Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its constituent 16 states. With a population of approximately 3.5 million, Berlin is the second most populous city proper, due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world, following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all-Germany. Berlin is a city of culture, media. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations. Berlin serves as a hub for air and rail traffic and has a highly complex public transportation network. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination, significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics. Modern Berlin is home to world renowned universities, orchestras and its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions.
The city is known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts. Since 2000 Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene, the name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of todays Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. All German place names ending on -ow, -itz and -in, since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city. It is therefore a canting arm, the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920, the central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document,1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod.
In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, in 1415 Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. In 1443 Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Ministers Office, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables. The palace is home to the three supreme powers, the executive power, the legislative power, and the judicial power. It is the building in the world that houses all three of a countrys branches of government. The name Christiansborg is thus used as a metonym for the Danish political system. The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. The palace today bears witness to three eras of Danish architecture, as the result of two serious fires, the first fire occurred in 1794 and the second in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-baroque style, the chapel dates to 1826 and is in a neoclassical style.
The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a baroque style, Christiansborg Palace is owned by the Danish state, and is run by the Palaces and Properties Agency. Several parts of the palace are open to the public, the first castle on the site was Absalons Castle. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde built a castle in 1167 on an island outside Copenhagen Harbour. The castle was made up by a wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings, such as the bishops palace. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle, a few decades later, however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, and for almost two centuries the ownership of the castle and city was contested between kings and bishops. Furthermore, the castle was frequently under attack, for example by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic cities, in 1369, following a conflict with king Valdemar IV of Denmark, the Hanseatic League sent 40 stonemasons to demolish the castle stone by stone.
The castle had long been a nuisance to the Hanseatic cities trade in the Sound. The castle had a wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large. The castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric VII usurped the rights to the castle in 1417, from on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king. In the middle of the 15th century, the became the principal residence of the Danish kings
Lauritz de Thurah
Laurids Lauridsen de Thurah, known as Lauritz de Thurah, was a Danish architect and architectural writer. He became the most important Danish architect of the baroque period. As an architectural writer and historian he made a contribution to the understanding of both Denmarks architectural heritage and building construction in his day. De Thurah was an architect who learned much of what he knew by studying the inspiring buildings he saw on his travels outside Denmark between 1729 and 1731. He brought home the baroque style, which was popular, throughout his life he maintained a loyalty to the baroque, even as the world around him continued to change and he lost work assignments to others who mastered the newer, more popular styles. Lauritx de Thurah was born Laurids Lauridsen Thura in Aarhus, the son of parish priest Laurids Thura, Bishop of Ribe. He was educated at home by the elder Thura, a literate scholar, by chance he come into contact with the royal house when King Frederik IV called on the Bishop, and chose the boy and his older brother Didrich for military service.
In 1719 he went to Copenhagen as a cadet, a landkadet in Danish. He was employed in 1725 as Assistant Resident Engineer in the Holstein Engineering Corps, in order to attain this he made carefully detailed drawings of Rendsburgs fortifications and houses, and a preliminary construction drawing for a suspension bridge. The king was impressed, and promised to give him funds, Thura made drawings and measurements of the newest castle in Denmark, which were given as a gift to the Count of Hesse, before he traveled. Thura and Rosenkrantz left in 1729, and visited a number of German cities, including Kassel and they traveled further to Italy, France and England before returning to Denmark in 1731. After his return home, Thura rose rapidly up the ranks and he became resident engineer in 1732. In 1733 he was named Royal Building Master with supervisory responsibility for royal buildings on Zealand, at the same time, he was promoted to captain in the Engineering Corps. In 1732–1736, he designed and built the palace in Roskilde, known as the Yellow Palace.
The four-wing baroque building became the headquarters of the Duke of Wellington during the English siege of Copenhagen in 1807, in 1733–1739, he worked on the first remodelling and expansion of Hirschholm Palace for King Christian VI and his consort, Queen Sophie Magdalene. In 1734–36, de Thurah built the Eremitage Palace, a hunting lodge overlooking Jægersborg Dyrehave north of Copenhagen. The grey-stone house with copper-clad mansard roof replaced another hunting lodge named Hubertus, the original design featured an elevator-table, similar to a dumbwaiter, which could be raised from the cellar up to the dining room. In this way, servants stayed in the kitchen, where they prepared and set the table
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach.
Impelled by a mix of commerce and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council.
Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood
Adam Gottlob Moltke
Count Adam Gottlob Moltke was a Danish courtier and diplomat, and Favourite of Frederick V of Denmark. Moltke was born at Riesenhof in Mecklenburg and his son, Joachim Godske Moltke, and his grandson, Adam Wilhelm Moltke, served as Prime Minister of Denmark. Adam Gottlob Greve Moltke was born 10/11 November 1710 to Joachim von Moltke, in 1722, through one of his uncles, young Moltke became a page at the Danish court, in which capacity he formed a lifelong friendship with the crown prince Frederick, King Frederick V. As the companion of the king, Moltkes influence grew to the point that foreign diplomatists declared he could make and unmake ministers at will. Especially notable is Moltkes attitude towards the two distinguished statesmen who played the parts during the reign of Frederick, Johan Sigismund Schulin. Schulin he revered, but Bernstorff irritated him with his affected airs of superiority, one of his main tasks was to take care that his dissolute Majesty didnt damage the Royal households reputation with his constant orgies.
Moltke was less liberal in his views than many of his contemporaries and his greatest merit, was the guardianship he exercised over the king. On the death of Queen Louisa, the king would have married one of Moltkes daughters had he not peremptorily declined the dangerous honor, on the death of Frederick, who died in his arms on 14 January 1766, Moltkes influence came to an end. The new king, Fredericks son, Christian VII, could not endure him, at that time Moltke was unpopular, because he was, suspected of enriching himself from the public purse. Therefore, in July 1766, Moltke was dismissed all his positions. On 8 February 1768, through the interest of Russia, to whom he had always been sympathetic, he regained his seat in the council, as Christian VIIs reign was marked by mental illness, he was heavily influenced by his personal physician Johann Friedrich Struensee. Streunesee had risen steadily in power and from 1770 to 1772, was de facto regent of the country, on 10 December 1770, Moltke was again dismissed without a pension for refusing to have anything to do with the liberal Struensee.
He was married to Christiane Frederikke von Brüggemann, after her death, he married Sophie Hedevig von Raben, the daughter of Christian Frederik von Raben, the Gouverneur of the Diocese of Lolland–Falster from 1737 to 1763. Between his two wives, Moltke was said to have had 22 sons, five of whom became cabinet ministers, four who became ambassadors, Christian Frederik Moltke Catharine Sophie Wilhelmine Caroline Moltke, who married Count Hannibal Wedell in June 1752 married at Hirschholm Palace. From 1748 to 1749, the district of Frederiksstaden was built by King Frederick V to commemorate the tercentenary of the Oldenburg familys ascent to the throne of Denmark. The project consisted of four identical mansions, built to house four distinguished families of nobility from the royal circles, moltke’s mansion, which was erected in 1750–54, was the most expensive of the four palaces at the time it was built, and had the most extravagant interiors. The mansion formally opened on 30 March 1754, the King’s thirtieth birthday, on 26 February 1794, the Royal Family found itself homeless after the Christiansborg Palace fire.
The family occupied the new residence December 1794 and these mansions form the modern palace of Amalienborg
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Zeithain is a municipality in the district of Meißen, in Saxony, Germany. Historically, it is known for the Zeithain Encampment, which was an agglomeration of tents and troops, involving the whole 27. This event took place from 1 to 26 June 1730, during World War II a large prisoner-of-war camp, Stalag IV-B/H, was located in Zeithain. A memorial and museum commemorate it, Zeithain includes the following subdivisions, Cottewitz Gohlis Jacobsthal Kreinitz Lorenzkirch Moritz Neudorf Promnitz Röderau-Bobersen Zschepa In June 2012 Ralf Hänsel was elected mayor
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Frederiksdal is a country house on the Furesø Lake north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Frederiksdal takes its name after King Frederick III who in 1668 acquired the land which had been the site of a mill, Hjortholm Mill. The king had plans to build a large maison de plaisance in the grounds but died in 1780, on 30 December 1743, Schulin was granted the property from the king as a New Year present. He charged royal architect Niels Eigtved with the design of a summer risidence which was completed in 1747, Schulin was created Count in 1750 but died that same year. His wife Catarine Marie Schlin carried out alterations on the house in 1752 and 1753 with the assistance of the architect Johann Gottfried Rosenberg, the property has remained in the Schulin family to the present day. Frederiksdal is credited with being the earliest example of a maison de plaisance in Denmark and it stands in white-dressed masonry with sandstone decorations above the windows and two corner risalits on the main facade. The house originally had a roof while the mansard roof is the result of alterations carried out by Johann Gottfried Rosenberg between 1752 and 1753.
The interior features a combination of large and small rooms arranged around the main axis vestibule. There are rich Rococo-style stucco decorations, particularly in the Garden Hall, executed by Carlo Enrico Brenno, the property is currently owned by the seventh generation of the Schulin family. The main building plays host to a series of classical concerts. The estate covers 328 hectares of land of which circa 200 hectares are forest
He began his training as a sculptor at nine years of age under local master Antoine Gilles in Valenciennes from 1726-1727. In spite of his parents income, he was sent to Paris in 1732 to train in the studio of the leading sculptor at Paris. At the same time he attended the school of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture and he first received his stipend in 1740, and he arrived in Rome on 13 October 1740. He stayed there for eight years between 1740–1748, and lived at the Academy, the goal here was that through the study of antiquities and the masters of the past, one would develop and refine ones artistic taste. More practically it meant making marble copies of Roman sculpture for the French king, in 1742 he made a monumental portrait bust of Manuel Pinto de Fonseca, Grand Master of the Order of Malta. In 1744 he made a bust of a girl which is one of the most reproduced sculptures from the 18th century. He became one of the first French members of the Accademia degli Arcadi in Rome 1744, and of the Academy of Design at Florence, in 1748 and he had close relations with Giovanni Battista Piranesi.
He traveled back to his home via Naples and Bologna, the works he had sent home had received such positive attention that his hometown commissioned a full standing portrait of King Louis XV from him. The marble statue was erected in 1752, and destroyed in 1792, a plaster bust of Louis XV was made that same year. He went on to Paris, where he became a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture in 1751 with his work A Fawn with a Kid and he was assistant professor at the Académie 1751-1753. He exhibited at the Paris Salons, 1750-1751 and 1753 and he created a plaster bust of Madame de Pompadour in 1752, and a statue of Amor for her the next year. In 1752 Saly was commissioned to create a sculpture of King Frederick V of Denmark on horseback to be placed in the center of the courtyard of Amalienborg Palace. The equestrian statue was commissioned by Adam Gottlob Moltke, head of the Danish Asiatic Company, but while Moltke’s company offered to finance the statue, it was the government, who chose the sculptor.
Count Johan Hartvig Ernst Bernstorff wrote to the Danish Legation secretary to the French Court in Paris Justitsråd Joachim Wasserschlebe to find a suitable French sculptor, sculptor Edmé Bouchardon rejected the offer, but suggested Saly, who wanted a significant sum for the model and free housing in Copenhagen. Work began on the monument that same year, during the same period of time the Royal Danish Academy of Art was officially established with offices at Charlottenborg, on Frederik V’s birthday,31 March 1754. Saly gave the speech at the event, a snub to the current Academy Director architect Nicolai Eigtved. Saly was made member of the Academy, was named professor, Saly worked hard to improve the Danish Academy after the model of the French Academy. He sought to bring about changes, all the while working on his model of the equestrian statue for the king