to the Cubans, wrote the charter of government for the Philippines, eliminated tariffs on goods imported to the United States from Puerto Rico.
Root's successor as Secretary
Communist Party USA
The Communist Party USA the Communist Party of the United States of America, is a communist party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America. The CPUSA has a long and complex history that ties with the American labor movement and the histories of communist parties worldwide; the party was influential in American politics in the first half of the 20th century and played a prominent role in the labor movement from the 1920s through the 1940s, becoming known for opposing racism and racial segregation. Its membership increased during the Great Depression, but the CPUSA subsequently declined due to events such as the second Red Scare and the influence of McCarthyism while its support for the Soviet Union alienated it from the rest of the left in the United States in the 1960s; the CPUSA received significant funding from the Soviet Union and crafted its public positions to match those of Moscow. The CPUSA used a covert apparatus to assist the Soviets with their intelligence activities in the United States and utilized a network of front organizations to shape public opinion.
The CPUSA opposed glasnost and perestroika in the Soviet Union and as a result major funding from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ended in 1989. The party remains committed to Marxism–Leninism. For the first half of the 20th century, the Communist Party was a influential force in various struggles for democratic rights, it played a prominent role in the labor movement from the 1920s through the 1940s, having a major hand in founding most of the country's first industrial unions while becoming known for opposing racism and fighting for integration in workplaces and communities during the height of the Jim Crow period of racial segregation. Historian Ellen Schrecker concludes that decades of recent scholarship offer "a more nuanced portrayal of the party as both a Stalinist sect tied to a vicious regime and the most dynamic organization within the American Left during the 1930s and'40s", it was the first political party in the United States to be racially integrated. By August 1919, only months after its founding, the Communist Party claimed 50,000 to 60,000 members.
Members included anarchists and other radical leftists. At the time, the older and more moderate Socialist Party of America, suffering from criminal prosecutions for its antiwar stance during World War I, had declined to 40,000 members; the sections of the Communist Party's International Workers Order organized for communism around linguistic and ethnic lines, providing mutual aid and tailored cultural activities to an IWO membership that peaked at 200,000 at its height. Subsequent splits within the party have weakened its position. During the Great Depression, many Americans became disillusioned with capitalism and some found communist ideology appealing. Others were attracted by the visible activism of Communists on behalf of a wide range of social and economic causes, including the rights of African Americans and the unemployed; the Communist Party played a significant role in the resurgence of organized labor in the 1930s. Still others, alarmed by the rise of the Falangists in Spain and the Nazis in Germany, admired the Soviet Union's early and staunch opposition to fascism.
Party membership swelled from 7,500 at the start of the decade to 55,000 by its end. Party members rallied to the defense of the Spanish Republic during this period after a nationalist military uprising moved to overthrow it, resulting in the Spanish Civil War; the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, along with leftists throughout the world, raised funds for medical relief while many of its members made their way to Spain with the aid of the party to join the Lincoln Brigade, one of the International Brigades. However, the Communist Party's early labor and organizing successes did not last; as the decades progressed, the combined effects of the second Red Scare, McCarthyism, Nikita Khrushchev's 1956 "Secret Speech" denouncing the previous decades of Joseph Stalin's rule and the adversities of the continued Cold War mentality weakened the party's internal structure and confidence. Party membership in the Communist International and its close adherence to the political positions of the Soviet Union made the party appear to most Americans as not only a threatening, subversive domestic entity, but as a foreign agent fundamentally alien to the American way of life.
Internal and external crises swirled together, to the point where members who did not end up in prison for party activities tended either to disappear from its ranks or to adopt more moderate political positions at odds with the party line. By 1957, membership had dwindled to less than 10,000, of whom some 1,500 were informants for the FBI; the party was banned by the Communist Control Act of 1954, which still remains in effect although it was never enforced. The party attempted to recover with its opposition to the Vietnam War during the civil rights movement in the 1960s, but its continued uncritical support for an stultified and militaristic Soviet Union alienated it from the rest of the left-wing in the United States, which saw this supportive role as outdated and dangerous. At the same time, the party's aging membership demographics and calls for "peaceful coexistence" failed to speak to the New Left in the United States. With the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev and his effort to radically alter the Soviet economic and political system from the mid-1980s, the Communist Party became estranged from the leadership of the Soviet Union itself.
In 1989, the Soviet Communist Party cut off major funding to the American Communist
The Venona project was a United States counterintelligence program initiated during World War II by the United States Army's Signal Intelligence Service. It was intended to decrypt messages transmitted by the intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. Initiated when the Soviet Union was an ally of the US, the program continued during the Cold War, when it was considered an enemy. During the 37-year duration of the Venona project, the Signal Intelligence Service obtained 3,000 Soviet messages; the signals intelligence yield included discovery of the Cambridge Five espionage ring in the UK and Soviet espionage of the Manhattan Project in the U. S.. The espionage was undertaken to support the Soviet atomic bomb project; the Venona project remained secret for more than 15 years. Some of the decoded Soviet messages were not declassified by the United States and published until 1995. During World War II and the early years of the Cold War, the Venona project was a source of information on Soviet intelligence-gathering directed at the Western military powers.
Although unknown to the public, to Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman, these programs were of importance concerning crucial events of the early Cold War; these included the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg spying case and the defections of Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess to the Soviet Union. Most decipherable messages were transmitted and intercepted between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Soviet Union was an ally of the US. Sometime in 1945, the existence of the Venona program was revealed to the Soviet Union by cryptologist-analyst Bill Weisband, an NKVD agent in the U. S. Army's SIGINT; these messages were and decrypted beginning in 1946. This effort continued through 1980; the analyst effort assigned to it was moved to more important projects. To what extent the various individuals referred to in the messages were involved with Soviet intelligence is a topic of historical dispute. While a number of academics and historians assert that most of the individuals mentioned in the Venona decrypts were most either clandestine assets and/or contacts of Soviet intelligence agents, others argue that many of those people had no malicious intentions and committed no crimes.
The Venona Project was initiated on February 1, 1943, by Gene Grabeel, an American mathematician and cryptanalyst, under orders from Colonel Carter W. Clarke, Chief of Special Branch of the Military Intelligence Service at that time. Clarke distrusted Joseph Stalin, feared that the Soviet Union would sign a separate peace with Nazi Germany, allowing Germany to focus its military forces against the United Kingdom and the United States. Cryptanalysts of the U. S. Army's Signal Intelligence Service at Arlington Hall analyzed encrypted high-level Soviet diplomatic intelligence messages intercepted in large volumes during and after World War II by American and Australian listening posts; this message traffic, encrypted with a one-time pad system, was stored and analyzed in relative secrecy by hundreds of cryptanalysts over a 40-year period starting in the early 1940s. When used the one-time pad encryption system, used for all the most-secret military and diplomatic communication since the 1930s, is unbreakable.
However, due to a serious blunder on the part of the Soviets, some of this traffic was vulnerable to cryptanalysis. The Soviet company that manufactured the one-time pads produced around 35,000 pages of duplicate key numbers, as a result of pressures brought about by the German advance on Moscow during World War II; the duplication—which undermines the security of a one-time system—was discovered and attempts to lessen its impact were made by sending the duplicates to separated users. Despite this, the reuse was detected by cryptanalysts in the US; the Soviet systems in general used a code to convert words and letters into numbers, to which additive keys were added, encrypting the content. When used so that the plain text is of a length equal to or less than that of a random key, one-time pad encryption is unbreakable. However, cryptanalysis by American code-breakers revealed that some of the one-time pad material had incorrectly been reused by the Soviets, which allowed decryption of a small part of the traffic.
Generating the one-time pads was a slow and labor-intensive process, the outbreak of war with Germany in June 1941 caused a sudden increase in the need for coded messages. It is probable that the Soviet code generators started duplicating cipher pages in order to keep up with demand, it was Arlington Hall's Lieutenant Richard Hallock, working on Soviet "Trade" traffic, who first discovered that the Soviets were reusing pages. Hallock and his colleagues, amongst whom were Genevieve Feinstein, Cecil Phillips, Frank Lewis, Frank Wanat, Lucille Campbell, went on to break into a significant amount of Trade traffic, recovering many one-time pad additive key tables in the process. A young Meredith Gardner used this material to break into what turned out to be NKVD traffic by reconstructing the code used to convert text to numbers. Samuel Chew and Cecil Phillips made valuable contributions. On 20 December 1946, Gardn
United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s
Intourist is a Russian travel agency. It is headquartered in Moscow. Intourist was the official state travel agency of the Soviet Union, founded in 1929. Intourist was responsible for managing the great majority of foreigners' access to, travel within, the Soviet Union. In 1933 Aron Sheinman started work for Intourist in London and filled the post of Director from 1937 to 1939; when he was dismissed he refused to return to Moscow, gained British citizenship that year. The enterprise was privatised in 1992. In 2011 VAO Intourist established a joint venture with Thomas Cook Group plc with shares of 49.9 % and 50.1% respectively. The incoming business within the joint venture was transferred to the Intourist LLC which intends to continue to expand the tour operating services and host tourists. Visit Crimea Moscow: Intourist, 1930 Intourist
Elizabeth Terrill Bentley was an American spy and member of the Communist Party USA who served the Soviet Union from 1938 until 1945. In 1945, she defected from the Communist Party and Soviet intelligence by contacting the FBI and reporting on her activities, she became known after testifying in some trials and before HUAC. In 1952 Bentley became an informer for the U. S. as she was paid by the FBI for her frequent appearances before different committees and investigations. She exposed two networks of spies naming more than 80 Americans who, she said, had engaged in espionage. Elizabeth Terrill Bentley was born in New Milford, Connecticut, to Charles Prentiss Bentley, a dry-goods merchant, the former May Charlotte Turrill, a schoolteacher. In 1915 her parents had moved to New York. By 1920, the family had moved to McKeesport and that year they returned to New York, settling in Rochester, her parents were described as a strait-laced "old family" of Episcopalians from New England. She attended Vassar College, graduating in 1930 with a degree in English and French.
In 1933, while she was attending graduate school at Columbia University, she won a fellowship to the University of Florence. While in Italy, she joined a local student fascist group, the Gruppo Universitario Fascista. Under the influence of her anti-Fascist faculty advisor Mario Casella, with whom she had an affair while at Columbia, Bentley soon shifted her politics. While completing her master's degree, she attended meetings of the American League Against War and Fascism. Although she would say that she found Communist literature unreadable and "dry as dust," she was attracted to the sense of community and social conscience she found among her friends in the league; when she learned that most were members of the Communist Party of the United States, she joined the party herself in March 1935. Bentley initiated her entry into espionage. In 1935, she obtained a job at the Italian Library of Information in New York City, she reported the job to CPUSA headquarters. Juliet Stuart Poyntz, who worked at the Italian Library of Information and recruited Bentley.
The Communists were interested in the information Bentley could provide, NKVD officer Jacob Golos was assigned in 1938 to be her contact and controller. Golos was a Russian immigrant who became a naturalized United States citizen in 1915. At this point, Bentley thought she was spying for the American Communist Party, but Golos was one of the Soviet Union's most important intelligence agents in the United States. At the time when he and Bentley met, Golos was involved in planning the assassination of Leon Trotsky, which would take place in Mexico in 1940. Bentley and Golos soon became lovers, it was more than a year before she learned his true name, according to her testimony, two years before she knew that he was working for Soviet intelligence. In 1940, two years into their relationship, the Justice Department forced Golos to register as an agent of the Soviet government under the Foreign Agents Registration Act; this increased his risk in contacting the network of American spies he controlled, accepting documents from them.
He transferred this responsibility to Bentley. Golos needed someone to take charge of the day-to-day business of the United States Service and Shipping Corporation, a Comintern front organization for espionage activities. Bentley took on this role as well. Although she was never directly paid for any of her espionage work, she would earn $800 a month as vice president of U. S. Service and Shipping, a considerable salary for the time, equivalent to $14,307 in 2018; as Bentley acquired an important role in Soviet intelligence, the Soviets gave her the code name Umnitsa, loosely translated as "Wise girl". Most of Bentley's contacts were in what prosecutors and historians would call the "Silvermaster group", a network of spies centered around Nathan Gregory Silvermaster; this network became one of the most important Soviet espionage operations in the United States. Silvermaster worked with the Resettlement Administration and with the Board of Economic Warfare, he did not have access to much sensitive information, but he knew several Communists and sympathizers within the government who were better placed and willing to pass such information to him.
Using Elizabeth Bentley, he sent it to Moscow. At this time, the Soviet Union and the United States were allies in the Second World War, much of the information Silvermaster collected for the Soviets had to do with the war against Nazi Germany; as the Soviets were absorbing all of the burden of the ground war in Europe, at a frightful cost in terms of people and materièl, they were interested in US intelligence: It included secret estimates of German military strength, data on U. S. munitions production, information on the Allies' schedule for opening a second front in Europe. The contacts in Golos's and Bentley's extended network ranged from dedicated Stalinists to, in the words of Bentley's biographer Kathryn Olmsted, "romantic idealists" who "wanted to help the brave Russians beat the Nazi war machine". Late in 1943, Jacob Golos suffered a fatal heart attack. After meeting with CPUSA General Secretary Earl Browder, Bentley decided to continue her espionage work and accepted Golos's place.
Her new contact in Soviet intelligence was Iskhak Akhmerov, the leading NKGB Illegal Rezident, or undercover spy chief working without a diplomatic cover. Under orders from Moscow, Akhmerov wanted to have Bentley's contacts report di
A "Red Scare" is promotion of widespread fear by a society or state about a potential rise of communism, anarchism, or radical leftism. The term is most used to refer to two periods in the history of the United States with this name; the First Red Scare, which occurred after World War I, revolved around a perceived threat from the American labor movement, anarchist revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare, which occurred after World War II, was preoccupied with the perception of national or foreign communists infiltrating or subverting U. S. society or the federal government. The first Red Scare began following the Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917 and the intensely patriotic years of World War I as anarchist and left-wing social agitation aggravated national and political tensions. Political scientist, former member of the Communist Party Murray B. Levin wrote that the Red Scare was "a nationwide anti-radical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in America was imminent—a revolution that would change Church, marriage and the American way of Life".
Newspapers exacerbated those political fears into anti-foreign sentiment because varieties of radical anarchism were becoming popular as possible solutions to poverty by recent European immigrants. When the Industrial Workers of the World backed several labor strikes in 1916 and 1917, the press portrayed them as "radical threats to American society" inspired by "left-wing, foreign agents provocateurs"; those on the side of the IWW claim that the press "misrepresented legitimate labor strikes" as "crimes against society", "conspiracies against the government", "plots to establish communism". Opponents, on the other hand, saw these as an extension of the radical, anarchist foundations of the IWW, which contends that all workers should be united as a social class and that capitalism and the wage system should be abolished. In April 1919, authorities discovered a plot for mailing 36 bombs to prominent members of the U. S. political and economic establishment: J. P. Morgan Jr. John D. Rockefeller, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, U.
S. Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer, immigration officials. On June 2, 1919, in eight cities, eight bombs exploded. One target was the Washington, D. C. house of U. S. Attorney General Palmer, where the explosion killed the bomber, who evidence indicated was an Italian-American radical from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Afterwards, Palmer ordered the U. S. Justice Department to launch the Palmer Raids. Yet, in 1918, before the bombings, President Woodrow Wilson had pressured the Congress to legislate the anti-anarchist Sedition Act of 1918 to protect wartime morale by deporting putatively undesirable political people. Law professor David D. Cole reports that President Wilson's "federal government targeted alien radicals, deporting them... for their speech or associations, making little effort to distinguish terrorists from ideological dissidents."Initially, the press praised the raids. In the event, the Palmer Raids were criticized as unconstitutional by twelve publicly prominent lawyers, including Felix Frankfurter, who published A Report on the Illegal Practices of The United States Department of Justice, documenting systematic violations of the Fourth, Fifth and Eighth Amendments to the U.
S. Constitution via Palmer-authorized "illegal acts" and "wanton violence". Defensively, Palmer warned that a government-deposing left-wing revolution would begin on 1 May 1920 — May Day, the International Workers' Day; when it failed to happen, he was lost much credibility. Strengthening the legal criticism of Palmer was that fewer than 600 deportations were substantiated with evidence, out of the thousands of resident aliens arrested and deported. In July 1920, Palmer's once-promising Democratic Party bid for the U. S. presidency failed. Wall Street was bombed on September 2, 1920, near Federal Hall National Memorial and the JP Morgan Bank. Although both anarchists and communists were suspected as being responsible for the bombing no individuals were indicted for the bombing in which 38 died and 141 were injured. In 1919–20, several states enacted "criminal syndicalism" laws outlawing advocacy of violence in effecting and securing social change; the restrictions included free speech limitations.
Passage of these laws, in turn, provoked aggressive police investigation of the accused persons, their jailing, deportation for being suspected of being either communist or left-wing. Regardless of ideological gradation, the Red Scare did not distinguish between communism, socialism, or social democracy; the second Red Scare occurred after World War II, was popularly known as "McCarthyism" after its most famous supporter, Senator Joseph McCarthy. McCarthyism coincided with increased popular fear of communist espionage consequent to a Soviet Eastern Europe, the Berlin Blockade, the Chinese Civil War, the confessions of spying for the Soviet Union given by several high-ranking U. S. government officials, the Korean War. The events of the late 1940s, early 1950s - the trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, the trial of Alger Hiss, the Iron Curtain around Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test in 1949 - surprised the American public, influencing popular opinion abo